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The effect of water-repellent additives on the leaching of CCA from simulated southern Yellow pine decks
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50158
End-matched SYP boards were pressure-treated with CCA or CCA in combination with commercial water repellent additives. After fixation and drying, the boards were placed in plastic boxes and exposed outside in Harrisburg, NC. Plastic supports were used to keep the boards above the water collected. Over a period of five months, rain run-off water from 14 natural rainfalls were collected and analyzed by ICP. Metal leachate level was related to the type and level of water repellent additive present. Two commercial water repellents, which had much better water repellency than the third product, were found to be effective in reducing CCA leaching. Arsenic leaching can be reduced by over 35% in the presence of 1.2% of the two effective water repellents.
F Cui, P J Walcheski


X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of CCA treated wood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3700
Ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir wood sections were treated with CCA preservative. To elucidate the mechanism of fixation of the CCA, the wood surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). CCA treatment increased C1 (carbon bonded to carbon and/or hydrogen) and decreased C2 (carbon bonded to one oxygen) in XPS C1s spectra, both in unextracted and pre-extracted sections. This suggested oxidation of hydroxyl groups on cellulose and/or lignin by CCA occurred, followed by the decarboxylation of carbonyl and carboxyl groups. However, the large changes in the state of the carbon atoms recorded during CCA treatment of unectracted wood would appear to be due to migration of extractives to analyzed surfaces as well as to the oxidation of hydroxyl group in wood by CCA. Accelerating fixation produced more C1 than fixation at ambient temperatures. More increase of C1 was related to higher performance against leaching in the accelerating fixation. Surface concentrations of CCA elements determined by XPS was lower in the accelerating fixation than in the usual fixation, which could be one of the causes of lower water repellency on the surface of former section. CCA fixation resulted in a higher water repellent surface, especially in the presence of extractives.
J N R Ruddick, K Yamamoto, P C Wong, K A R Mitchell


Difference of CCA efficacy among coniferous wood species
1990 - IRG/WP 3601
Wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Tsuga heterophylla, and Pinus radiata successively extracted with n-hexane, ether, and methanol were treated with various concentrations of CCA type 3, which were subjected to the decay by Tyromyces palustris. The weight loss were different among species and kinds of extraction. Cryptomeria japonica treated with CCA had higher fungal resistance than Tsuga heterophylla and Pinus radiata. Pre-extraction did not contribute to improve the durability of CCA treated wood of all species. ESCA analysis indicated that the reduction of Cr(IV) to Cr(III) took place, and increase of C1 component (C-H or C-C bond) of C 1s spectra occurred during drying. Fixation of CCA was restricted in the shallow region of blocks in the case of 1.6% concentration. The CCA treatment increased the water repellency of all species, but there were not a wide difference among species. Leachability was high in the section specimens treated with CCA. But the amount of CCA leached was small and reached area was restricted near the surfaces in the block specimens. Amounts of nitrogen in wood surface influenced the decay resistance of wood. The fungal growth on ager-malt mediums containing extractives and CCA was smaller in methanol extractives than the others. The cause of species difference of CCA efficacy was not still explained well.
K Yamamoto, M Inoue


Water repellency of wood treated with alkylammonium compounds and chromated copper arsenate
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30231
The comparative water sorption properties of southern pine treated with CCA and several alkylammonium compounds was evaluated for freshly treated wood and for wood after exposure in a fungus cellar. It was found that CCA imparts considerable water repellency to wood which is reduced somewhat after exposure to wet soil. With the exception of a long chain (C20 -C22) compound, the alkylammonium compound treated wood exhibited an increased water sorption rate and also exhibited increased total swelling.
D D Nicholas, A Kabir, A D Williams, A F Preston


Interactions between water-borne preservatives and emulsion additives that influence the water repellency of wood
1991 - IRG/WP 2374
Incorporation of non-polar additives into water-borne treatments through of emulsion technology can greatly improve the physical characteristics of wood in service. Of specific interest with these emulsions is their effectiveness in reducing the rate of wood swelling. We have observed that the presence or absence of preservatives can often significantly influence the resultant effectiveness of the water repellents when measured in an immersion swelling test. This paper describes some preliminary results of experiments comparing the relative effectiveness of a water repellent additive when used in combination with CCA-C as well as the effect of preservative concentration on water repellency.
A R Zahora


Effect of a water repellent additive on the performance of ACQ treated decks
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40168
The performance of a water repellent (WR) additive formulated for use with ACQ has been evaluated. The water repellency of wood treated with this formulation was studied in laboratory and field tests. The change in moisture content of ACQ/WR treated boards under field exposure conditions is compared with that of CCA/WR treated boards. Although the water repellency of the ACQ/WR system is lower than that of the CCA/WR system in laboratory tests, the field performance of both systems are equal after more than two years of natural weathering. The use of water repellent additives is clearly one of the options for optimizing the overall performance of copper based preservative systems.
F Cui, A R Zahora


Influence of water-borne preservatives on water repellency and the impact of addition of water repellent additives
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3704
The primary goal of a desirable wood preservative system is to effectively control decay fungi and other biodeteriogens in service. The water repellent nature of a given system may play an important role in the protection of wood. In this study, the water repellency of several water-borne preservative systems has been evaluated by measurements of tangential swelling during immersion. The systems include cuprammonium formulations, such as ammoniacal copper carbonate (AC) and ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), ammoniacal copper quat systems (ACQ) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The influence of addition of water repellent emulsions into the above systems has also been examined.
L Jin, D M Roberts, A F Preston


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley


Marine testing of selected waterborne preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 4137
In 1978 a marine test was established at West Vancouver, B C. to determine the performance of selected waterborne preservatives. The preservatives in test were chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA-C), ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA), a modified formulation of ACA which contained a higher copper content (modified ACA), ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and ammoniacal zinc arsenate (AZA). The wood species used for the test was red pine. After eight years in test the CCA is providing excellent performance at all retentions, while the modified ACA is showing significant deterioration only at the lowest level. The ACA is performing quite well although it shows signs of surface deterioration at all retention levels. The performance of the ACZA is rated as unsatisfactory at retentions below 32 kg/m³ while AZA was considered to be unsuitable for use in the marine environment.
J N R Ruddick


Fungal and bacterial attack of CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from a water-cooling tower
1991 - IRG/WP 1488
Transmission electron microscopy of decaying CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from an industrial water cooling tower showed presence of a thick biofilm covering some areas of the wood. The biofilm contained various morphologically distinct forms of microorganisms embedded in a slime. The study provided evidence of the activity of soft rot fungi and tunnelling and erosion bacteria in wood cells. The extent of damage to wood cells due to microbial activity varied, combined fungal and bacterial attack having the most damaging impact.
A P Singh, M E Hedley, D R Page, C S Han, K Atisongkroh


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. 2nd Interim Report
1981 - IRG/WP 477
Three reference wood species - Alstonia scholaris, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris, untreated and treated with 3%, 6% and 10% CCA and CCB solutions were supplied to all participants for submergence at local sites. Regular examination of samples is being carried out - 6 months, 12 months and then annually for 7 years.
R A Eaton


A practical method to evaluate the dimensional stability of wood and wood products
1990 - IRG/WP 2342
This paper presents a new simple method to evaluate wood and wood products for their resistance to swelling and to assess wood preservatives for their ability to dimensionally stabilize treated wood exposed to water. Permeable wood of various dimensions and treated with different preserving chemicals have been measured for swelling in the radial and tangential direction during immersion in liquid water. The results indicate that a simple exponential function describing the dimension of the samples during immersion can be used to evaluate both the water-repellency and anti-swelling effectiveness of wood preserving chemicals. The results can be achieved in reasonable time, and the parameters of the function can be determined by a commercial desk-top computer program.
J P Hösli


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 13: Report of fourth inspection (36 months) in Australia
1981 - IRG/WP 481
This report presents the results of the fourth inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed in Sydney Harbour in December, 1977. The inspection took place on 9th December, 1980, after 36 months exposure. Full details of the treatment and installation of the specimens, as well as results of the first three inspections (after 6, 12, and 24 months exposure), have been presented in earlier reports. All inspections of this test have been carried out in accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) except for an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. In conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan, the fifth and sixth replicates of the whole test (i.e. those specimens with '5' or '6' as the final digit of their serial number) were recovered and returned to the United Kingdom after 6 months and 24 months of immersion. Thus, only four replicates remain to be examined at this and ensuing inspections.
J Beesley


Effect of water repellents on leaching from CCA treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50044
CCA treated fence boards brushed with a water repellent finish had consistently lower leaching losses of all CCA components compared to the rate for matched samples without the water repellent. These results are after 12 cycles of simulated rainfall in the laboratory (1800 mm rainfall total) and four months of natural rain exposure in Toronto.
P A Cooper, R MacVicar


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 10 from Naos Island, Panama
1980 - IRG/WP 462
Blocks of 3 wood species, Beech (Fagus sylvatica), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Alstonia (Alstonia scholaris) were exposed at site number 12 at Naos Island, Panama on March 8, 1978 by John R. DePalma. The arrangement of the panels in the exposure site is as shown in Figure 1.
D W French


Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated Scots pine exposed in sea water
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50149
A laboratory leaching trial combining a static and a flowing seawater system was carried out to measure the leaching rates of copper, chromium and arsenic from the surface of Scots pine panels vacuum-pressure treated to 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 kgm-3 CCA. Untreated and treated panels were exposed in flowing seawater for up to 8 weeks followed by 2 weeks submersion in static seawater which was taken for analysis. The study revealed a leaching hierarchy of Cu>Cr>As which supports the findings of other investigators. Over the 8 week leaching trial there was a time-related decrease in the rate of copper and chromium loss. Over the first week of leaching in flowing seawater, the rates of loss of copper and chromium decreased to between one-half and one-seventh, followed by lower rates of leaching over the remaining period of the investigation. In contrast, the rate of loss of arsenic from the wood appeared to increase slightly over the same period. The data are compared with minimal leaching rates of toxins from the surface of anti-fouling paints and are discussed in terms of the fouling communities which are established on Scots pine panels treated to similar target retentions.
C J Brown, R A Eaton


Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is due to differences in methodology employed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the seawater used (e.g. temperature, salinity, pH and oxygen content) affect emission rate. So too do the specifics of the treatment process especially the preservative formulation used, and pre- and post-treatment handling of the wood. The nature of the treated wood samples is also important, with misleadingly high estimates being obtained from samples with unrepresentatively high proportions of cross-cut surfaces. A suggested strategy for developing an informative and standardised methodology is discussed. To form useful models of impacts of leaching, emission rates need to be considered in conjunction with site-specific information regarding a) water exchange rates between the area where leaching occurs and the sea, and b) the extent of partitioning of leachate between the water column, biota and sediment. The risk of environmental impact may be reduced by modification to treatment procedures and by careful planning of installation.
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 8: Panama test results
1980 - IRG/WP 458
Summary of damage to ITRG test stakes by pholadidae and teredinidae at the Panama test site - 8 Mar. '78 to 11 Oct. '79
J R De Palma


Collaborative soft rot tests: Programme and test method
1973 - IRG/WP 229
J G Savory, J K Carey


Exterior weathering trials on radiata pine roofing shingles
1985 - IRG/WP 3240
A series of test roofs clad with radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) shingles that had been pressure-treated with various water-borne preservative formulations were installed at a Forest Research Institute test site in Rotorua in 1977. A further series of test roofs installed in 1978 included radiata pine shingles pressure-treated with a commercial light organic solvent preservative (LOSP). Evaluation of selected radiata pine shingle test roofs in early 1984 showed that, although preservative leaching had occurred from shingles treated with an alkyl ammonium compound (AAC), a copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservative, and an LOSP, the shingles appeared sound when examined microscopically. Slight lichen growth was evident on some shingles. In contrast, untreated radiata pine shingles displayed marked fungal infection, early stages of decay, and plentiful mould and lichen growth. Western red cedar (Thuja plicata D. Don) shingles, which were used as a reference point from which to judge radiata pine shingles, showed lichen and mould growth after seven years' exposure. Checking and cupping of western red cedar shingles were attributable in part to the inclusion of some flat-sawn material.
D V Plackett, C M Chittenden, A F Preston


The leaching of copper, chrome and arsenate from CCA-impregnated poles stored for ten years in running water
1978 - IRG/WP 3122
There is no evidence to indicate that the chromium and copper components are leached from the outermost 5 mm of sapwood in poles impregnated with Boliden K33 and Tanalith C and stored in running water for ten years. The arsenic component, however, seems to be leached out during the first few months to an extent of about 20% of the initial amount. The leaching time is dependent on the preservative used.
F G Evans


Some aspects of laboratory and field testing methods of antitermite wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 235
Various methods for laboratory testing of antitermite activity of wood preservatives are described. The results of simultaneous tests of three water-borne preservatives, according to the various methods are discussed, and comparison is made with results of field tests on the same three preservatives, showing a fairly good accordance between laboratory results and field results.
M Fougerousse


Environmental impact of CCA poles in service
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50087
Soil samples from different depths and distances from CCA treated utility poles in Canada were analyzed for copper, chromium and arsenic content for a number of soil types, two wood species red pine (Pinus resinosa) and jack pine (P. banksiana) and different pole ages in service. A limited number of poles were equipped with water traps to collect rain water that dripped down the poles and where sufficient ground water was present, ground water samples from next to the pole were analyzed. The level of soil contamination dropped rapidly with distance from the pole, with soil levels approaching background levels within 0.25 from the pole. Generally, copper levels (above background) were highest, followed by arsenic and chromium, consistent with the known relative leaching tendencies of the three elements. Contaminant levels increased with age of the pole in service and were generally highest in wet organic soils, followed by sand loam soils and clay soils. Soil concentrations were highest at the ground line, adjacent to the poles. This suggested that a large source of the soil contamination was contaminated rain water that ran down the pole. Rain water trapped from the pole surfaces during rain events had significant concentrations of all three elements. There was no obvious drop in contaminant content in water that dripped down the poles with age of the poles. Ground water samples from next to the poles occasionally had detectable CCA components above aquatic and drinking water guidelines.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, J-P Aucoin


Long-term performance of a "wax" type additive for use with water-borne pressure preservative treatments
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40159
Field performance results are updated for matched CCA treated decking boards with and without an emulsion water repellent additive incorporated with the initial pressure treatment. Decks have been exposured for over 9 years in Harrisburg, NC. Boards were evaluated for in-service and laboratory performance for water repellent efficacy, as well as additive loadings in the boards after this exposure. All results support that these additives can provide long-term protection against many of the physical defects that develop in pressure treated wood during exposure.
A R Zahora


Test procedure to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of different preservatives in sea-wate
1975 - IRG/WP 414
R A Eaton


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