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The evaluation of the effectiveness of wood preservatives by means of IUFRO's method for field tests with wooden stakes
1985 - IRG/WP 3348
Pinus elliottii and Eucalyptus saligna stakes treated with CCA-A, CCA-C, CCB, Cashew Nut Shell Oil and Benzotar solutions were exposed in seven test sites in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After five years of exposure, between oil-borne preservatives Benzotar show better performance than CNSL (cashew nut shell liquid), and within waterborne preservatives the performance of CCB is not so good as that of CCA-A and CCA-C, which show similar performance.
G A C Lopez, A M F Oliveira, E S Lepage


Evaluation of copperised Cashew nut shell liquid and Neem oil as wood preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30368
An effort has been made to develop eco-friendly wood preservatives using naturally available plant by-products with less toxicity. Copper was incorporated into Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and Neem seed oil. Rubber wood samples were treated with these solutions employing dipping and pressure techniques in 3 different levels. These samples have been evaluated to find out the effectiveness as wood preservatives against decay fungi and termites. The combinations of copper & CNSL and copper & Neem in pressure treatment have resulted in discernibly high protection against wood rotters and termites.
D Venmalar, H C Nagaveni


Composition of urushiol and cardanol from Japanese lacquer tree and related origins
1991 - IRG/WP 3667
Wood may be protected against insects and weathering based on the paints. Japan has been used to protect wood from weathering, insects, checking that ordinarily develop when unprotected wood is exposed to the weather. Japaned wood gives a hard, durable, various gloss especially black. The yield of culture-urus hiol obtained from Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vermiciflua Stokes) was 0.6% based on the dry weight of Japanese lacquer root. 3-(pentadecatrienyl- 8' ,11' ,14') catechol and 3-(pentadecatrienyl- 8', 11' ,13')-phenol were obtained from lacquer-urushiol. The composition of urushiol and cardanol was investigated from different origins including adventitious root, natural root, Japanese lacquer and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Also, the composition of the olefinic components of urushiol and cardanol from different origins was examined. On the other hand, 0.4% of cardanol existed in Japanese lacquer. Cardanol exists in both Japanese lacquer and the tissue culture of Japanese lacquer tree. The isolation of cardanol from Japanese lacquer and the adventitious roots of tissue cultures supports the presumed path way of urushiol, cardanol, cardol, and anacardic acid.
Y Inoue


Effect of bio-resin from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) on decay resistance properties of wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40649
This study assesses the decay resistance properties of bio-resin modified wood against decay fungi of the Basidiomycota according to the EN 113 protocol. A bio-resin system was developed by ozonolysis process from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), a naturally occurring mixture of phenolics. Small wood blocks from sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon) and Gmelina (Gmelina arborea) were vacuum impregnated with methanolic solutions containing CNSL resin and tested for decay resistance against the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana and Postia placenta, and white rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus. The relationship of fungal species, extent of resin treatment (WPG) and mass loss (ML) induced by decay were examined. The ML caused by the decay fungi, however decreased with the increasing WPG in all of the wood species against all of the fungi tested but at the highest loading of resin the protection threshold was not reached. The increased decay resistance is attributed to polymerization of the CNSL resin either in the wood cell wall or in the cell lumen providing a barrier decay fungi. The effects of ML by decay fungi and level of resin modification (WPG) on the final moisture content of resin modified wood at the end of the decay test were also examined. The moisture content at the end of the decay test was influenced by the decay fungi and the extent of resin modification. All the wood species modified with CNSL resin enhanced the hydrophobic nature of wood. As the protection threshold was not reached higher treatment levels for CNSL resin are required for full protection.
M Ashaduzzaman, M D Hale, V Tverezovskiy, G A Ormondroyd


Biological performance of wood treated with tar-oil recovered during slow pyrolysis of macadamia nut shells
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30523
This study evaluated decay and termite resistance of wood treated with tar oil obtained from a commercial pyrolysis process of macadamia nut shells. Vacuum-treated pine wood specimens were subjected to various brown and white rot fungi based on the soil-block test method specified by the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) after leaching process. Treated specimens were also subjected to the subterranean termite attack according to Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) for 3 weeks. In the study, growth inhibition of selected fungi with the tar oil was tested in vitro. Treated wood specimens at 460 kg/m3 retention level showed good protection against all fungi tested. Mass losses in leached specimens were less than those observed in unleached specimens. Similar results were seen when the specimens were subjected to termite attack. Inhibition tests showed that higher concentrations of the tar oil are critical for inhibition of the brown rot fungi compared to the concentrations required to impede the white rot and sap staining fungi tested.
S Nami Kartal, E Terzi, C Kose, J Hofmeyr, Y Imamura