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Immuno-electron microscopic localization of extracellular metabolites in spruce wood decayed by brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1990 - IRG/WP 1441
Degradation by Postia placenta in spruce and birch wood was shown to occur not only in the wood cell wall but also in the middle lamellae region. Middle lamellae was often found to be degraded along the centerline so that cells could separate along this line. Extracellular membrane structures were found surrounding the hyphae and this matrix labelled positively with antisera produced to Postia placenta extracellular metabolites. This matrix was also visible in the secondary wall of degraded birch wood. Antisera labelling was also noted in the secondary cell walls of the wood cells, but not in the middle lamellae region.
Y S Kim, B Goodell, J Jellison

Immunolocalization of extracellular metabolites from Poria placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1361
Polyclonal antisera produced to Poria placenta extracellular metabolites was used in immuno-fluoresence microscopy and immuno-gold TEM studies. In the fluorescence work, labelling of Poria placenta hyphae in wet fixed wood material was observed but not in infected wood which was oven dried prior to sectioning and immunolabelling. TEM studies provided better resolution, with gold labelling detected in the extracellular slime layer surrounding hyphae. Labelling occurred within the wood cell wall, but little non-specific labelling was noted within the cytoplasm of the fungal hyphae. A vesicle-like body within the hyphae did exhibit specific labelling.
B Goodell, G F Daniel, J Jellison, T Nilsson

Comparison of cubic and plug samples for preparation and data assembly in permeability study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20197
In order to determine if plug experimental samples (PES: 30 x 15 mm2 diameter) could be used for inspection of wood permeability characteristics, radial and longitudinal flow directions were prepared according to either PES or cubic experimental samples (CES: 100 x 20 x 20 mm3) from the sapwood zone of Sitka spruce and treated by tanalith-C according to full-cell process. Results from the two preparation techniques agreed in the test to determine the mean percentage of void volume filled by liquid both radially and longitudinally, while the preparation process (i.e. machining, sealing, etc.) of the experimental samples and the period of the data collection was quite longer in CES than that for PES in either flow direction.
I Usta

Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observed followed after 40 days exposure by extensive separation of individual fibres at the interface of the middle lamella and secondary wall. Degradation of the S2 layer of the cell wall revealed corrugations orientated parallel to the fibre axis suggesting preferential removal of cell wall components. Further degradation proceeded by progressive delamination and checking of the S2 and erosion of the S3 cell wall layer. In addition to the above changes preferential degradation of the rays was observed in radial (R.L.S.) and tangential (T.L.S.) longitudinal surfaces.
P D Evans, S Thein

Resistance of Alstonia scholaris vestures to degradation by tunnelling bacteria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1547
Electron microscopic examination of vessels and fibre-tracheids in the wood of Alstonia scholaris exposed to tunnelling bacteria (TB) in a liquid culture showed degradation of all areas of the secondary wall. The highly lignified middle lamella was also degraded in advanced stages of TB attack. However, vestured pit membranes and vestures appeared to be resistant to degradation by TB even when other wall areas in Alstonia scholaris wood cells were severely degraded. The size comparison indicated vestures to be considerably smaller than TB, and we suspect that this may primarily be the reason why vestures in Alstonia scholaris wood were found to be resistant to degradation by TB.
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel

Cytochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide in brown rot fungus Tyromyces palustris by cerium chloride technique
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10299
Cerium chloride (CeCl3) was used to localize H2O2 cytochemically for studying relationship between ultrastructural and functional characteristics of cellulose degradation by brown rot fungi. This technique proved very useful in localizing discrete electron-densereactionproducts at high resolution with minimal nonspecific deposition. The cytochemical localization of extracellular H2O2 by CeCl3 using TEM demonstrated the presence of H2O2 within the fungal hyphae. Furthermore, our results give an indication of the diffusion of extarcellular H2O2 from brown-rot decay fungi into the intact wood cell walls in the early stages of decay.
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi

Analysing the characteristic role of moisture content for drying and fluid flow in Sitka spruce. - Part 1: The drying process of sapwood and heartwood of two different thickness of Sitka spruce using a kiln. - Part 2: Effects of moisture content on longitudinal permeability of Sitka spruce in vertical variation of the tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40173
The characteristic role of the moisture content in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) that grown in the United Kingdom was examined by this study on the basis of (1) the reduction of moisture content in two different thickness of sapwood and heartwood by kiln drying process, and (2) the effects of moisture content to the longitudinal void volume filled of tanalith-C by the full-cell process from base (1 m) to apex (3 m) of the tree in sapwood zone. Accordingly, conclusions on indication of the drying process of sapwood and heartwood, and vertical variation of longitudinal flow with effects of moisture were listed separately: (1) Comparison of Drying Characteristic of Sapwood and Heartwood: The two different thickness (300x30x30 mm3 and 300x20x20 mm3) of sapwood and heartwood of Sitka spruce was dried using the suggested drying schedule in kiln. The reduction of moisture was schematically diagrammed according to sapwood and heartwood stakes. The reduction of moisture followed the same downward trend that sapwood (S) loses more moisture than heartwood (H) although the small stakes of S and H lost moisture rapidly compared with the large ones. (2) Vertical Variation of Moisture Content and Longitudinal Permeability: The 90 kiln dried defect free sapwood stakes (150x25x25 mm3) of Sitka spruce was taken from base to apex of the trees at 1, 2 and 3 m above ground level. After having the determination of moisture content in each experimental stake, the treatment was carried out by the full-cell process with CCA preservative (Tanalith-C) using a model pressure treatment plant. Significant differences observed among the tree heights from 1 to 3 m showing that slightly increases of moisture content from base to apex and conversely decreases of longitudinal void volume filled by preservative fluid.
I Usta

An effective preservative treatment of borak bamboo (Bambusa balcoona Roxb.)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40070
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB has been obtained in predried Borak Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), aboundantly grown in Bangladesh, with Full Cell Pressure Process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials, the sufficient treatability ensured its long term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. Which will keep the environmental & socio economical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A Matin Sheikh, M A B Fakir, M I Hossain

Localization of oxalate decarboxylase in the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10161
Oxalate decarboxylase, the enzyme that breaks oxalic acid down into formic acid and carbon dioxide, was recently detected in mycelial extracts of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta. Differential centrifugation was used to demonstrate that the enzyme is loosely associated with the hyphal surface. Enzyme activity can be removed by washing the hyphae with a low pH buffer. Only low levels of activity were detected in soluble and membrane-bound intracellular fractions. The presence of the enzyme on the hyphal surface and possibly in the hyphal sheath supports the hypothesis that this brown-rot fungus actively regulates the pH and oxalic acid concentration of its environment.
J A Micales

Water-based water repellents for treatment of wood
1987 - IRG/WP 3446
The water uptake by wood can be reduced by treatment with a water repellent. The water repellents most commonly used are solvent based. In the present work a new type of water repellent that is water-based has been investigated. Two different treatments have shown an effect of the same order as a commercial solvent based product. The cellular distribution of the water repellents has been investigated and for one of the formulations a more uniform distribution can be seen at the impregnated surface. Use of water as a solvent would be advantageous due to lower cost and non-toxicity.
I G Svensson, G Hägglund, I Johansson, W B Banks

The effects of density on vertical variation of permeability of Sitka spruce within tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40156
Tree improvement of Sitka spruce is a combination of silviculture and tree breeding aimed at producing higher quality products including increased growth rate and timber yield, and wood density. It is useful to know annual ring structure and density distribution when studying the quality of wood, grading it, or determining how the wood structure affects residual flow in softwoods. Since density is a factor under genetic control, the study in this article details the effects of density on longitudinal and radial permeability of Sitka spruce from base to apex. Comparison of overall means of both longitudinal and radial void volume filled (%) suggest that longitudinal permeabilities were almost the mirror image of those for the radial permeability along the tree trunk.
I Usta.

Degradation of the normal fibre walls of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) by the tropical blue-stain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10286
Rubberwood was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to the common tropical sapstain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae for four weeks to study hyphal colonisation of wood cells and to determine if this fungus also degraded lignified normal fibre cell walls in addition to the walls of non-lignified elements. Light microscopy revealed relatively large diameter hyphae to be abundantly present in parenchyma cells. The hyphae were also present in other types of wood cells, including fibres. TEM provided evidence of fibre wall degradation in the normal rubberwood in the form of lumen wall erosion (type-2 soft rot decay). These observations suggest that the ability of B. theobromae to degrade lignified wood cells walls should be viewed with concern when utilising rubberwood which has been severely sapstained, particularly after prolonged exposure to this fungus.
A A H Wong, A P Singh

TBTO absorption and penetration in pine joinery treated by various processes
1989 - IRG/WP 3523
Matched sections of several White pine (Pinus strobus) and Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) mouldings were treated with TBTO by Double vacuum, modified empty-cell, 15 second dip and several preheating treatments followed by a 15 s dip treatments. As expected the double vacuum and empty-cell (batch) treatments resulted in much greater retentions and penetrations than the dip treatments. The absorptions by the 15 s dip treatments could be improved significantly by preheating the wood to 60-90C° by microwave, radio-frequency or infra-red techniques. Since this approach is amenable to a continuous treatment process, it is being evaluated for potential commercial application.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung

Ultrastructural observations on wood-degrading erosion bacteria
1986 - IRG/WP 1283
G F Daniel, T Nilsson

A behaviour of CCA penetration of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40346
A behaviour of CCA penetration of Bornmulleriana fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications was illustrated for the main flow directions by the experimental pictures.
I Usta, R Despot, M Hasan

Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on an archaeological wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10007
Transmission electron microscopy of wood from a Chinese ship submerged in the mud for over 900 years showed bacteria to be the main factor for its deterioration. The micromorphology of degraded wood cell walls was similar to that observed during the attacks of wood by erosion bacteria. Other bacterial forms, previously considered lo be scavenging bacteria, were also abundant in degraded areas of the wall. The observations on the breakdown of the waterlogged archaeological wood are discussed in context with the available information on bacterial degradation of wood under near-anaerobic conditions.
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh

The Relationship of Fiber Cell Wall Ultrastructure to Soft Rot Decay in Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) Heartwoo
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10541
The ultrastructure of fiber walls in kempas (koompassia malaccensis) heartwood was examined in relation to soft rot cavity formation. The fibers consisted of middle lamella and thick secondary wall. The secondary wall was differentiated in to a S1 layer, and a unique multi-lamellar S2 layer. Two distinct forms of lamellae were recognisable, one type being considerably thicker than the other. They also differed in their electron density, the thin lamellae being much denser than the thick lamellae. It was not possible to determine whether a S3 layer also existed, because of the presence of a dense material coating the lumen wall, which obscured the definition of this region of the fiber wall. The resistance to soft rot varied with different regions of the fiber wall, middle lamella being completely resistant and the thick S2 lamellae least resistant. The observed relationship between the ultrastructure of these fiber wall regions and the degree of their resistance/susceptibility to soft rot cavity formation is discussed.
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi

Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated slash pine heartwood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50020
Drying green slash pine with any of three high temperature drying schedules produced a product in which both the sapwood and the heartwood could be penetrated with CCA using a modified Bethell treatment schedule. Required H3 retentions were achieved in both sapwood and heartwood, from 200 litres per m³ charge uptake. Post-treatment fixation/drying was accomplished by three different regimes, including an accelerated fixation. Although acceptable preservative penetration and retention was achieved in the heartwood, arsenic fixation (as determined by both AWPA procedure E11-87 and U.S. EPA TCLP procedure) was inferior to that attained in the sapwood. TCLP leachates from 1 cm³ heartwood blocks contained up to 4.5 mg/l arsenic, very close to the maximum value (5.0 mg/l) currently permitted in Australia for arsenic waste disposal. Though there are clear advantages in achieving heartwood penetration, caution must be exercised to ensure that this step does not compromise the accepability of the product. No process modification could be accepted if it introduced possibilities of exceeding safe disposal limits for sawdust and offcuts, or building site contamination.
M J Kennedy, G Palmer

Estimation of effective diffusion path lengths in wood by swelling studies
1989 - IRG/WP 3524
The effective average distance that a solute must diffuse to penetrate the cell wall matrix following pressure treatment is estimated from the rate of swelling of wood, vacuum treated with water. It is assumed that the diffusion paths are similar for water and a solute such as a wood preservative component. Since bound water diffusion coefficients for water in wood have been estimated by others, the effective path lengths (Le) can be estimated. Effective average path lengths are estimated for red pine (Pinus resinosa), Southern yellow pine (Pinus sp), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and soft maple (Acer rubra) sapwood and red oak (Quercus rubra) heartwood samples. The estimated path lengths are shortest for the softwoods, and longest for the ring porous oak. The results reflect the different patterns of cell penetration and different densities of the wood species.
P A Cooper, R Churma

The attack of naturally durable and creosote treated timbers by Limnoria tripunctata Menzies
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10132
Limnoria tripunctata was found tunnelling in creosote treated Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) pilings and naturally durable greenheart (Ocotea rodiaei) gate seals at two sites on the south coast of the United Kingdom. Examination of thc creosote-treated wood showed that Limnoria tunnels were concentrated at a depth of 2-3 cm from the timber surface, where creosote loading was lower. Fewer tunnels occured in the heavily creosoted outer zone. Sections through Limnoria tunnels in wood fixed on site were examined using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). These studies showed that S2 layers of wood cell walls adjacent to Limnoria tunnels were decayed by tunnelling bacteria in many cases. Examination of greenheart seals showed that Limnoria tunnelled to a depth of 1.5 cm, in the soft-rot decay zone. The heads of the Limnoria tunnels also penetrated "sound" wood to a depth of 2 cm. Examination of sections through Limnoria tunnels showed that wood cells adjacent to tunnels were decayed by both soft-rot fungi and tunnelling bacteria. In addition, a range of prokaryotes and protoctists were attached to tunnel walls in this instance. The size of bitemarks along the tunnel walls suggested Limnoria would ingest a range of these micro-organisms along with the wood substrate. Gut contents of Limnoria fixed at both sites were screened for microorganisms using the SEM. This study failed to show micro-organisms on the surface of wood particles during gut transit, which suggested that ingested microbes were digested by Limnoria.
A J Pitman, G S Sawyer, G F Daniel

Role of cell wall structure in soft rot decay of bamboo
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10133
Models of soft rot hyphal penetration of bamboo cell walls are proposed. Soft rot hyphae show an interesting capability of penetrating the bamboo cell wall in different forms; typical longitudinal penetrating hyphae and tangentially orientated penetrating hyphae. The second form of penetration was found to be different from that normally associated with wood cell walls. The differences can be attributed to the cell wall structure of bamboo. Soft rot hyphae normally follow the microfibrillar orientation in either the broad lamellae or the narrow lamellae in bamboo cell walls. Hyphae that grow in the broad lamellae normally penetrate in the longitudinal direction and follow the orientation of the microfibrils of this layer of the cell wall. This produces a 'typical' longitudinal penetrating hyphae and cavity. Soft rot hyphae are also found penetrating in the tangential direction. These arise from radially orientated hyphae trying to penetrate across the lamellated cell wall neighbouring cells. When a radially orientated hyphae encounters the narrow lamellae, the hyphae can reorientate in the direction of the microfibrils in this lamellae. Thus, the hyphae penetrate in a tangential direction in the cell wall. These types of penetrations are not seen in wood cell walls.
O Sulaiman, R J Murphy

Ultrastructure of degraded, CCA-treated Pinus radiata wood from a marine pile
1990 - IRG/WP 1461
During an inspection of marine piles, 12 years after installation, severe degradation was noted on one of them in the vicinity of a corroded eye-bolt. The wood was dark brown in colour and tended to crumble easily. Wood fragments were examined by light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were also analysed for carbohydrates and lignin. Light microscopy showed numerous cracks in tracheid walls resulting in delamination at middle lamella - S1 and S1 - S2 junctures and also in fractures across the tracheid wall. Chemical analysis showed extensive losses in hemicelluloses and also losses in cellulose. Observations with polarised light microscopy supported the data from chemical analysis on cellulose degradation. Although presence of microbial flora in the lumen of wood cells was revealed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy showed only occasional soft rot decay zones in the S2 layer. We suggest that the degradation of Pinus radiata wood cell wall is primarily due to chemical attack, fungal decay playing a minor role.
A P Singh, M E Hedley

Degradation of the gelatinous-layer in aspen and rubber wood by the blue stain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10168
Studies on the degradative ability of the blue stain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pat. have shown several strains to cause significant weight losses (i.e. ca 20%) in the temperate and tropical wood species, aspen (Populus tremula) and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis). In addition to the consumption of soluble carbohydrates and extractives, major changes in the ultrastructure of fibre cell walls was apparent with rapid attack of the gelatinous layer noted. In both wood species following G layer degradation, early wood fibres showed true cell wall degradation with pronounced erosion attack suggesting that prior destruction of the G layer afforded greater accessibility and ease of attack of the outer secondary cell layers.
O Encinas, G F Daniel

EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) - a technique for quantification of nitrogen and other light elements in the cell wall
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20163
A literature survey was performed to find progress in techniques for monitoring penetration of synthetic resins in wood cell walls. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was successfully applied for the high resolution examination of the distribution of a partly methylated hydroxymethyl melamine resin in Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) earlywood cell walls. The nitrogen of the resin was found as clearly detectable signals in all layers of the lignified cell wall, thus allowing the quantification of resin which had penetrated into the different layers.
A O Rapp, H Bestgen, W Adam, R-D Peek

Preservation of two Indonesian timber species for marine environment purposes
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10079
This paper deal with the experiment of CCA full cell processed two non-durable Indonesian species for placed in the marine environment. 80 samples of 5 x 5 x 60 cm³ dried durian (Durio zibethinus) and mahogany (Swietenia mahagony) timber were CCA-full cell processed using 4 combination treatment of: without steaming; one hour steaming; 3% and 5% CCA solution concentration. 40 samples of them were field tested in the sea water in Rambut island beach near by Jakarta. The results shows that mahogany very difficult to treat and not recommended to be placed in marine environment, while CCA retention in durian timber could reach 29.91 kg/m³ and meet the requirement of retention for timber to be placed in marine environment. After two month field test in sea water full cell processed drian with 5% CCA solutin concentration could prevent marine borers attack.
P Permadi, I M Padlinurjaji, F Rasmita

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