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Preservative effect of cellulose insulation material against some mould fungi and brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana in pine sapwood
1991 - IRG/WP 1484
The influence of mineral wool and loose-fill cellulose wool on biodeterioration of pine sapwood was studied. The test fungi were mould fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium sp. and Aureobasidium pullullans and brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana. Cellulose wool inhibited the growth of mould fungi on the face of wood contacted with insulation material at RH of 97 and 100%. During 6 months' incubation boron compounds added in cellulose wool diffused into the wood. No growth of brown rot fungus was detected in "treated wood". Mineral wool had no preventive effect on the growth of mould fungi and brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana.
H Viitanen


Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observed followed after 40 days exposure by extensive separation of individual fibres at the interface of the middle lamella and secondary wall. Degradation of the S2 layer of the cell wall revealed corrugations orientated parallel to the fibre axis suggesting preferential removal of cell wall components. Further degradation proceeded by progressive delamination and checking of the S2 and erosion of the S3 cell wall layer. In addition to the above changes preferential degradation of the rays was observed in radial (R.L.S.) and tangential (T.L.S.) longitudinal surfaces.
P D Evans, S Thein


Leaching of components from water-borne paints and fungitoxic effects
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20062
Water-borne model paints, acrylics and alkyd emulsion paints, of known composition were leached according to a procedure modified in accordance with ASTM 6271.1. The effectiveness of fungicidal compounds in the painted specimens before and after leaching was evaluated with a biotest in which Penicillium brevicompactum was used as a test fungus. The leaching of the fungicide Troysan Polyphase according to the biotest varied to a high extent depending on differences in paint composition. Fungicide efficiency in relation to paint formulation and fungicide mobility in a paint film is briefly discussed.
J Bjurman


Response of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus) to Cellulose Insulation Treated with Boric Acid in Choice and No-Choice Tests.
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10532
The tunneling ability of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki through a cellulose insulation material containing11.1% boric acid was tested in choice and no-choice bioassays. We examined tunneling behavior and mortality of termites exposed to treated and untreated insulation material in miniature simulated wall voids. In a choice test termites tunneled through untreated insulation in all but one of the replicates used. Termites were unable to fully penetrate any of the replicates containing treated insulation and experienced a significantly higher mortality (78.4 ± 18.4%) than termites exposed to untreated insulation (11.6 ± 5.6%, F = 60.4, df = 1, P < 0.0001). In a no- choice test termites fully penetrated all replicates containing untreated insulation and experienced 37.1 ± 37.2% mortality. Termites exposed to treated insulation in this test experienced a significantly higher mortality of 100.0% (F = 14.3, df = 1, P < 0.005), and did not fully penetrate the treated insulation.
M E Mankowski, J K Grace


The influence of crystalline and amorphous cellulose on extracellular hydrogen peroxide production by brown-rot fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1482
The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been suggested to play a key role in the degradation of wood by wood-rotting fungi. The production of extracellular hydrogen peroxide was studied by a quantitative method which detects the oxidation of the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) by H2O2 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in liquid culture medium. The carbon sources used were crystalline and amorphous cellulose. Two brown-rotters, Serpula lacrymans and Poria placenta, were able to produce clearly detectable amounts of extracellular hydrogen peroxide in liquid medium which contained crystalline cellulose as carbon source. No detectable H2O2 was produced in conditions where amorphous medium was used as carbon source. This result suggests that the conformational structure of the substrate may induce H2O2 production by brown-rot fungi.
A-C Ritschkoff, L Viikari


Iron promotes decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10008
The influence of iron and iron compounds on the decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans was studied. Mass losses of pine wood caused by dry rot fungus were increased when FeSO4 was added into the culture medium or when there were iron nails or stone wool on the culture medium. This supports the hypothesis that iron in stone-based building materials is one reason for the increased decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans.
L Paajanen


A discussion of current theories concerning CCA fixation
1983 - IRG/WP 3238
The understanding of the fixation mechanism of CCA and related preservatives in wood has been greatly improved by a significant series of recent scientific papers. In view of recent concerns in New Zealand regarding the long-term efficacy of CCA in high decay-hazard situations, it was considered appropriate to review this recent work and to contrast it with theories presented by previous workers.
D V Plackett


A summary of tests and practical experiences with the Pilodyn wood testing instrument
1980 - IRG/WP 282
This paper presents a summary of the reports, tests and practical experiences with the Pilodyn wood tester not only, however, concerning poles but also in other fields such as standing trees, sawn timber etc. The principle of the Pilodyn is a spring-loaded pin which is fired into the object and the depth to which the pin penetrates is correlated to physical and mechanical properties of the object.
H Friis-Hansen


The effect of temperature on the rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound (AAC) wood preservative
1984 - IRG/WP 3293
The rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound wood preservative was measured by soaking samples of wood wool in various preparations of the preservative for arbitrary times followed by immediate leaching in water. The wood wool was then analysed for residual preservative. The results indicated that fixation was very rapid and increased at higher temperatures.
P Vinden


Cytochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide in brown rot fungus Tyromyces palustris by cerium chloride technique
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10299
Cerium chloride (CeCl3) was used to localize H2O2 cytochemically for studying relationship between ultrastructural and functional characteristics of cellulose degradation by brown rot fungi. This technique proved very useful in localizing discrete electron-densereactionproducts at high resolution with minimal nonspecific deposition. The cytochemical localization of extracellular H2O2 by CeCl3 using TEM demonstrated the presence of H2O2 within the fungal hyphae. Furthermore, our results give an indication of the diffusion of extarcellular H2O2 from brown-rot decay fungi into the intact wood cell walls in the early stages of decay.
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi


Non-enzymatic Gloeophyllum trabeum decay mechanisms: Further study
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10395
Information will be presented on the mechanisms involved in, and potential application of, non-enzymatic wood decay by brown rot decay fungi. Specifically, the hypothesized role of low molecular weight phenolate derivatives will be discussed in relation to non-enzymatic degradation of wood. The mechanism of binding of iron by cellulose, and binding and reduction of iron by fungal derivatives and model compounds is examined. Positive and negative aspects of potential application of these compounds in the generation of free radicals will be discussed.
B Goodell, J Jellison


Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in wood decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi
1985 - IRG/WP 1256
To gain further understanding of the role of H2O2 in wood degradation by brown- and white-rot fungi, we studied the following: (a) extracellular H2O2 production, (b) effect of various hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet O2 (1O2) quenching agents on wood and cellulose degradation, (c) intracellular H2O2 production and catalase activity, and (d) cytochemical localization of H2O2 with diaminobenzidine (DAB) during wood degradation. Extracellular H2O2 detection varied with the growth media and chromogen. The chromogen 2,2&apos;-azino-di-(3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) was more sensitive than o-dianisidine. Extracellular H2O2 was not detected in half of the brown-rot fungi. One white-rot fungus did not produce detectable amounts of H2O2. ·OH and 1O2 quenching agents generally did not inhibit decay of wood or decomposition of cellulose by either brown- or white-rot fungi. DAB did not detect the presence of H2O2 within or outside cells of the brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. Nor was H2O2 -generating activity detected in sonicated extracts of this fungus. With the white-rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor, H2O2 occurred predominantly in the periplasmic space, but also in the cytoplasm and hyphal sheath. Sonicates of Coriolus versicolor contained H2O2 -generating activity. These observations provide further support for H2O2 involvement in degradation of wood by white-rot fungi, but raise doubts concerning its participation in wood degradation by brown-rot fungi.
T L Highley, L L Murmanis


Degradation of the normal fibre walls of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) by the tropical blue-stain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10286
Rubberwood was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to the common tropical sapstain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae for four weeks to study hyphal colonisation of wood cells and to determine if this fungus also degraded lignified normal fibre cell walls in addition to the walls of non-lignified elements. Light microscopy revealed relatively large diameter hyphae to be abundantly present in parenchyma cells. The hyphae were also present in other types of wood cells, including fibres. TEM provided evidence of fibre wall degradation in the normal rubberwood in the form of lumen wall erosion (type-2 soft rot decay). These observations suggest that the ability of B. theobromae to degrade lignified wood cells walls should be viewed with concern when utilising rubberwood which has been severely sapstained, particularly after prolonged exposure to this fungus.
A A H Wong, A P Singh


Contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30216
The contribution of wood components on the absorption of copper amine was investigated. Holocellulose, lignin and xylan absorbed significant amount of copper. The amount of copper absorbed by cellulose was almost negligible. The removal of extractive also decreased the amount of copper absorption. This study clearly indicates the importance of lignin, hemicellulose in the absorption of copper amine in wood.
D P Kamdem, Jun Zhang


Decay, decayed wood and the Shigometer
1980 - IRG/WP 281
A L Shigo


Defining fungal decay types - Final proposal
1988 - IRG/WP 1355
The term soft rot is proposed for all forms of decay caused by Ascomycetes and non-basidiomyceteous Fungi imperfecti. The terms brown rot and white rot should be used only for decay caused by Basidiomycetes. Brown rot is characterized by extensive depolymerization of the cellulose and limited lignin degradation. White rot is characterised by significant degradation of the lignin component in wood.
T Nilsson


Durable fibre for durable MDF – testing Tricoya®
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40704
The chemical modification of wood has been a commercial reality for a decade on release of technologies for the modification of solid wood including Accoya®. A challenge and an opportunity for the modification technologies which typically impart dimensional stability, water stability and enhanced biological durability was the adaptation of the technology to wood based panels. This paper presents a summary of the development of Tricoya®, its testing and performance and examples of applications.
E Suttie, J Alexander, M Maes


Sustainability Through New Technologies for Enhanced Wood Durability. COST Action E37 – A New Action in the Forestry Domain
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40293
The main overall objective of the action is to concentrate on the contribution of wood durability on the sustainability through the development of systems for quality assurance and perfoamance of modified wood and wood products as alternatives to wood treated with traditional preservatives. By this means it seeks to improve and consequently increase the cost-effective use of sustainably produced European timber, wood-based fibre, and recycled raw materials. The action will seek to optimize methods for testing and characterizing durability performance against physical as well as biological factors. This will exploit relevant selected results from specific aspects of the preceding COST Action E22 on “Environmental optimization of wood protection” and in the EU thematic network for wood modification. It will also exploit specific achievements from COST Action E18 “High performance in wood coating”.
R-D Peek


Effect of mineral wools on growth and decay capacities of Serpula lacrymans and some other brown-rot fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1481
The influence of stone wool and glass wool on growth and decay capacities of Serpula lacrymans and some other brown-rot fungi was studied. Mass losses of pine wood caused by Serpula lacrymans and Gloeophyllum trabeum were increased when stone wool was present. Glass wool had no influence on mass losses. Coniophora puteana, Serpula lacrymans and Gloeophyllum trabeum grew into stone wool and destroyed it easily to powder. Poria placenta did not even grow into stone wool to a noticeable degree compared to the other.
L Paajanen, A-C Ritschkoff


A novel defaunation method of the protozoa to investigate cellulose metabolism in Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10050
The largest protozoa in the hindgut of workers of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was selectively eliminated by forced-feeding on low-molecular weight cellulose (LC) with a mean DP of 17. Although one week&apos;s feeding on LC caused perfect disappearance of Pseudotrichonympha grassii Koidzumi, the selective defaunation method itself had no detrimental effect on the health conditions of termite on the basis of survival rates and weight changes of workers in the latter feeding. In addition, the fact that the defaunated workers repidly recovered their wood-attacking activity by being mixed with normally faunated workers could well support this assumption. By the results of changes of protozoan fauna when selectively defaunated workers were forced to feed on various cellulose substrates, it was suggested that each protozoan species had its inherent role in cellulose metabolism.
T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi


Immunogold localisation of catalytic domain of endocellulase in the cellulosic substrates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10205
The reaction of catalytic domain of endocellulase on the cellulosic substrates was visualised by using immunogold labelling procedures to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Polyclonal antibody was produced against the catalytic domain of endo-l, 4-ß-glucanase (EGI) from a ruminal anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus albus F-40. Immuno-TEM works showed the positive labelling of polyclonal antibody of catalytic domain endocellulase on the cellulosic structures. Gold particles occurred mostly in the disrupted terminal areas of cellulose microfibrils. In contrast, gold labelling on the central part of microfibril was not so much distributed as that in the terminal part. The catalytic domain of endocellulase was presented mainly in the outer membrane of bacterial cells, suggesting that this enzyme is a cell surface protein serving to degrade the cellulosic substrates. The labelling density between the whole endocellulase and the catalytic domain of endocellulase was different. Micromorphological characteristics of cellulose degradation by this bacterium were also examined by SEM and TEM.
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kyu Ho Myung, K Ohmiya, S Karita


Iron in stone wool - one reason for the increased growth and decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1537
The chemical compositions of stone wool and glass wool were analysed. There was more iron in the stone wool than in the glass wool. It was found that iron present in stone wool was easily dissolved by oxalic acid that Serpula lacrymans is able to produce. The stone wool promoted the decay of pine wood by Serpula lacrymans. The glass wool had no effect on the decay capacity of Serpula Iacrymans. The iron derived from the stone wool may be one reason for the increased growth and decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans. Transition metals (Fe2+, Mn2+, etc.) combined with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are believed to be necessary for the oxidative breakdown of polysaccharides.
L Paajanen, A-C Ritschkoff


Ultrastructure of degraded, CCA-treated Pinus radiata wood from a marine pile
1990 - IRG/WP 1461
During an inspection of marine piles, 12 years after installation, severe degradation was noted on one of them in the vicinity of a corroded eye-bolt. The wood was dark brown in colour and tended to crumble easily. Wood fragments were examined by light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were also analysed for carbohydrates and lignin. Light microscopy showed numerous cracks in tracheid walls resulting in delamination at middle lamella - S1 and S1 - S2 junctures and also in fractures across the tracheid wall. Chemical analysis showed extensive losses in hemicelluloses and also losses in cellulose. Observations with polarised light microscopy supported the data from chemical analysis on cellulose degradation. Although presence of microbial flora in the lumen of wood cells was revealed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy showed only occasional soft rot decay zones in the S2 layer. We suggest that the degradation of Pinus radiata wood cell wall is primarily due to chemical attack, fungal decay playing a minor role.
A P Singh, M E Hedley


Identification of terminal structures in cellulose degraded by the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1989 - IRG/WP 1389
To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism employed by brown-rot fungi to depolymerize cellulose, we identified the end-groups of chemically pure cellulose that had been depolymerized by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta. The depolymerized cellulose was acid hydrolyzed and the anion fractions isolated by ion chromatography. Sugar acids were identified by gas chromatographic and mass spectrocopic analysis. Cellulose degraded by Fenton&apos;s reagent (H2O2/Fe2+) was also analyzed. The two systems generated the same sugar acids but not in the same quantities. The acids identified include glyceric and erythronic, indicating oxidative cleavage of the vicinal diol carbon-carbon bonds within glucosyl residues in the cellulose polymer. Gluconic and arabonic acids were also identified as major products. No uronic acids were produced in either systems.
T K Kirk, T L Highley, R E Ibach, M D Mozuch


An electron spin resonance study of manganese changes in wood decayed by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1359
Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry was used to examine wood decay by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta. Wood slivers of Douglas-fir, white fir, redwood, sweetgum and yellow poplar were incubated for 4 weeks in custom-made quartz ESR tubes with or without Postia placenta. In all wood species without fungus, a weak partially resolved signal (about g=2, presumably due to manganese) was detected. No manganese-like signal was found in aerial hyphae of the fungus. Wood slivers with fungus had a smooth, well-resolved manganese signal with a larger amplitude than wood without fungus, indicating a larger amount of paramagnetic manganese. The ratio of amplitudes for slivers with and without fungus increased with incubation time, reflecting an accumulation of paramagnetic manganese during decay. Due to the nature of this closed system without culture media, the accumulation of paramagnetic manganese is most likely due to the change of wood manganese by the fungus.
B Illman, D C Meinholtz, T L Highley


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