IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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Estimation of the impregnation degree of pine wood by the distribution analysis of active ions concentration in the cross-section
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20174
Samples in the form of pine wood rollers of diversified moisture content of ca. 50, 28 and 12% were impregnated with a water solution of the mixture type CCB with the use of the full-cell process. Moisture content was determined in individual layers from the girth to the pith. In the same way the concentrations of copper and chromium ions with the use of the spectrophotometric method and recalculated to the total dry mass of the preservative. Simultaneously, there was performed biological test according to EN 113 for the investigated mixture and different concentrations: 0,1; 0,16; 0,25; 0,4; 0,63; 1,0; 1,6; 2,5. The obtained fungicidal value let to determine the depth of biological resistance of impregnated wood within the impregnated zone.
K Lutomski, B Mazela

Fixation of chromated wood preservatives through technical drying
1990 - IRG/WP 3623
Twin samples of sawn timber of Pinus sylvestris and Picea sp. were treated with copper-chromate-containing wood preservatives and subsequently kiln resp. air dried. After drying, the distribution of preservative and rate of fixation were determined. Drying of freshly treated wood in a condenser type kiln at temperatures of 60°C and 80°C and in a vacuum type kiln at 55°C with a pressure of about 200 hPa leads to an almost complete fixation of copper-chromate-containing wood preservatives after about 70 to 100 hours resp. 10 hours depending on the drying schedule applied. In the course of drying the amount of preservative increases on the wood surface. Chromium from treated wood was not found in the "condensate" of the condenser type kiln. Further experiments are ongoing with the vacuum type kiln for collection and analyses of "condensate".
R-D Peek, H Klipp

A comparison of soft rot, white rot and brown rot in CCA, CCP, CCF, CCB, TCMTB and benzalkonium chloride treated Pinus radiata IUFRO stakes, after 9-15 years exposure at five test sites in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1485
The aim of this study was to determine if decay type varies significantly between five field trial test sites of different soil type, aspect and climate in 9-15 year old, replicate CCA, CCF, CCP. CCB, TCMTB and AAC treated IUFRO stakes. A visual on-site assessment of decay type on every test stake was made and observations confirmed by microscopical examination. Regression analyses were used to determine significant differences of percentage frequency of occurrence of each rot type between sites and preservatives. Large differences in percentage frequency of occurrence of rot type were evident between sites. One site was dominated by brown rot (85%) and two were dominated by soft rot (99 and 91%). The fourth site had intermediate proportions of brown rot (40%) and soft rot (71%) but had the second highest occurrence of white rot (32%) (highest = 37%; lowest = 11%). The fifth site was distinct in that a large proportion of stakes (69%) had both well established brown rot and soft rot. Stakes at the other four sites tended to have only one rot type. Some highly significant preservative effects were also found. Possible causes of these differences are discussed in terms of inter-site soil type, climate and other differences.
R N Wakeling

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley

Manual of a mini treating plant for waterborne preservative treatment of timber and bamboo
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40130
This contributional article includes machinaries and equipments necessary for a small wood treating plant for the pressure treatment of tim bers with waterborne preservatives along with the cost and design. The preservative treatment limitations, treatment schedules and specifications for different products have been described. The cost of a mini treating plant will be 6,00,000 Tk. (13,000 US$), suitable for preserving timber and bamboo products for indoor and outdoor uses and will out last teak wood. The additional durability of timber and bamboo will create economically and environmentally safe conditions.
A K Lahiry

Performance of treated fence posts after 6 years in five test plots in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil
1976 - IRG/WP 376
Fence posts treated with creosote, pentachlorophenol and creosote/ pentachlorophenol mixtures showed good performance after 6 years of exposure in five test plots located in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Good results were also achieved with copper sulphate/sodium arsenate and copper sulphate/potassium dichromate mixtures. Fungi and termites were the main destroying agents found attacking the posts.
M S Cavalcante

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 13: Report of fourth inspection (36 months) in Australia
1981 - IRG/WP 481
This report presents the results of the fourth inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed in Sydney Harbour in December, 1977. The inspection took place on 9th December, 1980, after 36 months exposure. Full details of the treatment and installation of the specimens, as well as results of the first three inspections (after 6, 12, and 24 months exposure), have been presented in earlier reports. All inspections of this test have been carried out in accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) except for an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. In conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan, the fifth and sixth replicates of the whole test (i.e. those specimens with '5' or '6' as the final digit of their serial number) were recovered and returned to the United Kingdom after 6 months and 24 months of immersion. Thus, only four replicates remain to be examined at this and ensuing inspections.
J Beesley

Monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi. [Fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores]
1970 - IRG/WP I 5B
C Jacquiot

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. 2nd Interim Report
1981 - IRG/WP 477
Three reference wood species - Alstonia scholaris, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris, untreated and treated with 3%, 6% and 10% CCA and CCB solutions were supplied to all participants for submergence at local sites. Regular examination of samples is being carried out - 6 months, 12 months and then annually for 7 years.
R A Eaton

Non-pressure treatability of plywood by CCA, CCB and boron
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40295
Study on diffusibility and absorbability of CCA, CCB and boric acid in 3 mm thick 3-ply hardwood plywood at water saturated and air-dry conditions and dipped at same concentration (5%) and same duration of time (12 hours) revealed complete diffusion of all the preservatives at water saturated condition. Only the CCA-C was found absorbed by the plywood at air-dry condition. The rate of absorption and diffusion of CCA-C was found about 4.5 times higher than CCB and boric acid.
A K Lahiry

Modélisation sur maquette du rejet accidentel d'un gaz toxique et inflammable dans l'atmosphere - Emission de type "bouffée d'oxyde d'éthyléne [Water model simulation of toxic and flammable gases in the environment on industrial sites - Puff of ethylen oxide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3576
M Milhe

Depletion of boron and copper from CCB treated test specimens using different leaching protocols
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50208
The objective of this study was to measure the depletion of inorganic wood preservative components regarding the proposed OECD guideline "Estimation of emissions from preservative-treated wood to the environment: laboratory method for wooden commodities exposed in the use class 4 and 5" as part of the project "Investigations concerning the influence of test parameters on the release of biocidal actives from treated timber in leaching tests". Pine sapwood specimens (50x10x150) were pressure impregnated with CCB according to European Use Class 4. Before leaching all samples were stores 4 weeks for fixation. In addition leaching tests were performed according to the European Standard EN 84 by means of EN 113 blocks. Parallel investigations were carried out between two laboratories to assess the repeatability and comparability of the methods. The results of chemical analysis of leachates taken at different time intervals show that similar depletion rates were determined for copper and boron independent on the leaching protocol used. However, the loss of copper as well as chromium in short term dipping experiments was often lower than the detection limit. Furthermore it can be stated that the difference between parallels was higher for the results which were obtained for the OECD guideline that EN 84. A comparison of both laboratory results indicate that a quite good repeatability is given in case of the CCB treated material.
E Melcher, R-D Peek, U Schoknecht, R Wegner

Essais biologiques sur poteaux traités à la Wolmanit C.B. suivant le procédé Boucherie modifé
1974 - IRG/WP 336
D Lapetite, C Jacquiot, J Campredon

The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses. Part 2
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10001
J Bech-Andersen

CCA modifications and their effect on soft rot in hardwoods
1982 - IRG/WP 3201
Decay tests were carried out on wood samples treated with three waterborne compounds all identical in composition but applied in different forms. There were significant differences in the effectiveness of the treatments particularly as regards the control of soft rot.
S M Gray, D J Dickinson

Untersuchungen über die Imprägnierbarkeit verschiedener türkischer Holzarten mit wirtschaftlicher Bedeutung
1976 - IRG/WP 370
Holzarten mit einer geringen natürlichen Dauerhaftigkeit können nur dann wirtschaftlich verwendet werden, wenn ihre Gebrauchsdauer durch einen zusätzlichen chemischen Schutz verlängert wird. Holzschutzmaßnahmen können nur regelmäßig geplant werden, wenn die Tränkbarkeit der verwendeten Holzarten bekannt ist. Aufgabe dieser Versuche war es daher, festzustellen, wieweit die Holzarten hinreichend getränkt werden können. In Rahmen der zur Zeit in der Türkei laufenden Entwicklungsvorhaben entstand die Frage nach den tränk-technischen Eigenschaften türkischer Holzarten, um ihre Verwendungsmöglichkeiten besser beurteilen zu können.
R Ilhan

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 10 from Naos Island, Panama
1980 - IRG/WP 462
Blocks of 3 wood species, Beech (Fagus sylvatica), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Alstonia (Alstonia scholaris) were exposed at site number 12 at Naos Island, Panama on March 8, 1978 by John R. DePalma. The arrangement of the panels in the exposure site is as shown in Figure 1.
D W French

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 8: Panama test results
1980 - IRG/WP 458
Summary of damage to ITRG test stakes by pholadidae and teredinidae at the Panama test site - 8 Mar. '78 to 11 Oct. '79
J R De Palma

Penetration analysis of two common bamboo species - borak and jawa of Bangladesh
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40247
Preservative treatment of two bamboo species, namely borak (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) and jawa (Bambusa salarkhanii Alam) was carried out with chromated copper boron (CCB) preservative by dipping method. The variation in preservative penetration between the two different species was determined. It was found that preservative penetrates into borak quicker than into jawa and easier into air-dried bamboo than into green one.
M O Hannan, A K Lahiry, N M Islam

On site test for indicative determination of leaching of components of preservatives from treated timber. Part 2: New data on CCA-C, CC and CCB treated timber
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50025
The 'on site test' was published at the IRG meeting in Cannes in February 1993 (IRG/WP 93-50001/12). Since this publication many on site tests were performed parallel to so-called shower tests. The correlation between the test results of the on site tests and the shower test has been established more clearly. For chromium the correlation between both tests is indistinctive of preservative formulation. For copper the correlation differs for CCA on one side and CC's and CCB's on the other side. In some cases the on site test does not correcty predict shower test results. The reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. It can be concluded that the on site test is a roughly indicative test for assessing the leaching of components of preservatives from treated timber. The correlation figures, however, are formulation dependent.
W J Homan

Scientific development for prolonging the service life of timbers by impregnating with creosote or organic solvent type preservatives in which additive has been incorporated
1977 - IRG/WP 382
Chemically impregnated wood has played a prominent part in the Telephone and Electricity Distribution Industry during the past century and there is no doubt that it will play an equally prominent part in the future. The reasons why wood poles and wooden, structures predominate, are that when adequately chemically impregnated with a recognised timber preservative to ensure the expected service life for the purpose envisaged, the timber is then fully protected against the ravages of wood destructive organisms. Furthermore, wood is endowed with many natural characteristics that make it a favourite pole and structural material. Its high strength, light weight, ability to absorb impact or shock from loads suddenly applied and ability to resist overloading for brief periods plus its well-known insulating qualities - all are important basic reasons for its predominance in pole line structure. The use of chemically impregnated timber often makes it possible to carry out a given construction programme at less cost, or to erect more structures for a given sum of money, than when more expensive construction materials are employed.
P R B D De Bruin

Changes in the degree of decay of lignocellulosic substrate used in a screening test of fungicidal wood preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 287
This report contains results of investigations aimed at: a) determination of the effect of the kind of substrate and species of test fungus on quantitative changes in used samples prepared from spruce cardboard, and b) comparison of the threshold fungicidal values of come fungicides determined with accelerated method, with values obtained by block method. During performed investigations, the method described in Document No.: IRG/WP/262 was used. Assesment of decomposition degree was based on the loss of weight and amount of NaOH consumption by the substrate.
K Lutomski

Collaborative soft rot tests: Programme and test method
1973 - IRG/WP 229
J G Savory, J K Carey

Use of biossay to determine CCF and CCB preservative retentions in treated Pinus sylvestris
1984 - IRG/WP 2216
The retention of each a copper/chromium/boron and copper/chromium/fluoride preservative in pressure treated pinepoles was tested by bioassay using Aspergillus niger as test fungus. Small samples of 5 mm³ were taken from various depth of the poles and placed on potato-dextrose agar plates. The inhibition of fungal growth depends on the preservative retention in the cubes and corresponds closely to results obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
J C Moreschi, H Willeitner

Some aspects of laboratory and field testing methods of antitermite wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 235
Various methods for laboratory testing of antitermite activity of wood preservatives are described. The results of simultaneous tests of three water-borne preservatives, according to the various methods are discussed, and comparison is made with results of field tests on the same three preservatives, showing a fairly good accordance between laboratory results and field results.
M Fougerousse

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