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Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones ...
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen


Preservative-treated wood as a component in the recovered wood stream in Europe – A quantitative and qualitative review
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50218
Wood preservatives have been used for the protection of timber products in the European market in appreciable quantities for about 100 years. Between the 1960s up to the present day this usage has been particularly noticeable. The aim of this paper is to present quantitative and qualitative data on the volumes of preservative treated wood placed on the market in the UK and Sweden and to evaluate t...
R J Murphy, P Mc Quillan, J Jermer, R-D Peek


Disposal of treated wood - Canada
1990 - IRG/WP 3563
It is estimated that treated wood removed from service each year in Canada contains about 16,000 tonnes of creosote, 1000 tonnes of pentachlorophenol and 245 tonnes of CCA or ACA. The amount of CCA treated wood for disposal is expected to increase more than ten-fold by the year 2020. At present, most treated wood is disposed of in landfills, burned (creosote only) or recycled as other products. Ot...
P A Cooper


Restriction for use and waste management for pressure treated wood - The current situation in Norway
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50175
The Norwegian Environmental Authorities have this winter sent out a draft on restrictions in production and use of heavy metals in preservative treated timber. If it is passed, it will lead to drastic changes in the use of preservatives in Norway from this autumn. The environmental authorities and the preservative industry are both at present discussing waste management for CCA and creosote treate...
F G Evans


Experience with an industrial scale-up for the biological purification of CCA-treated wood waste
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50095
The biological purification of CCA-treated wood waste was tested in co-operation of the BFH and the Italian impregnation plant SoFoMe. Chipped poles were infested with the chromium and arsenic tolerant brown-rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii which can transform in the laboratory ca. 90% of the chromium and arsenic into watersoluble salts. These can be leached to 100-200 ppm residual metal content. Th...
H Leithoff, R-D Peek


Disposal of CCA treated waste wood by combustion - An industrial scale trial
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50068
Totally 272 m³ (62.7 t) of CCA treated utility poles were chipped and incinerated at Jalasjärvi Gasification Plant. In average the whole batch of chips contained 57 kg of elementary copper, 95 kg chromium and 76 kg arsenic. During the 56 h combustion trial the measured arsenic emission to the air was 76 g in total. Copper and chromium emission was less than 1 g. The condensing water from the coo...
A J Nurmi


Feasibility study for a dedicated pressure treated wood waste management system
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-22
For the creosote treated wood coming out of service, it has been estimated an amount of 200 000 t per year for the next twenty years, and 100 000 t per year afterwards. With a limited number of actors, mainly SNCF (as producer and as user), no importations, and available energy recovery options, it appears possible for setting a dedicated wood waste management system, if the SNCF agrees to. For t...
C Cornillier, I Buda, E Heisel, G Labat


Removal of CCA from Spent CCA-Treated Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50192
A novel method for the removal of CCA components from spent CCA-treated wood has been developed. The CCA-treated wood was first converted into liquid in the presence of polyethylene glycol and glycerin at mild temperatures (120 – 150 0C) by using sulfuric acid as catalyst. The resulting viscous liquefied wood was then resolved in acetone/water solvent. The hazardous components (i.e., Cr, As, and...
Lianzhen Lin, Chung-Yun Hse


Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50145
Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology Center and Biodeterioration res...
B Illman, V W Yang, L Ferge


Microbial decomposition of salt treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-22
Specialized microorganisms which are able to convert fixed inorganic preservatives from treated wood into water soluble components are investigated. A number of brown rot fungi like Antrodia vaillantii have been isolated from cases of damage and examined under unsterile conditions with CCA-, CCB-, CCF- and CC-treated wood at retention levels of at least 50% higher than recommended for wood in grou...
R-D Peek, I Stephan, H Leithoff


Biological detoxification of wood treated with salt preservatives
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3717
The use of microorganisms that are capable to convert chemically fixed inorganic preservative complexes from impregnated wood waste into watersoluble components is investigated. A number of fungi were isolated from deteriorated and initially well-treated wood. They revealed an exceptionally high production of organic acids (pH 2). The fungi were identified and used together with others of the same...
I Stephan, R-D Peek


Co-incineration of CCA-treated wood and Municipal Solid Waste in MSWI plant
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-19
The Norwegian Association of Energy Users and Suppliers (Norsk Energi) have carried out incineration tests with addition of 10 % by weight CCA-treated wood waste to municipal solid waste in a MSWI plant. The objective with the test was to determine emissions and composition of bottom ash. The incineration test was done at the Klemetsrud plant in Oslo The main conclusions are: -No significant inc...
D Borgnes, B Rikheim


Recycling CCA-treated poles with Charterm
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-17
After 10 years of Research and Development, the first “Chartherm” industrial unit is now operating since nearly half a year, thanks to Thermya SA, engineering company, current owner of all the “Chartherm” process Patents and Rights. In accord with the recycling contracts signed with several French major companies, the “Chartherm” plant, located near Bordeaux, recycles every day severa...
J-S Hery


Electrochemical removal of Cu, Cr and As from CCA-treated waste wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-18
CCA-treated waste wood poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. This paper presents the results obtained by electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood. It is found that more than 90% Cu, and approximately 85% Cr and As was removed from the wood during the remediation. Thereby the concentration of copper in the wood is reduced from app. ...
I V Kristensen, L M Ottosen, A B Ribeiro, A Villumsen


Technologies for the Management of Wood Waste Containing Metals-Based Preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-16
Disposal of the metals from preservative treated wood can occur through two general strategies: “removal and confinement” or “dilution”. The acceptability of each of these two choices is typically dictated through the disposal regulations of a particular region. A considerable amount of research has been conducted to develop new and innovative “removal and confinement” technologies...
H M Solo-Gabriele, T G Townsend


CCA-treated Wood Disposed in Landfills and Life-cycle Trade-Offs With Waste-to-Energy and MSW Landfill Disposal
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50231
CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world. Although some wood is combusted for the production of energy in the U.S., more often than not, CCA-treated wood is disposed in landfills. In other countries, wood, often including CCA-treated wood, is combusted for the production of energy. This paper is presented in two parts. Part I evaluates the impact of CCA-tre...
J Jambeck, K Weitz, T G Townsend, H M Solo-Gabriele


Effect of remediation on the release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from particleboard made from CCA treated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50170
This study sought to determine the effect of remediation with oxalic acid (OA) extraction and Bacillus licheniformis fermentation on the release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from particleboard made from remediated wood particles and also investigates durability of the particleboard against white and brown- rot fungi. Particleboard samples were manufactured using untreated, CCA-treated, OA-extr...
S N Kartal, C A Clausen


The results of detection on CCA components of the soils contacted with CCA-treated woods - A trial study for the availability of the burial Method as a disposal CCA treated wood waste
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50005
The objecteve of this experiment is to get a knowledge that, when CCA treated wood wastes were buried in a soil as a disposal, the soil would be or not be contaminated by the components of CCA preservatives in wood wastes. The specimens used were cutting logs and chips made of the CCA treated electric pole waste. The soil was buried to the 15 cm depth and the log specimens were set in the soil for...
K Suzuki, H Sonobe


Factors affecting sodium hypochlorite extraction of CCA preservative components from out of service treated wood for recycling
2009 - IRG/WP 09-50263
Significant amounts of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood products such as utility poles and residential constructions remain in service. There is an increasing public concern about environmental contamination from CCA treated wood when it is removed from service for reuse or recycling, placed in landfills or burned in commercial incinerators. In this paper, we investigate the effects of...
E D Gezer, P A Cooper


Biodegration of treated wood waste by native fungal communities of tropical soil in French Guiana
2012 - IRG/WP 12-50285
Woods have been protected with fungicides for a long time, and the effects of these fungicides on soil after being leached into the ground have turned out to be a true environmental issue. It is in this perspective that we are proposing to study fungal communities of these contaminated woods in a purpose of bioremediation. Most of precedent studies have focused on ability of some Basidiomycetes an...
A Zaremski, L Gastonguay, C Zaremski, F Chaffannel, J Beauchêne, G LeFloch


Possible regulatory status of treated wood waste and implications
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-07
In relation to the European Community or the French regulations, treated wood waste can get two different regulatory status: <<recycled product or fuel>> or <<waste>>. Then, into the waste status, two categories are possible for these residues: <<domestic waste and assimilated>> or <<hazardous waste>>. These different status and categories are import...
G Deroubaix


Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6....
J K Grace


Application of radio frequency heating to accelerate fixation of CCA in treated round-wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40133
The potential of radio frequency heating to accelerate the fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in treated round-wood was assessed. Pre-dried Douglas-fir and western red cedar round-wood sections were pressure treated with CCA in a pilot plant retort, after which they were placed individually in a pilot radio frequency (RF) chamber. Based upon the color reaction of chromotropic acid with he...
Fang Fang, J N R Ruddick


Effect of water repellents on leaching from CCA treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50044
CCA treated fence boards brushed with a water repellent finish had consistently lower leaching losses of all CCA components compared to the rate for matched samples without the water repellent. These results are after 12 cycles of simulated rainfall in the laboratory (1800 mm rainfall total) and four months of natural rain exposure in Toronto....
P A Cooper, R MacVicar


Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is d...
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton


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