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Your search resulted in 276 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.


Diffusion and interaction of components of water-borne preservatives in the wood cell wall
1988 - IRG/WP 3474
This study investigates the rates of diffusion and ultimate distributions of copper and arsenate components of wood preservatives in wood cell walls following vacuum treatment. Adsorption studies of copper on red pine (Pinus resinosa) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood confirm the importance of cation exchange reactions on the ultimate distribution of copper in the wood substance and i...
P A Cooper


Analysing the characteristic role of moisture content for drying and fluid flow in Sitka spruce. - Part 1: The drying process of sapwood and heartwood of two different thickness of Sitka spruce using a kiln. - Part 2: Effects of moisture content on longitudinal permeability of Sitka spruce in vertical variation of the tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40173
The characteristic role of the moisture content in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) that grown in the United Kingdom was examined by this study on the basis of (1) the reduction of moisture content in two different thickness of sapwood and heartwood by kiln drying process, and (2) the effects of moisture content to the longitudinal void volume filled of tanalith-C by the full-cell pro...
I Usta


The effects of density on vertical variation of permeability of Sitka spruce within tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40156
Tree improvement of Sitka spruce is a combination of silviculture and tree breeding aimed at producing higher quality products including increased growth rate and timber yield, and wood density. It is useful to know annual ring structure and density distribution when studying the quality of wood, grading it, or determining how the wood structure affects residual flow in softwoods. Since density is...
I Usta.


Exclusion of anions from the wood cell wall
1991 - IRG/WP 3661
Anionic components of wood preservatives and fire retardants such, as arsenates and phosphates, equilibrate at much lower concentrations in the cell wall bound water than in the free solution in the cell lumens. A degree of anion exclusion is expected in wood, due to the Donnan membrane effect. Fixed anions in the wood cell wall, produced by pH-dependent dissociation of the weak acid groups in woo...
P A Cooper


Effects of concentration and temperature of CCA and CCB on wood strength of Turkish fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40450
The purpose of this study was to present evidence for the effects of concentration and temperature of solutions of water-borne preservatives (chromated copper arsenate, CCA and chromated copper boron, CCB) on the static bending properties (modulus of elasticity, MOE and modulus of rupture, MOR) of Turkish fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.). Wood samples were mechanically tested after a mild full ce...
I Usta, M Hale


Effects of nano-wollastonite impregnation on fire resistance and dimensional stability of Poplar wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40595
The fire-retardant properties of Nano-Wollastonite (NW) in poplar wood (Populus nigra) were determined in this study. Some physical properties such as water absorption, volumetric swelling and Anti-Swelling Efficiency (ASE) were also measured. Specimens were prepared according to the ISO 11925 standard for the fire-retarding properties, and ASTM D4446-2002 standard for the physical properties. Imp...
A Karimi, A Haghighi Poshtir, H Reza Taghiyari, Y Hamzeh, A Akbar Enayati


Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examinati...
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph


A discussion on causes, effects and remedies of arsenic pollution of groundwater in Bangladesh
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50102
This paper includes possible causes, effects and remedies of arsenic pollution of groundwater in Bangladesh, extracted mostly from the international conference held in Dhaka in 1998. Next possible key steps have been suggested based on scientific principles and experience. The release of arsenic from underground sediment would be due to excessive mechanical forces, geochemical and geobiological re...
A K Lahiry


Comparison of cubic and plug samples for preparation and data assembly in permeability study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20197
In order to determine if plug experimental samples (PES: 30 x 15 mm2 diameter) could be used for inspection of wood permeability characteristics, radial and longitudinal flow directions were prepared according to either PES or cubic experimental samples (CES: 100 x 20 x 20 mm3) from the sapwood zone of Sitka spruce and treated by tanalith-C according to full-cell process. Results from the two prep...
I Usta


Effects of acetylation on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiberboard
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40059
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated kenaf fiber, Phenol formaldehyde resin content level, and three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of high density non wood composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species were also ...
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Rowell


Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observ...
P D Evans, S Thein


An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative....
C R Coggins


Antagonistic effects of a range of fungi to Serpula lacrymans
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10156
Certain fungi have been demonstrated to exhibit antagonism towards Serpula lacrymans in culture. Species from the genera Trichoderma, Gliocladium, Penicillium and Hypomyces were among those exhibiting the strongest antagonism. Certain species showed antagonism in a range of media of varying nutritional status. The possible role of antagonistic fungi as biocontrol agents for Serpula lacrymans is di...
P Rattray, G McGill, D D Clarke


Leaching of components from water-borne paints and fungitoxic effects
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20062
Water-borne model paints, acrylics and alkyd emulsion paints, of known composition were leached according to a procedure modified in accordance with ASTM 6271.1. The effectiveness of fungicidal compounds in the painted specimens before and after leaching was evaluated with a biotest in which Penicillium brevicompactum was used as a test fungus. The leaching of the fungicide Troysan Polyphase accor...
J Bjurman


Resistance of Alstonia scholaris vestures to degradation by tunnelling bacteria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1547
Electron microscopic examination of vessels and fibre-tracheids in the wood of Alstonia scholaris exposed to tunnelling bacteria (TB) in a liquid culture showed degradation of all areas of the secondary wall. The highly lignified middle lamella was also degraded in advanced stages of TB attack. However, vestured pit membranes and vestures appeared to be resistant to degradation by TB even when oth...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


The evaluation of synergistic effects of chemicals on fungicidal efficacy in crossed-paper tests
1991 - IRG/WP 2383
The mixing effects of wood preservatives were evaluated using the crossed-paper technique. Two filter paper strips (0.7 x 8 cm²) were treated by soaking with different chemicals [fungicides, a termiticide (chlorpyrifos or phoxim), a surface-active agent, a synergistic agent, and a stabilizer], and placed at right angles to each other on a fully grown mycelial mat of a test fungus in a Petri dish....
Dong-heub Lee, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi


Effects of various preservative treatments on the mechanical and physical properties of plywood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40007
The technical properties of plywood are related to both the intrinsic characteristics of its composing wood species and the quality and performance of the glue bond which acts as an interface between veneer sheets. Consequently mechanical and physical testing and glue bond strength analysis offer an appropriate means for studying the effect of preservative treatments on the overall quality of plyw...
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Effectiveness and synergistic effects between copper and polymer betaine
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30097
Different formulations of "Copper Amine" and Polymer Betaine were studied. During laboratory tests a synergism between both active ingredients against soft rot and dry rot has been found. The efficacy against soft rot according to the "BAM method" and the European Standard ENV 807 depends only on the amount of copper. Long term tests in a fungus cellar for determining the relative protective effec...
H Härtner, V Barth


An effective preservative treatment of borak bamboo (Bambusa balcoona Roxb.)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40070
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB has been obtained in predried Borak Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), aboundantly grown in Bangladesh, with Full Cell Pressure Process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials, the sufficient treatability ensured its long term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. Which will keep the environmental & socio economical conditi...
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A Matin Sheikh, M A B Fakir, M I Hossain


Influence of storage on mould susceptibility of wood at relative humidity values lower than 100%
1989 - IRG/WP 1413
It is well known that wood material changes with time because of different environmental influences. The effects of such changes on the subsequent mould susceptibility are less known. In this paper we report on increased mould susceptibility of pine wood after storage. Mould growth was detected by indirect methods....
J Bjurman


Effects in vivo of various tensides (surface-active agents) on Reticulitermes santonensis De Feyteaud
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10417
The results of studies of surface active agents (tensides, surfactants) on the feeding behavior and mortality of Reticulitermes santonensis De Feyteaud are described. The effects of these agents on the nature and relative populations of eight gut-inhabiting symbionts are also examined. Among the various tensides tested, bee's poison was the most effective in causing rapid termite death. A...
W Unger


Effects of a chitin synthesis inhibitor on spore germination of the decay fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria tenuis
1986 - IRG/WP 2253
This study sought to determine the effect of a chitin synthesis inhibitor - Polyoxin D, on spore germination and early hyphal development of a brown rot and a white rot fungus in-vitro. Polyoxin D is a competitive, substrate-analogue type of chitin synthtase inhibitor (2). The drawbacks to use of such a compound as a wood preservative tie. cost - $20,000/g, possible leaching or degradation) might ...
E L Schmidt


Synergistic effects between 2-HPNO, Irganox 1076 and EDTA on the inhibition of wood degradation by Coriolus versicolor
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30331
The efficiency of 2-hydroxypyridine-N-oxide (2-HPNO) as wood preservative has been investigated. As shown using classical experiments as well as using response surface methodology, the efficiency of 2-HPNO as wood preservative is strongly improved in presence a chelator like EDTA and/or of Irganox 1076 an industrial antioxidant. In these conditions, wood preservative efficiency of the mixture the ...
A Mabicka, S Dumarçay, N Rouhier, M Linder, J P Jacquot, P Gérardin, E Gelhaye


Preventive action against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on the effects of natural and artificial infection of wood by Basidiomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 2160
M Fougerousse


Ultrastructural observations on wood-degrading erosion bacteria
1986 - IRG/WP 1283
G F Daniel, T Nilsson


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