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Inorganic wood preservative levels in soil near a noise barrier treated with different preservatives after 8 years in service
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50234
In March 1996 nine test sections of a noise barrier were installed near Stockholm Sweden. The test sections include untreated Scots pine, spruce and larch and Scots pine, treated with different wood preservatives. After 8 years in service, the untreated spruce, pine and larch boards in contact with the soil were significantly decayed, with an estimated service life of about 5-10 years, while the untreated wood above ground is stained but not visibly decayed. Some degradation was detected in wood in soil contact for some of the preserved pine sections treated to AB levels (i.e. use class 3, above ground). Soil samples were collected at three horizontal distances from the barriers (0, 7 and 14 cm) with the 7 cm sample representing the drip line under a protective wedge designed to keep water out of the joints. Samples were collected at two depths representing groundline and the depth of the barrier in the soil (7.5 – 13 cm) and directly under the barrier. Soil samples collected after 8 years showed highest contaminant levels close to the barrier and under the wedge dripline. Arsenic levels in some locations close to CCA treated panels exceeded Swedish and Canadian soil guidelines for agricultural use and copper levels were above residential/park guidelines for some locations near ACQ and Tanalith MCB treated panels.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, M-L Edlund, J Jermer, O Söderström


Leaching of inorganic wood preservatives – Investigating the relationship between leachability, dissociation characteristics and long-term leaching potential
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50199
Estimation of the leaching properties of preservative components is greatly affected by the leaching test method applied since not all methods equally consider the physical components responsible for leaching. These include: wetting of the wood and penetration of water (affected by dimensions, amount of end grain, permeability, duration and nature of water exposure); solution of preservative components into available moisture (affected by component solubility, wood moisture content, temperature, etc.); diffusion of components out of wood (affected by product dimensions, permeability, direction of movement, moisture content, temperature, nature of the diffusing species, etc.); and re-drying of the wood between moisture exposures. Aggressive leaching of finely ground wood provides a measure of the ultimate amounts of preservative compounds available for leaching while analysis of the equilibrium dissociation or solubility of components in free water in the wood provides information on their effective concentration which drives the diffusion process. Combining this information with a simple diffusion test should allow the estimation of potential risk from leaching over a wide range of specified conditions. In this paper, the leaching of several inorganic wood preservatives is compared and related to dissociation of preservatives within the wood structure and diffusion out of wood.
L Waldron, Y T Ung, P A Cooper


International comparison of three field methods for assessing the in-ground termite resistance of materials - highlights after two years
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20157
First-year results of a comparative study, evaluating the in-ground termite resistance of a range of materials, including CCA and ACQ-treated timbers, using the below-ground exposure, ground contact and graveyard methods against diverse termite faunas were provided in IRG/WP/98-20132. Further annual inspections have confirmed early trends and identified notable differences between sites and methods. Termites have contacted specimens more frequently at tropical sites, irrespective of the method, and in below-ground exposure trials, irrespective of site. Overall, levels of fungal decay have been low. Fungal decay was more prevalent in specimens using the ground-contact and graveyard methods. Notable levels of termite attack have been recorded for some CCA- and ACQ-treated Pinus radiata specimens at the retention of 2kg/m3, after two years or only one year (Phuket, Thailand). Some specimens of the durable timber bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) have sustained significant levels of termite attack and fungal decay.
M Lenz, J W Creffield, A F Preston, B M Kard, C Vongkaluang, Y Sornnuwat


Comparison of three methods for assessing the in-ground termite resistance of treated timber, durable timber and plastics at sites in Australia, USA and Thailand - First results
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20132
The in-ground resistance of materials to attack by subterranean termites is most commonly assessed with one form or another of the conventional graveyard method, despite the significant shortcomings of this method. In Australia, an alternative method, in which all samples of test materials are placed below-ground, has been in use for more than 10 years. The method provides reliable exposure of samples to prolonged contact by termites and offers a number of other advantages, notably ease of removal and re-installation of specimens, and protection from fires or damage caused by animals and vandalism. We describe a study in which assessments of materials with the below-ground exposure method were compared with the graveyard procedure and a modification of the South African ground contact method. Sites encompassed a range of climatic conditions and termite faunas, subtropics with species of Reticulitermes in Mississippi, USA; humid tropics with a diverse termite fauna dominated by Macrotermitinae (fungus-culturing termites) in SW Thailand; wet and dry tropics with separate trials for the two economically important species, Mastotermes darwiniensis and the mound-building form of Coptotermes acinaciformis, in Northern Australia; and at a semi-arid inland site with a temperate climate in Eastern Australia where the tree-nesting form of Coptotermes acinaciformis is the dominant species. Materials included in the investigation were: CCA- and ACQ-treated Pinus radiata (each at two retentions), a durable timber (bald cypress, Taxodium distichum) and two plastic cable sheathings (nylon and low density polyethylene). This paper provides details of the trial and gives first observations from inspections at three sites after one year of exposure of the materials to termites.
M Lenz, A F Preston, J W Creffield, K J Archer, B M Kard, C Vongkaluang, Y Sornnuwat


Leaching amount of wood preservatives from treated wood in different size during outdoor exposure for 6 months
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50160
Eighteen impregnated specimens with CCA, ACQ, and BAAC preservatives were subjected to a outdoor leaching test. Test specimens, 10 x 10 x 25 cm3, 5 x 10 x 25 cm3, 2 x 10 x 25 cm3 in size, were cut from Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica). Both of end surfaces were sealed with a silicone sealer in the half number of specimens. Total leaching amounts of copper from the open-end ACQ specimens of 10 x 10 x 25 cm3, 5 x 10 x 25 cm3, 2 x 10 x 25 cm3 in size were 76.2 g/m3, 60.6 g/m3, 153.4 g/m3 respectively during 6 months exposure. Those from the end-sealed ACQ specimens were 40.9 g/m3, 50.9 g/m3, 92.7 g/m3 respectively. The ratio of surface area to volume influenced the leaching amount of preservatives. Sealing of end surface of samples reduced the loss of preservatives considerably.
K Yamamoto, S Motegi, A Inai


Biological Safety Evaluation of Animal Contact of Preservative-Treated Wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50196
Biological safety of preservative-treated woods that could be contacted to human and animal was evaluated for rat and rabbit exposed to CCA-, ACQ- and CCFZ-treated woods. The accumulation of preservatives ingredient in the rat’s plasma and viscera, and the transforming function of replacing preservatives were examined in this study. The result indicated that preservative-treated wood did not bring changes for the enzyme related with replacing function of preservative components in the plasma. The accumulated amount of chrome from the CCA-treated wood was detected to be very small quantity, which was less than the measurement range. However, the presence of arsenic was detected in lung, liver, and heart of rats. Furthermore, the amount of accumulated arsenic in rat's viscera was greater than that of the untreated control. Copper, a common as ingredient of all CCA-, CCFZ- and ACQ-treated woods was detected in the liver of rat exposed to the CCA-treated sample. And the copper was also detected in the lung and liver of rat exposed to the ACQ-treated samples, while it was also present in the both liver and heart of rats exposed to the CCFZ-treated sample. To evaluate dermal safety of preservative-treated wood, clinical formulations were prepared by dissolving ACQ, CCA, and CCFZ in saline solution at five times concentration of normal treatment. Dermal irritation test was repeated for nine rabbits using the prepared solution. No changes were detected for rabbits exposed to daily dermal irritation using the solution for 14 days. And cumulative dermal irritation (CDI) score using the solution for 14 days was equal to zero. This result demonstrated that the local irritation of the preservatives tested to the intact skin was negligible. Histopathological examination revealed no hemorrhage and edematous change of the subcutaneous tissue in the rabbits treated with ACQ, CCA and CCFZ.
Dong-heub Lee, Dong-won Son, Myung Jae Lee, Chang Ho Kang, Cheon Ho Kim, Eui-Bai Jeung


Comparison of Temporal Changes in Metal Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity from Wood Treated with CCA and Alternative Preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50236
This study compares the temporal variation of chemical leaching and aquatic toxicity of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and other copper-based wood preservatives (alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ), copper boron azole (CBA), copper citrate (CC) and copper dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC)). Treated wood blocks were leached for 21 days and the leachate collected was analyzed for preservative chemicals and aquatic toxicity. The measured rate of copper leaching was fit using the recently proposed diffusion model for predicting preservative leaching rates. An unpreserved wood sample was tested as a negative control. In general the predicted values for flux rate were on the same order of magnitude as calculated using the experimental data. In natural water, several physical and chemical factors may affect the bio-availability and toxicity of chemicals. Copper concentrations and resulting aquatic toxicity obtained using two natural waters as leaching solutions were found to be lower compared with data obtained using de-ionized water as the leaching fluid.
B Dubey, T G Townsend, G Bitton, H M Solo-Gabriele


Development of software to automate the quantification of checking occurring in preservative treated wood exposed to weathering
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20228
Surface checking often disfigures the appearance of wood treated with water-borne preservatives and treatments designed to reduce such checking have been receiving increasing attention. Progress in this area has however been slowed by the lack of a method of rapidly and accurately quantifying checking at treated wood surfaces. A software package has therefore been developed which identifies, measures and records the dimensions and numbers of surface checks in scanned images of preservative treated wood specimens. The program uses grey-scale 600 dpi TIFF images of wood specimens and operates within the data acquisition, analysis and presentation software IgorPro (Wavemetrics). Procedures within the program analyse images sequentially pixel by pixel and one row at a time searching for brightness minima (dark areas) which satisfy criteria that are characteristic of checks. A black and white (b/w) image is then produced in which probable checks are shown black on a white background. Further procedures reduce noise in the b/w image eliminating artifacts (specks of dirt) and small checks that cannot be discerned by the naked eye. The final stage of the analysis rasters through the cleaned b/w image establishing which black pixels connect to each other and identifying and labeling checks and quantifying check positions, sizes and shape. These data are then presented in a spreadsheet. Using this package it has been possible to successfully quantify checking in a range of preservative treated wood specimens that have been subjected to natural weathering. This paper describes the principal features of the software package and presents preliminary data from analysis of treated and weathered specimens. The advantages of the system for quantifying checking in preservative treated wood as well as its limitations are discussed.
A G Christy, P D Evans


Inorganic preservative levels in soil under treated wood decks after 8 years natural exposure in Borås, Sweden
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50233
Inorganic preservative components (Cu, Cr and As) were measured to a depth of 150 mm under deck structures made with Scots pine lumber treated with several different wood preservatives and installed in Borås Sweden 8 years ago. Higher contaminant levels were observed mainly under the drip lines and in the top 50 mm of soil. Under CCA treated decks, soil arsenic concentrations increased from background levels of about 3.5 mg/kg to 6-15 mg/kg in this zone. Copper and chromium levels were only slightly elevated above backgrounds of about 10 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg respectively. Copper levels were also only slightly elevated under decks treated with Tanalith E, Impralit KDS and Wolmanit CX-S. The Wolmanit CX-8 treated wood had concentrations averaging about 45 mg/kg in the top soil layer under the drip line while the Kemwood ACQ treated deck had concentrations above 100 mg/g in this zone.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, M-L Edlund, J Jermer


Depletion of preservatives from treated wood: Results from laboratory, fungus cellar and field test
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-07
This paper compares results of preservative component losses using a range of test procedures with several different water-borne preservatives. The data shows that laboratory leaching tests are in some cases comparable to, but in other cases significantly underestimate preservative component losses when compared with field or fungus cellar depletion tests. The results also suggest that preservative component losses are treatment retention and formulation dependent. It is apparent that the changing nature of wood preservative formulations, coupled with the different types of treated commodities and applications now being used, mandates the use of a wider range of test methods with multiple retentions to comprehensively assess likely loss of wood preservative components in service. The paper addresses a number of these issues and also presents test methods which may be suitable for further development in the area of preservative depletion.
L Jin, A F Preston


Comparative study on the leaching of wood preservatives between natural exposure and accelerating laboratory conditions
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50134
Impregnated specimens with CCA, ACQ, and BAAC were subjected to leaching tests. Specimens of 2x2x1 cm3 in size were used for the laboratory leaching test for 10 days according to JIS K 1571. Specimens of 25x1 x1 cm3 were used for outdoor leaching test for 6 months. Total leaching amounts of boron per cm3 of specimens treated with BAAC were 325 µg in the laboratory test and 206 µg in the outdoor test through the leaching periods. Those of Cu from ACQ and CCA treated specimens were 400 µg and 41 µg in the former test and 97 µg and 16 µg in the latter test. Leaching amounts in the laboratory test was much higher in every elements than those in the outdoor test without exception.
K Yamamoto, S Motegi, A Inai


Comparison of laboratory and natural exposure leaching of copper from wood treated with three wood preservatives
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50258
Standard and non-standard laboratory and field leaching tests were used to compare copper leaching from wood treated to above ground and ground contact specified retentions for three wood preservative systems, CCA-C, ACQ-D and a micronized copper formulation with quat DDAC as co-biocide. Copper leaching was highest for the ACQ formulation. Percent leaching was lowest for the micronized copper system (MCQ) but amount of copper leached (mg/m2) was higher for MCQ than for CCA because of the higher copper content in the former formulation. The amounts of copper leaching varied considerably from test to test, but in most cases, the relative amounts of copper leaching from wood treated with the three formulations were consistent. One exception was the AWPA E20 soil leaching test which provided variable results, that showed that leaching of copper from CCA and MCQ samples was more similar to that from ACQ samples than observed for the other test methods. Also, the natural exposure tests (horizontal and vertical exposure) has less dramatic differences among the preservative systems.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Overview of the treated wood quality control program in the United States with the recent challenges and advances
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20616
In the past two decades, there have been significant and rapid changes in wood protection technologies for residential applications which have moved away from long established heavy duty metal oxide based products such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The successor generation of wood protection systems usually contain copper as the primary biocide, in combination with carbon-based co-biocides such as quaternary ammonium compounds (Quat), and/or triazoles (Tebuconazole and/or Propiconazole). The most recent developments have given rise to even more complicated combinations including multiple carbon-based biocides formulated in the form of emulsions or dispersions with or without water repellents or polymers aiming to minimize the use of heavy metals as well as provide improvement in wood dimensional stability and surface weathering performance. Also, long developed non-biocidal wood modification treatments, such as acetylation, thermal modification, furfurylation and hydrocarbon wax/oil treated wood have finally gained more commercial traction in the market place, especially in Europe. These new developments have challenged the industry to develop and use appropriate methods in order to meet the quality control (QC) standards and requirements in respect to concentration of treatment solutions, as well as chemical retention and penetration in treated wood. In the US, the QC system for treated wood product includes three key elements: treating plant internal QC for treating solution, treated wood, and treatment process; QC assistance and monitoring by the chemical/technological suppliers for their customers, and QC inspection by third-party inspection agencies. The enforcement of the QC standards through this comprehensive system is essential to ensure the performance of the treated wood products, the validity of product warranty program, and ultimately for the protection of consumers and the public. This paper overviews the US’s current QC standards and procedures used by treating plants, suppliers and independent inspection agencies. The chemistry challenges with the recent developments of multi-component systems and complex wood protection technologies, and their impacts on quality control methods are also discussed. Case studies have been used to illustrate how some of these challenges can and have been successfully addressed.
L Jin


International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in Australia, France, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Unites States of America. Solutions of these two wood preservatives were prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loading of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments were carried out at the Division of Forestry and Forest Products in Melbourne. The treated specimens were dispatched to the participating researchers who subjected these specimens to attack by their test termite species, and have now returned the specimens to Melbourne. This paper reports the amount of wood consumed and the mean mass loss (%) on both treated and untreated wood blocks by the termites in the various laboratory bioassays.
J R J French


Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50% of the chromium and copper content of the individual blocks was leached independent of the time of storage, whereas simultaneously treated pinewood samples showed complete fixation after 4 weeks of storage.
H Willeitner, K Brandt


Comparison of the agar-block and soil-block methods used for evaluation of fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20039
The modyfied agar-block and soil-block methods were used for comparing the fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA type preservatives against Coniophora puteana and Coniophora olivacea The mass loss and moisture contents of wood were analysed.
J Wazny, L J Cookson


Exposure trial at tropical marine sites of pyrethroid/creosote mixtures as wood preservatives: Preliminary results
1989 - IRG/WP 4155
Pinus sylvestris sapwood blocks measuring 25 x 25 x 200 mm³, impregnated using a Lowry or Rüping pressure treatment cycle with solutions of permethrin, cypermethrin or deltamethrin in BS144 creosote, have been exposed at marine sites in Australia, Papua New Guinea, the U.K. and Singapore. The effectiveness of these solutions in preventing marine borer attack is being compared with the efficacy of creosote alone, creosote/CCA double treatment, pyrethroids alone and no treatment. Blocks at the tropical sites have been installed in the intertidal zone in areas where the crustacean borer, Sphaeroma is active. Teredinids (shipworms) of several species are very numerous at these sites and the bivalve borer, Martesia, is present. Limnona colonies were found in untreated blocks at the sites in Papua New Guinea and Australia. The results of inspections after exposure periods of up to 26 months at the tropical sites are summarised in this report. Untreated sample blocks failed rapidly to borers, particularly teredinids. Pyrethroids alone reduced the level of crustacean borer attack and to a lesser extent, teredinid attack. All blocks treated with creosote-containing solutions have so far not been attacked by borers or degraded significantly by micro-organisms. Soft-rot and bacterial degradation occurred in untreated blocks and blocks treated with pyrethroids alone. Settlement by barnacles and serpulid worms appears to be inhibited by the creosote/CCA double treatment, but there is no evidence of long-term inhibition of barnacle or serpulid settlement by pyrethroid-containing solutions, whether with creosote or without. Samples at the site in the UK are exposed to teredinid attack. No inspections have yet been carried out at this site.
S M Cragg


Some aspects of laboratory and field testing methods of antitermite wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 235
Various methods for laboratory testing of antitermite activity of wood preservatives are described. The results of simultaneous tests of three water-borne preservatives, according to the various methods are discussed, and comparison is made with results of field tests on the same three preservatives, showing a fairly good accordance between laboratory results and field results.
M Fougerousse


Collaborative experiments in testing the toxicity of wood preservatives to soft rot fungi
1970 - IRG/WP 25
Eight Institutes from seven countries, Austria, England, France, Germany, Holland, Sweden and Switzerland have collaborated in an attempt to assess the suitability of various laboratory test procedures for acceptance as standard methods of determining the toxicity of wood preservatives to the cellulose-attacking micro-fungi which cause 'soft rot' of wood. Pure culture methods with Chaetomium globosum have been tested together with soil burial methods in which the mixed fungus flora of unsterilised local soils has been used as inoculum. The results obtained with a copper/chrome/arsenate preservative have been presented and discussed. It is concluded that the information available is not yet adequate to permit definition of a reliable standard test method. The work has however demonstrated the unsuitability of Chaetomium globosum as a test organism in pure culture tests on softwood and has given indications that soils low in organic matter content may be most suitable for mixed culture tests.
J G Savory, A F Bravery


Depletion of wood preservatives after four years' marine exposure in Mt. Maunganui harbour, NZ
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50036
This paper reports on chemical analysis of marine test samples exposed in Mt. Maunganui harbour, New Zealand from 1977 to 1981. Depletion data for a Class II CCA, a CCA-A formulation, acid copper chromate and ammoniacal copper arsenate are presented. The results suggest differences in the rate of loss of individual preservative components among the four formulations and redistribution of individual preservative components within the wood.
K J Archer, A F Preston, C M Chittenden, D R Page


The leachability, biological resistance, and mechanical properties of wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) treated with CCA and CCB preservatives
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30207
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens treated with CCA and CCB preservative solutions (1.0%) were subjected to several fixation processes and leached elements from the specimens were determined. In addition, the specimens exposed to different fixation temperatures were subjected to soil-block test using two brown-rot fungi and one white-rot fungus in order to investigate the effects of fixation temperature on the biological performance of treated wood. The effects of preservative treatment and subsequent redrying at temperatures of 20°C and 70°C on the bending strength, MOE (modulus of elasticity), and impact bending strength of small, clear specimens treated with CCA. At 20°C and high moisture contents and also with steaming, leaching rate of the components decreased. In addition, the specimens treated with CCB and conditioned at 20°C/32-100% RH (relative humidity) conditions, the percent elements leached were less than those in the specimens treated with CCA and also the rate of fixation increased significantly in the CCB-treated specimens. In the CCA treatments, the weight losses by Gloeophyllum trabeum and Postia placenta fungi were more than 5% with the fixation methods such as ovendrying at 120°C, and steaming at 80°C for 60 and 90 minutes while with the other fixation methods, the weight losses obtained were less than 5%. At redrying temperatures of 20 and 70°C, CCA had no significant negative effect on the bending strength, MOE, and impact bending strength properties of the specimens.
S N Kartal


Comparative evaluation of the barrier effect against Hylotrupes bajulus L. of different types of wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 1307
This paper settles the difference of contact action against females of Hylotrupes bajulus the likelihood of egg-laying, the ovicide effect and the hazards of development of newly hatched larvae between some preservatives belonging to three differents types: mineral waterborne products, organic products and emulsions. The results show that against females, the action is fast with organic products, slower with emulsions and non existent with mineral products. They point out the relation between the longivity of females and the eventuality of egg-laying. With ageing, this latter become possible for almost every preservative. In the most of cases, the larvae hatch from eggs and can bore into wood until they accumulate the lethal dosis and that occurs more or less fastly. A few differences are observed for preservatives of the same category.
M-M Serment


Copper based water-borne preservatives: The biological performance of wood treated with various formulations
1987 - IRG/WP 3451
Wood samples treated with the various components of CCA preservative singly and in combination were tested against a soft rot organism, a copper tolerant brown rot organism and in soil burial both unleached and after leaching. The results suggest that, of the elements tested, fixed copper is essential for preventing soft rot attack and fixed arsenic is essential for preventing attack by a copper tolerant brown rot organism in leaching environments.
S M Gray, D J Dickinson


Biological effectiveness of ground-contact wood preservatives as determined by field exposure stake tests
1984 - IRG/WP 3297
Field exposure tests conducted on stakes treated with different creosotes, mixtures of creosote and waxy oil as well as different CCA wood preservatives over a period of 25 years, gave the following results: The CCA preservatives provided excellent biological protection to treated stakes, especially against fungal attack. The CCA Type I, currently approved for use under South African conditions is not inferior to the CCA Type II during long-term ground-contact exposure if the active elemental contents and effective retentions are taken into consideration. The creosotes provided good protection against termite attack but showed fairly poor fungal resistance during long-term ground-contact exposure under wet conditions. The addition of waxy oil greatly improved the effectiveness of creosotes against fungal attack. The CCA preservatives proved to be a better overall ground-contact preservative compared with the creosotes.
W E Conradie, A Pizzi


The use, approval and waste management of industrial wood preservatives. A preliminary report
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50033
The structure on the wood preservation through the world is heterogenous. Environmental legislation, approval policy and application practices differ in each geographical region and in individual countries. This preliminary report gives a rough estimation of the production of treated timber, the use of wood preservatives and a bief summary of environmental status of wood impregnation in selected countries.
A J Nurmi


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