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Cancer incidence among CCA exposed workers in the wood preserving industry
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-09
CCA wood preservatives - Copper, hexavalent, Chromium and tri-or pentavalent, Arsenic - has been used in the Nordic countries since mid 1930. Trivalent arsenic and hexavalent chromium compounds are toxic and cancerogenic while pentavalent arsenate and trivalent chromium are less hazardous. In impregnation, the compounds of CCA are fixed in the wood as insoluble trivalent chromium and copper pentavalent arsenate. The aim of this study was to investigate the cancer risks among exposed workers in Sweden and Norway. The observation periods were 1958-89 and 1954-92 respectively. In all, the cancer experience of more than 1000 men were followed. The observed numbers of cancer cases within each calendar year and five year age group were compared to the corresponding numbers expected from the national cancer rates, yielding a standardized incidence ratio (SIR). The analyses are not yet completed but so far 78 cancer cases were observed as to 100,3 expected (SIR = 0,78). Nor were the risks increased in sites most likely to be effected by the exposure, i.e. the skin and the lungs (SIR's = 0,95 and 0,33 respectively). An extended follow-up is necessary to permit firm conclusions. However, the findings do not indicate a substantial cancer risk with exposure to CCA preservatives.
C-G Ohlson, A Andersen, F G Evans, S Karlehagen, K Nilsson


Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Sampling after 8 months exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 2208
It was anticipated in Document No IRG/WP/2192 that exposure of L-joints by the European co-operators would take place on 1 April 1983. Where L-joints were exposed at this time, sampling after 8 months exposure is due on 1 December 1983. The present document draws attention to relevant previous documents which describe the sampling methods to be adopted. It also provides Tables for recording the results.
J K Carey, A F Bravery


Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Progress report to March 1988
1988 - IRG/WP 2315
Further sets of data received from CTFT (France), BAM (Germany) and PRL (UK) after 46-48 months exposure and STU (Sweden) after 22 months exposure are presented and discussed in conjunction with data reported previously. Colonisation and attack of the L-joints has progressed with increasing exposure period. The new data are generally in agreement with those presented previously and the major difference between Institutes continues to be one of rate of colonisation rather than any relative difference in performance of the treatments. Overall 0.5% TnBTO 1 min dip treatment is providing least protection followed by 1.0% TnBTO 1 min dip treatment. The double vacuum treatments continue to provide better protection than the dip treatments; there are now indications that 0.5% TnBTO double vacuum treatment is less effective than 1.0% TnBTO.
J K Carey, A F Bravery


Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Progress report to March 1984
1984 - IRG/WP 2211
Each participant was intended to expose L-joints in the main trial on 1 April 1983 and the first sampling, after 8 months exposure, was to be undertaken on 1 December 1983. Some participants have had to vary this schedule. Results are presented from CTFT (France) and PRL (United Kingdom). These show a greater effectiveness by the double vacuum treatments compared with the 1 minute dip treatments. However, results from the two locations differ particularly in the incidence and type of Basidiomycetes isolated.
J K Carey, A F Bravery


Délavabilité de bois ronds traités avec un sel CCA dans des conditions réelles de stockage. Incidence pratique de la fixation accélérée par étuvage. Impact effectif sur l'environnement
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-23
Un essai de terrain a été organisé pour mesurer concrètement, dans des conditions aussi proches que possibles des conditions réelles de terrain, les pertes effectives en produit de traitement lorsque le bois traité est soumis à des intempéries. L'essai a été conduit sur des bois ronds (poteaux), traités en autoclave par procédé Bethell avec un sel CCA de type C, avec comme finalité l'évaluation de la nature et des quantités de composés délavés en pratique, pour évaluer ainsi leur impact réel sur l'environnement au niveau du site de traitement. Compte-tenu des propriétés fixantes de ce type de produit, il était interessant d'identifier ces pertes à différents stades de la fixation, ainsi qu'après fixation compléte. Utilisant également les divers travaux et constats disponibles à ce jour sur les possibilités d'accélérer la fixation par l'étuvage, nous avons voulu observer et quantifier cette amélioration dans les mêmes conditions de terrain. Cet essai a été organisé et exécuté conjointement par le CTBA et la société FRANE BOIS IMPREGNES. Il conduit à 3 constatations principales: - Les pertes pratiques sont quantitativement nettement moins importantes que celles obtenues à partir des méthodes et échantillons de bois utilisés en laboratoire. - A l'issue et surtout au cours de la fixation les divers métaux se comportent de façon très différente, et on peut penser que la nature de la formulation a une importance notable sur ce comportement, même si dans tous les cas les quantités concrètement délavées restent faibles. - L'éuvage en sortie de traitement et dans des conditions adaptées permet d'obtenir spontanément, un résultat analogue à celui obtenu par un cycle de fixation traditionnel.
M Rayzal, F Larroze


A survey of the incidence of decay in copper-chrome-arsenate treated trellis support posts used in horticulture in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1225
Copper-chrom-arsenate treated softwood posts used as trellis support structures in 5 major horticultural districts of New Zealand were systematically examined for presence of decay. Principal crops on properties examined were grapes and kiwifruit; a minority of properties grew hops, boysenberries, and dwarf apples. Occurrence and severity of decay were variable within specific age classes of posts on individual properties and also between properties in the same region which had posts of similar age. Incidence of decay was higher in posts set in soils which were highly moisture retentive than in posts in drier areas or set in freely draining soils. Cross-sectional size and age of posts showed little correlation with frequency of severe decay, although the percentage of posts free of decay increased with decreasing age.
M E Hedley, J A Drysdale


Incidence of soft rot in creosoted poles
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1554
A further population of creosote-treated poles has been assessed for the occurrence of soft rot, as a continuation of work reported in IRG Document No. IRG/WP/1368. The outer 1 cm of each core was assessed microscopically and graded for the presence of soft rot cavities in the wood cell walls; with further assessments taken at a consecutive 1cm interval for cores showing positive findings. Following this assessment each core was cultured on microbiological media in an attempt to isolate potential causative organisms and correlate their presence with the occurrence of soft rot cavities in the wood cell walls. The results indicate that a number of fungi may be important, either in causing soft rot decay or in creating the conditions necessary for such decay to occur. Of these, Hormoconis resinae seems to be particularly important. This fungus was found populating poles at a rate of 68% overall. Further work has also been undertaken, using gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy, to establish the amount of creosote present, its chemical composition in poles and to correlate this data with that for soft rot cavitation and microbiological assay.
D J Dickinson, P W McCormack, B Calver


Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Sampling after 18 months exposure
1984 - IRG/WP 2233
In September 1983, Document No: IRG/WP/2208 was distributed giving guidance on sampling after 8 months exposure (due 1 December 1983 for those L-joints exposed on schedule on 1 April 1983), and including tables on which to record the test results. No major problems have been notified to Princes Risborough Laboratory concerning the sampling method. It is therefore proposed that the next sampling, after 18 months exposure for those L-joints exposed on 1 April 1983, should proceed using the same methodology, on 1 October 1984.
J K Carey, A F Bravery


Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Progress report to March 1986
1986 - IRG/WP 2272
Further sets of data received from CTFT (France) after 18 months exposure, BAM (Germany) after 18 months exposure, STU (Sweden) after 9.5 months exposure and TI (Denmark) after 12 and 17.5 months exposure are presented and discussed in conjunction with data previously reported. The new data are generally in agreement with those presented previously and indicate the major difference between the co-operating Institutes is one of the rate of colonisation rather than any relative difference in performance of the treatments. Overall 0.5% TnBTO 1 min dip treatment is providing least protection followed by 1.0% TnBTO 1 min dip. Both double vacuum treatments are providing better protection with little difference between 0.5% and 1.0% TnBTO.
J K Carey, A F Bravery


Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Progress report to March 1985
1985 - IRG/WP 2236
It was originally intended that each participant would expose L-joints in the main trial on 1 April 1983 with the first sampling at 8 months (1 December 1983) and the second sampling at 18 months (1 October 1984). In the event, some participants have had to vary this schedule. Results after the first sampling have been received from CTFT (8 months), BAM (12 months) and Sipad-IRC (8 months) and after the second sampling from PRL (18 months) and Sipad-IRC (17 months). These, together with data presented previously, show a good correlation between gradual increases in permeability and the increasing incidence of Basidiomycetes. Both double vacuum treatments are proving more effective than the dip treatments; at the present stage 1.0% TnBTO appears to be no more effective than 0.5% TnBTO. The major difference between Institutes appears to be the rate at which colonisation and attack occurs rather than in the patterns of colonisation.
J K Carey, A F Bravery


Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Sampling after 4 years exposure
1987 - IRG/WP 2274
In September 1983, Document No: IRG/WP/2208 was distributed giving guidance on sampling after 8 months exposure and including tables on which to record the test results. Similarly in September 1984, Document No: IRG/WP/2233 was distributed concerning sampling after 18 months exposure. No major problems have been notified to Princes Risborough Laboratory concerning the sampling method. It is therefore proposed that the last sampling, after 4 years exposure for all those L-joints exposed in 1983, should proceed using the same methodology, during April or May 1987 as agreed at IRG-17 in Avignon.
J K Carey, A F Bravery


Creosote and cancer -Cancer incidence among workers exposed to creosote
1990 - IRG/WP 3572
Creosote is a wood preservative that contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are known to be carcinogenic. Cancer incidence among 919 male workers in Sweden and Norway exposed to creosote in the wood preserving industry was studied. The expected numbers of cases were based on the incidence rates of cancer according to the Cancer Registries of Sweden and Norway. A total of 129 cancer cases was observed for the entire cohort, 137 cases being expected. The total cancer morbidity was thus somewhat lower than expected. Nine cases of cancer of the skin (squamous cell carcinoma) were observed, four cases being expected. This study does not confirm that exposure to creosote in the wood preserving industry has caused an excess of total cancer morbidity. The study indicates, however, that exposure to creosote might increase the incidence of skin cancer. Ultra-violet light is known to be a factor of importance in generating this type of cancer. Since the impregnation work as mainly carried out in the open air the explanation to the excess morbidity might be a combined effect of creosote and sun light.
S Karlehagen, A Andersen, C-G Ohlson


Termites y otros insectos xiliofagos en bienes arquitectonicos monumentos nacionalos de Colombia
2009 - IRG/WP 08-10679
The incidence of termites and other wood destroying insects was surveyed in ten historical buildings in Colombia. The most common insects were termites (Kalotermes, Cryptotermes, Heterotermes), although numerous decay organisms were also detected, including beetles (Anobium, Lyctus, Cerambycids) and various wood decaying fungi. Structural wood elements were classified according to the degree of attack using a qualitative scale. All of the surveyed buildings showed some degree of attack in structural wood elements. The most affected elements were found in buildings located in humid and warm climates; however we also observed insects outside their ecological niches (for example termites in Bogota at 2640 m.a.s.l). The microclimate inside the building may help some insects to survive. The results suggest that most of the historical buildings need constant inspection and maintenance actions to reduce the incidence of wood-destroying.
M G Ramírez


ISPM No. 15 and the Incidence of Wood Pests: Recent Findings, Policy Changes, and Current Knowledge Gaps
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30568
Largely as a result of international trade, hundreds of species of bark- and wood-infesting insects have become established in countries outside their native range. Many of these exotic insects have caused severe economic and environmental impact to urban and forest trees in the receiving countries. Most bark- and wood-infesting insects have been transported to new countries by means of the wood packaging material (WPM) pathway, which includes products such as pallets and crating. The international community responded to the phytosanitary risk posed by untreated WPM by approving ISPM (International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures) No. 15 in 2002 that specifies treatments designed to kill wood pests in WPM used in international trade. In response to new research findings, ISPM 15 was revised in 2006 and 2009. The goal of ISPM 15, as stated in the 2009 revision, is to ‘reduce significantly the risk of introduction and spread of most quarantine pests.’ Since 2002, heat treatment and methyl bromide fumigation have been the only two approved phytosanitary treatments for WPM. New treatments are urgently needed given that the use of methyl bromide is being phased out worldwide. This paper presents background information on (a) ISPM 15, (b) changes that were made to ISPM 15 during each of the two revisions, (c) research highlights from projects that were used to support the revisions, (d) incidence of insects of quarantine significance that were found in WPM during surveys conducted before and after implementation of ISPM 15, and (e) research needs to further improve ISPM 15.
R A Haack, E G Brockerhoff


Incidence of soft rot attack on preservative treated Douglas-fir poles: a preliminary survey
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10818
Occurrence of soft rot decay in Douglas-fir poles treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) or pentachlorophenol in oil was studied. Soft rot was less prevalent in poles treated with penta, but some soft rot was found in approximately 20 % of poles examined. Soft rot was more common in poles treated with ACZA, and, when present, was found in almost 20% of the cells examined. The potential impacts of this damage are discussed in relation to future inspection procedures for these poles.
P Torres Andrade, J J Morrell


Incidence of treated wood in a wood recycling facility in Western Oregon, USA: an update
2019 - IRG/WP 19-50346
Preservative treated wood provides excellent long-term performance under a variety of adverse conditions, but it must eventually be replaced. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends reuse in a similar application, but if that is not an option, disposal in a municipal solid waste facility equipped with a leachate management system. Concerns about diminishing landfill capacity have led many communities to establish wood waste collection programs to divert wood and extend landfill life. Unfortunately, treated wood often ends up in these collections, creating the potential for contamination of the resulting recycling stream. This issue was a major concern in Florida, which uses large amounts of treated wood, but there are fewer data on the amounts of treated wood entering recycling streams in other states. This document updates a long-term monitoring project of treated wood entering a recycling facility in Western Oregon.
J J Morrell