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An investigation concerning Camponotus spp. distribution and damage in buildings in Sweden
1985 - IRG/WP 1248
This is a report of an investigation by a Swedish insurance company on the occurrences of damage by Carpenter ants during 1974 to 1981. The distribution of damage in walls, roofs and floors of both permanent homes and summer-houses has been assessed. It is concluded that the increased frequency of attack is becoming economically serious.
V Butovitsch, K-J Hedqvist, C Tornberg


Effect of substrate type and moisture requirements in relation to colony initiation in two carpenter ant species
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10320
Conditions necessary for optimal colony initiation or the rate of initial colony expansion by early brood in the carpenter ant species Camponotus modoc and C. vicinus on various substrates conditioned to different moisture contents were studied. Camponotus modoc and Camponotus vicinus queens were placed in Douglas-fir, western red cedar and Styrofoam® blocks conditioned in sealed chambers at 70% or 100% relative humidity. Chambers were periodically monitored for changes in substrate weight, numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and worker ants produced. Brood counts produced after thirteen weeks were used to assess the effects of substrate and moisture content on colony initiation. Queens of C. vicinus in Douglas-fir and Styrofoam® produced worker numbers that did not differ significantly with moisture content. However, the number of colonies initiated for C. modoc did significantly differ with moisture content. The results indicate that colony initiation in C. vicinus is less sensitive to moisture content then C. modoc for Douglas-fir and Styrofoam®. No differences were found between moisture contents for ant queens in western red cedar, due to a lack of colony initiation. These results suggest that cedar was detrimental to the development of early brood in both ant species.
M E Mankowski, J J Morrell


Durability of larch (Larix spp.) wood against brown-rot fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10228
Durability of the heartwood of Larix decidua, L. sibirica, L. gmelinii, L. gmelinii var japonica, L. gmelinii var olgensis and L. sibirica x decidua against brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum was tested according to EN 113 test method. Parallel samples were used to study the amount and composition of wood extractives. The sample trees originated from the research forest of Punkaharju Research Station. The average age of the trees was 60 years. In addition, from L. sibirica also trees at 25 and 102 years were used. Results show that the durability of larch is depending on species, age of the tree, the wood part (inner or outer heartwood) and fungus. The average durability of larch heartwood was equal to class 3 or 4 (moderately or slightly durable, according to the standard EN350:2) and comparable with the durability of pine heartwood (Pinus sylvestris L). However, the durability of L. gmelinii var olgensis and L. sibirica (102 years old) was on the higher level than that of the other studied species but the durability varied even within the same board. Also the durability of wood from L. sibirica grown in the Russian side (Siberia) was studied. It was equal to that of the trees grown in Finland. The average amount of resin acids of larch heartwood was only about 0.1% (dry weight). In contrast, the heartwood of scots pine may contain up to 4.0% of resin acids. Resin acids are found to inhibit the linear growth of certain fungi. Interestingly, the largest amounts of resin acids (0.3%) were found in the heartwood of L. gmelinii which also showed high durability. The concentration of water soluble extracts (mainly arabinogalactan) of larch heartwood was quite large, varying between 3.2 - 20.5%. The concentration of water soluble extracts in the heartwood increased along the age of the trees. Lowest level of extractives were found in Larix decidua which was also the least decay resistant species. The durability of wood in different targets and the role of different chemical compounds of larch heartwood on decay resistance needs to be clarified.
H Viitanen, L Paajanen, P Saranpää, P Viitaniemi


Chemical compounds from Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora heartwood and their biological activities against wood destroying fungus (Coriolus versicolor)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30373
The chemistry analysis of the compounds present in dichloromethane and ethanolic fraction as well as bioassays enables to understand the durability differences of Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora. The principal distinction between these two species is the acidic subfraction of diterpenoic extract, which is antifungic in Eperua falcata when tested in in-vitro conditions. This study also enables to show that ethanolic fraction plays an important role in the mechanism of natural durability. It also reports the first isolation of cativic acid in Eperua falcata wood.
N Amusant, C Moretti, B Richard, E Prost, J M Nuzillard, M-F Thévenon


Controlling Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestations in buildings with bait boxes
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10372
This paper describes the results of a commercial pest control operators use of the CSIRO bait box procedure in controlling infestations within buildings of subterranean termites ('termites') of the genus Coptotermes. Polystyrene bait boxes (480 x 330 x 210 mm3) were filled with alternate layers of corrugated cardboard and kiln-dried hardwood strips of Eucalyptus regnans F. Meull. (mountain ash). A viewing port at one end of each box allowed for the operator, or the clients, to check the presence of termites in the bait box. On discovering termite activity in the box, a dust toxicant (arsenic trioxide) was applied to the aggregated individuals, and the dusted termites returned to the box, thus spreading the toxin to other members of the nest colony, leading to it's collapse. On average, the time from installation to aggregating termites was about 4-6 weeks. Of the seventy-four boxes installed since 1994, sixty-six boxes were placed inside buildings, while eight boxes were positioned around buildings. Most were placed within buildings in the sub-floor areas, and alongside termite-infested skirting boards and architraves within slab-on-ground constructions. Other boxes were placed in cupboards, on top of termite-infested flooring, roof areas and on floors in garages. Eighty-five percent of the boxes lured termites, while 13% failed to lure any termites. Of those boxes with termites, there was a 82% success rate using arsenic trioxide as the dust toxicant. Eradication of termite colonies was recorded when no further termite activity was found after 6-12 months. These results are discussed in relation to present and future termite control.
J R J French, T Boschma


Antagonistic effect of Trichoderma spp. against Serpula lacrymans in the soil treatment test
1991 - IRG/WP 1473
Soil treatment tests for preventing growth of Serpula lacrymans were conducted using Trichoderma spp. as antagonists. Soil specimens tested were Kanuma-soil without organic matter and the horticultural soil which was collected from the test site of the stake test. Perfect efficacy of treatment with Trichoderma spp. was shown when the horticultural soil without sterilization was used as a soil specimen.
S Doi, A Yamada


The development of a screening method for the activity of pyrethroids against wood boring marine crustaceans, Limnoria spp
1978 - IRG/WP 443
The present work is concerned with the develepment of a suitable bio-assay technique to determine the biological activity (contact action) of pyrethroids against Limnoria spp. Estimates of the toxicity of three pyrethroids, permethrin, cypermethrin and decamethrin (the structures of which are shown in Fig. 1.) to the marine borer have been obtained.
D Rutherford, R C Reay, M G Ford


Contribution to study of the degradation caused in Pinus spp. poles used in field test
1989 - IRG/WP 1417
The study of the degradation produced by soil natural microflora on wood in contact with it in the field, has been going on for several years now. Our contribution to this aim in the present work has dealt with the possible relationship of the microorganisms in the soil. The microscopic visualization of wood colonization by the microorganisms, and the chemical analysis of the degraded wood compared with the undergraded.
M T De Troya, A Garcia, M J Pozuelo, A M Navarrete, A Cabanas


Biological control of Serpula lacrymans using Trichoderma spp
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10069
The effectiveness, or otherwise, in killing Serpula lacrymans, of a range of Trichoderma spp. in a variety of media and using two different incubation systems has been tested. In agar based systems with normal nutrients or minimal nutrients with high or low nitrogen contents and high or low iron content Trichoderma harzianum 25 proved to be the most efficient and killing Serpula lacrymans. Other species, such as Trichoderma hamatum 150, were effective in some media but not in others. Initial observation on partially decayed small wood blocks suggested that actively growing Serpula lacrymans could not be killed by Trichoderma spp.. Experiments undertaken on a specially designed system, however, indicated that certain Trichoderma spp. can act as effective antagonists even in wood based systems.
A J Score, J W Palfreyman


Blue-stain fungi (Ceratocystis spp.) found in Spain on pine woods
1989 - IRG/WP 1410
So far, there is only a very limited reported description of the different Ceratocystis spp. present on fresh wood in Spain. So, the main goal of this work has been the identification of species of this genus causing blue-stain on Pinus pinaster A. Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. woods. We have also investigated the relationship between the species found and their propagation vectors (insects and wind). Finally, we have determined the growing velocity of two of the most representative species found and the presence or absence of degradative enzymatic activities.
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete


Report of an investigation of damage by wood ants in buildings in Sweden
1976 - IRG/WP 148
Wood ants in buildings occur everywhere in Sweden, particularly in maritime districts and in vicinity of larger lakes. The damage caused by Camponotus herculeanus does not differ from that caused by Camponotus ligniperda. The former occurs in all Sweden, the latter only in southern Sweden. The damage is to be found almost exclusively in dwelling houses (week-end cabins and "all-the-year round" houses) in or close to forests.·Buildings of all ages are liable to wood ants attacks. All wooden part of houses, particularly the walls, can be infested. Sound timber is much more desirable to the insects than wood that is infected with wood-rotting fungi. The construction of the building can sometimes affect the frequency of the damage. This is the case particularly with cabins which lack basements. The decisive part in wood ant migrations from forest to buildings is the distance from the edge of the wood: the shorter this distance the greater the danger of invasion.
V Butovitsch


Characterisation of growth and stain of different groups of sapstain fungi on lodgepole pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10326
Canada is the world's largest exporter of softwood lumber. These softwood shipments are susceptible to a variety of wood-inhabiting fungi that can lead to sapstain discolouration, which in turn decrease the product value. Furthermore, the presence of these microorganisms may be unacceptable to the importing countries. The objective of this work is to assess the sapstaining capability and basic nutrition of thirty-four fungi isolates representing nine species that were isolated from sawmills across western Canada. The isolates were infected onto fresh lodgepole pine billets and assessed for staining ability, longitudinal growth, host-nutrient consumption, and host viability. The results indicated that the most aggressive saptain species on fresh logs was Ceratocystis coerulescens, followed consecutively by Leptographium spp, Ophiostoma minus, O. piliferum, O. piceae, Ophiostoma spp (D and E) and Aureobasidium pullulans. Preliminary HPLC analysis of soluble sugars indicated that mannose was the free monomer carbohydrate of choice for most of the staining fungi, followed by glucose. Arabinose and galactose were not well utilised. Gas chromatography of infected wood extracts that Leptographium sp. and C. coerulescens significantly reduced the triglyceride fraction.
C Fleet, C Breuil, A Uzunovic, A Byrne


Detection of semi-quantitative and qualitative enzymatic activities of blue-stain fungi
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10347
Blue-stain, produced in forests, continues to be a problem in countries of moderate climate. In forestry, in certain geographical areas of Spain, it has been observed that anti-sapstain products have not always been efficient, as their fungicidal effectiveness varies on occasion, depending on the species of wood and microbiota that exist in the region. It is not always easy to identify the species causing this damage. Therefore, the object of this study was the grouping of diverse isolates according to the detection of simple enzymatic activities, following a simple and rapid method of application such as API-ZYM. 36 strains of Ceratocystis spp, isolated from divers species of Pinus spp., have been tested. The results were contrasted with the activities detected in the same conditions in Pullularia pullulans and Sclerophoma pityophila. To do this, these strains were inoculated in culture broths with a basic saline Eggins and Pugh medium, to which 1% sawdust of Pinus sylvestris was added in one trial. Another test was made with a mixture of the most frequent monosaccharides in woody cell-walls (glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose) at 1%. After 20 days of incubation, the extracts were centrifuged, and inoculated in microtubes series of API-ZYM. The analysis of the principal components, carried out with the results obtained, showed that the sawdust induces enzymatic activities implicated in the degradation of polysaccharides such as in a-mannosidase, a-galactosidase, b-glucuronidase, b-glucosidase and b-galactosidase, which appeared as the most weighty specific factors in the dispersion of data on the first two principal axes. Different strains of Ceratocystis also showed similar or greater activity than those of P. pullulans and S. pityophila, which suggests that the latter might be more virulent than the rest of the strains assayed.
M T De Troya, F Llinares, D Muñoz-Mingarro, M J Pozuelo, N Acero, C Rodríguez-Borrajo, A M Navarrete


The leachability and specificity of the biological protection of timber using Scytalidium sp. and Trichoderma spp
1986 - IRG/WP 1302
The results of field experiments, using biological control against internal decay of creosoted poles, are briefly reviewed and the evidence concerning the leachability of the antibiotics produced by these species is presented. A pure culture miniblock decay test on biological control treated pine sapwood is described and the results compared to previously published data. The protection against Lentinus lepideus (Fr. ex Fr.) Fr. conferred on wood blocks by Scytalidium sp. and Trichoderma sp. was found to be completely removed by 24 hours Soxhlet leaching. Weight losses caused by Coniophora puteana (Schum ex Fr.) Karst were not reduced by prior colonisation of blocks with the potential biological control fungi. The significance of this finding is discussed in the light of the high frequency of isolation from poles of wood rotting basidiomycetes other than Lentinus lepideus and the latest results of a six year old field experiment.
P I Morris, N A Summers, D J Dickinson


The use of pyrethroids against Limnoria spp
1981 - IRG/WP 473
Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides discovered in the last fifteen years have been developed as crop sprays and used in aerosol formulations for the control of household pests. High toxicity to a wide range of arthropod pests, combined with reasonably low mammalian toxicity, confers an advantage over many other control agents. Some of the more recent pyrethroids are photostable and display residual activity, ant hence are being considered as potential wood preservatives. Work at the Building Reaearch Eatablishment, Princes Risborough, Bucks., England, has concentrated on the use of pyrethroids in remedial wood treatment while at Portsmouth Polytechnic, England, the areas of preservation of wood in the marine environment and the protection of timber against termite attack have been investigated. The present document summarises an investigation into the effectiveness of aynthetic pyrethroids against the marine borers, Limnoria spp.
D Rutherford, R C Reay, M G Ford


Effect of media composition on the antagonistic properties of Trichoderma spp. against wood decay fung
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1538
Most screening of potential biocontrol agents of wood decay fungi has previously been undertaken using artificial media. Similarly experiments designed to evaluate the mechanisms involved in antagonism between biological control agents and target fungi, have largely been carried out in conditions which do not accurately reflect the nutrient status of wood. This paper examines the influence of nutrient composition of growth media on the antagonistic responses of Trichoderma spp. against two wood decay basidiomycetes, a brown rot fungus Neolentinus lepideus and a white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Assessment of individual modes of antagonism were carried out on two media types, a 3% malt extract agar and a nutritionally poorer minimal medium. The outcome of antagonism between Trichoderma isolates and wood decay fungi was often found to be dependent on the media type, while testing of individual modes of antagonism again highlighted the importance of substrate composition. Analysis of variance testing of a range of antagonistic properties showed that: minimal media generally resulted in higher inhibition of white rots by the volatiles, whereas inhibition by soluble metabolites of both basidiomycetes was higher in the malt extract medium. Total activity of lytic enzymes was higher in malt extract, however specific enzyme activity was found to be greater in the minimal medium. Siderophores were produced only in the minimal medium. The significance of the results for selection of appropriate media for screening of biological control agents for wood protection is discussed.
U Srinivasan, A Bruce, H J Staines


Yeasts associated with the infrabuccal pocket and colonies of the carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10335
Yeast associations in three colonies of Camponotus vicinus were examined in two different areas of western Oregon. We sampled the exo-cuticle, infrabuccal pocket contents of worker ants, interior galleries of each colony and detritus and soil in the area adjacent to the nest. Samples were plated on yeast-extract-malt-extract agar augmented with 1M hydrochloric acid and incubated at 25°C. Yeasts were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics and physiological attributes using the BIOLOG microbial identification system. Yeast populations from carpenter ant nest material and material surrounding the nest differed from those obtained from the infrabuccal pocket. Yeasts were isolated from infrabuccal pockets, colony galleries, and the surrounding soil. Debaryomyces polymorphus was isolated from both colony material and the infrabuccal pocket. This species has also been isolated from other ant species, but its role in colony nutrition is unknown. Scanning electron microscope examination indicated that the infrabuccal pocket contained numerous yeast-like cells. Further characterization of the isolates is underway.
M E Mankowski, J J Morrell


Is there a need for re-sealing cut ends of envelope-treated softwood framing timber to protect against attack from Coptotermes spp. (Isoptera)?
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10524
The claim that Australian Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) do not appear to initiate attack on timber from the end grain, thereby negating the need for treating exposed cut ends of softwood framing material (35 x 90mm) which has a Tanalith™ T envelope, was investigated. Specimens of commercial Pinus radiata framing timber (untreated) and Pinus elliottii (untreated, envelope-treated) were partially enclosed in fine stainless steel mesh. Either cut ends (cuts at angles from 90° to 15º) or the sides of specimens were exposed to termites at three field sites in Australia: northern tropics (Darwin, NT), subtropical southeast coast (Brisbane, QLD) and temperate south-eastern inland (Griffith, NSW). C. acinaciformis is common at all sites. Results to date showed that this species of termite readily attacks timber from the end grain, including exposed cut ends of envelope-treated material. The patterns of attack observed for Coptotermes are similar to those of a number of other pest species of termites.
M Lenz, J W Creffield, S Runko


Morphological and Molecular Diagnosis of Leptographium spp. in Canadian Softwoods
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10479
Sapstaining fungi that affect commercially important softwood species mainly belong to the genera Ceratocystis, Ophiostoma and Leptographium. Our 1997-1999 fungal surveys confirmed that this is the case in Canada. The work reported here addresses identifying the morphologically plastic Leptographium at the species level, which is difficult using conventional methods. We assessed the morphological and physiological characteristic of survey isolates grown on artificial media and wood, and then compared them with reference cultures. The morphological data obtained from isolates grown on wood were less variable and, therefore, more conclusive, than those grown on artificial media. Microscopic observation of isolates grown on wood, differentiated them into three known Leptographium groups: aureum, clavigerum, and abietinum. Preliminary DNA sequence data for the ITS2 rDNA and β-tubulin genes confirmed the identity of the three species, but also indicated two additional groups. Ongoing biological work and sequencing of other genes will clarify the relationships between these species and discrepancies between morphological and molecular data.
S Alamouti, Jae-Jin Kim, A Uzunovic, C Breuil


Comparative study of lignocellulolytic activities of Pleurotus spp. and white rot and brown-rot fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10210
In this work, the in vitro species of Pleurotus (P.eringii, P. cornucopiae and P. ostreatus), from structures of degraded wood have been studied. This degradative activity was compared to those presented by Trametes versicolor (fungus characteristic of white rot) and Gloeophyllum trabeum (fungus representative of brown rot). The activities studied were the following: cellulase, xylanase, pectinase, lactase, and manganese peroxidase. In order to determine the influence of the source of carbon on these activities, the following substrates were used individually: glucose, glucose with dimethylsulfoxide, xylan, pectin, and 1% (w/v) cellulose in a basal medium of mineral salts. The results obtained indicate that none of the species of Pleurotus studied show degradative activity in cellulose comparable to that of Gloeophyllum trabeum. The hemicellulytic activities, xylanase, and pectinase were much higher in Pleurotus eringii in relation to the two standard strains tested. The results related to the ligninolytic activities showed that the one corresponding to laccase was much higher in Trametes versicolor. Dimethylsulfoxide acts as an inductor of the manganese peroxidase activity, above all, in Pleurotus cornucopiae and Pleurotus eringii , which presented higher degradative activities than Trametes versicolor in the culture medium supplemented with the inductor. In conclusion, it can be said that Pleurotus eringii shows degrading capacity on the hemicellulose which is higher than the standard strains; and Pleurotus eringii and Pleurotus cornucopiae show manganese peroxidase activities of the same order or higher than Trametes versicolor, depending on the substrates.
D Muñoz-Mingarro, F Llinares, M T De Troya, F Rubio, M Yuste, C Rodríguez-Borrajo, J E Garcia de los Rios, F Alvarez, P Jiménez, A Rojas, A Navarrete, P Reche


Susceptibility of Lentinus lepideus (Fr.:Fr.) Fr. to volatiles produced by Trichoderma spp
1987 - IRG/WP 1316
A range of Trichoderma species and strains were tested for their ability to produce fungistatic volatiles. Volatiles from all isolates produced fungistatic effects on Lentinus lepideus however wide interspecies and interstrain variability in the level of response was evident. Cross plating studies between the Trichoderma isolates and Lentinus lepideus showed that Lentinus lepideus was overgrown and lysed by its Trichoderma competitor in all cases. The results indicate that the rate of overgrowth of Lentinus lepideus was directly related to the levels of volatiles produced by each of the Trichoderma isolates. The implications of the results on the use of Trichoderma species as biological control agents is briefly discussed.
A Bruce, C Johnstone, J A P McVey


The effect of precolonisation of blocks with common pole resident fungi on subsequent biological control of Lentinus lepideus by Trichoderma spp
1989 - IRG/WP 1387
Results of previous field studies have indicated that the spread of Trichoderma throughout the groundline regions of the interiors of creosoted poles are adversely influenced by the presence of large populations of resident mould organisms. Failure of the control fungus to develop and colonize all of the decay susceptible groundline region means that sucessful control of decay is most unlikely. This study describes a pure culture experiment to test whether precolonization of wood blocks by either Hormoconis resinae or Paecilomyces variotii effects the subsequent biological protection of these blocks against Lentinus lepideus. The results indicate that Trichoderma can protect the wood blocks from decay by the Lentinus lepideus even when the blocks are colonised by the two mould organisms prior to being treated with the Trichoderma.
A Bruce, T L Highley


Laboratory studies on the antagonistic properties of Scytalidium spp to Basidiomycetes with regard to biological control
1981 - IRG/WP 1130
This investigation was initiated to study the progress of the antagonism against various opposing species of basidiomycetes. The action of the FY strain of the Scytalidium spp isolated by Ricard and Bollen (1968) was compared with that of new isolates of Scytalidium spp against isolates of wood decaying fungi from British sites, specifically Lentinus lepideus the most common basidiomycete causing decay of creosoted Scots pine transmission poles in Britain (Cartwright and Findlay 1958)
P I Morris, D J Dickinson


The effect of Trichoderma volatiles on the growth and enzyme production of Serpula lacrymans
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10332
Although various authors have reported the biological control of Serpula lacrymans by Trichoderma spp. the mode of antagonism employed by Trichoderma is not yet clear. The work presented here concentrates on the production of anti-fungal volatiles for inhibition of S. lacrymans growth. Volatile mediated interactions were examined between four S. lacrymans isolates and a range of nine known Trichoderma antagonists. Interactions were evaluated on two agar media and Scots pine sawdust. Results indicated that S. lacrymans isolates were significantly inhibited by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Trichoderma isolates, with some Trichoderma isolates being more potent producers of inhibitory VOCs than others. The production of VOCs was influenced by the nutrient composition of the Trichoderma growth media with generally greater inhibition being produced when Trichoderma isolates were cultured on nutrient rich media. Results from cultures grown on sawdust gave greater inhibition than low nutrient medium but less than when cultures were grown on malt extract agar. The effect of VOCs on fungal enzyme production was also examined by testing tyrosinase, cellulase and peroxidase. Results indicated that production of cellulase was not affected by Trichoderma volatiles and that tyrosinase was not released by any of the S. lacrymans isolates. Inhibition of growth of the S. lacrymans isolates by Trichoderma volatiles increased peroxidase activity. The paper discusses the potential role of VOC production in the biological control of dry rot.
S N Humphris, A Bruce, R E Wheatley


Assessment of the Inhibition of wood decay fungi by volatile organic compounds identified from Trichoderma spp.
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10302
Previous research identified five volatile organic compounds produced by Trichoderma spp. that may be inhibitory to wood decay fungi. The effects of four of these volatile organic compounds, 2-propanone, 2-methyl-1-butanol, heptanal and octanal were tested over a range of concentrations against four selected wood decay fungi. The fungi were incubated in malt extract broth under appropriate conditions and growth was estimated by biomass production and respiration rates. The results indicated that the growth of all four fungi were affected by at least one of the compounds, usually by inhibition but in rare cases stimulation. One of the four compounds, heptanal completely inhibited the growth of three of the four fungi and significantly inhibited the growth of the fourth. The implications of these results for the biological control of wood decay fungi and future studies are discussed.
S N Humphris, R E Wheatley, A Bruce, C Payne


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