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Detection of Termite Attack to Wood Stakes in a Monitoring Station Using Ceramic Gas Sensors and Acoustic Emission (AE) Sensor
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20271
To evaluate the termite activity in monitoring stations non-destructively, metabolic gas from termites and acoustic emission generated by feeding of termites were measured. Ten cylindrical stations with small wood stakes of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) were buried around a house attacked by Coptotermes formosanus SHIRAKI. A sample air in the station was collected by sucking through a drill...
Y Yanase, Y Fujii, S Okumura, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura, T Maekawa, K Suzuki

Detection of metabolic gas from termites using ceramic gas sensors
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20222
To evaluate termite attacks in wooden constructions by detecting the metabolic gas from termite colony, the basic performance of three types of ceramic gas sensors (odor-, methane- and hydrogen-selective sensors) was investigated. Four termite groups of different combinations of workers (100 to 1000) and soldiers (10 to 100) of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and a small specimen of Japanese red pi...
Y Yanase, Y Fujii, S Okumura, T Maekawa, K Suzuki, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura

Analysis of tebuconazole in wood treated with Tanalith™ E
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20158
A simple gas chromatographic method for determining tebuconazole in Tanalith™ E treated wood is described. A two step sequential extraction procedure with methanol was used. Sample extracts were analysed without cleanup or concentration using capillary column GC with thermionic specific detection. The performance of the method was assessed using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sapwood, radiata pine...
D E Ferlazzo

Effect of asphyxiation on wood decay fungi treated with argon and nitrogen gas
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10452
The effects of low-oxygen conditions, achieved with either argon or nitrogen gas, on the viability of wood decay fungi Coniophora puteana, Antrodia vaillantii and Trametes versicolor, cultivated on PDA medium and infected wood samples, were examined. The fungal cultures were exposed to low oxygen concentration (below 10 ppm) for one to five weeks in hermetically sealed vessels. Anoxic treatment di...
C Tavzes, F Pohleven, M Janisek, R J Koestler

Gas chromatographic determination of 1,8-naphthalimide, N-Hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide (N,N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine) and the sodium salt of N-Hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20259
A number of naphthalimide (NI) derivatives are used as efficient laser dyes, in medicine or in scanning electron microscopy. Only N,N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA) has been shown to be an effective wood preservative against wood decay fungi and termite damage. However, limited information is available concerning the analytical detection of NI-derivatives in treated timber. There is a clear need ...
E Melcher, F Green III

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) measured during drying of impregnated timber
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50216
Discussion about drying of impregnated timber has taken place in the Nordic countries under eighties and nineties and goes on nowadays. The drying increase the value of production and the customer gets fewer problems when handles the timber. This introduces a positive attitude to the impregnation as a process and its products. Beside the important information about the advantages of impregnated ti...
N Terziev, V Djokic

Preservative treatment of wood-based composites with a mixture formulation of IPBC-silafluofen using supercritical carbon dioxide as a carrier gas
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40251
Wood-based composites treated with a mixture formulation of a fungicide, 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) and a termiticide, silafluofen using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as a carrier solvent were tested for their resistance to decay and termite attack in the laboratory. The treatment solution was prepared by mixing both biocides (IPBC 10 + silafluofen 1) with a co-solvent, ethano...
K Tsunoda, M Muin

Gaseous boron treatments of wood and wood products
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3691
Treatment of wood and wood products by gaseous organoborates has now been under study for about 5 years. This technique has potential for boron treatment of a wide range of substrates from solid wood through to wood composite materials such as particleboard or wet and dry formed fibreboards. The vapour treatment technique is proving to be very flexible in that it can be adapted to integrate into a...
A J Bergervoet, R Burton, K Nasheri, D R Page, P Vinden

The potential application of rapid gas-chromatographic assay of microbial respiration to the monitoring of wood decay in field trial situations
1983 - IRG/WP 2196
Gas chromatographic detection of microbial activity (C02 production) within stakes in a field trial situation would appear to provide a sensitive, non-destructive and relatively rapid method for the quantitative assessment of preservative treatments. Most consistent results were obtained when stakes were removed from the soil, washed, saturated with water and incubated in sealed PVC tubes at 25°C...
M A Line

Gaseous preservative treatment of wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3631
A recent development in processing wood with a gaseous preservative means that dry, treated wood can be produced in under 30 hours with the benefits of product diversification, faster stock turnover and the ability to respond to short term demand. About 400,000 m³ of wood are treated each year in New Zealand with boron salts to protect from borer infestation. Traditionally this treatment is effec...
R Burton, A J Bergervoet, K Nasheri, P Vinden, D R Page

Stability of bifenthrin in a commercial phenol-formaldehyde plywood glue
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30311
Liquid phenol formaldehyde (PF) glue mixes used for plywood manufacture are strongly alkaline. At this pH insecticidal additives may not be stable for long periods. In order to establish practical working life of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, in liquid PF glues the concentration of bifenthrin in the glue mix was measured under laboratory conditions over a 24 hour period. Glu...
M J Kennedy, P A Collins, R D Vella

A study of methanogenesis and sulphate-reduction: A possible source of explosive gas mixtures in a gold mine
1989 - IRG/WP 1399
Previous work isolated anaerobic bacteria from timbers and drainage water in a gold mine. The present work identifies the predominant methanogen in the mine ecosystem as Methanobacterium bryantii and sulphate-reducing isolates as Desulphovibrio desulphuricans and Desulphotomaculum antarcticum. Laboratory studies using model systems evaluate the activity of methanogenic and sulphate-reducing bacter...
L D Abraham, J F Putterill, A A W Baecker

Effects of Murgul Copper Process flue gases (SO2) on compression strength parallel to the grain of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40404
In this study was investigated the effect on the compression strength parallel to the grain as mechanical properties of Fagus orientalis Lipsky. wood exposed to SO2 gas and non-exposed. In the experiments the two of four (total) were obtained from Artvin-Ortaköy region and the other two from Artvin-Murgul region. The compression strength parallel to the grain was calculated at the compare of ...
N Ay, E Topaloglu, A Uncu

Effects of Heat-Treatment in Hot Water and Steam Mediums on Gas Permeability of Beech Wood
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40557
Heat-treatment, as a major method of wood modification, improving dimensional stability, and natural durability, has been studied greatly from different aspects. The effect of heat-treatment on gas permeability, as an important physical property of wood, in two different mediums of hot water and steam, as well as in two buffers of 7 and 8, is the main topic of the present study. Hydrothermal treat...
H Reza Taghiyari, A Talaei, A Karimi

Effects of Nano-Zycosil on Liquid and Gas Permeability of MDF
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40578
Effects were studied of zycosil nanoparticles, with size range from 30 to 90 nm, on liquid and gas permeability of medium density fiberboard. 100 g of nanozycosil was added to each kg of dry fibers. Density was kept constant at 0.67 g/cm3. The obtained results indicated that addition of zycosil to the mat resulted in a significant increase in gas permeability due to the lower fiber-content in the ...
H Reza Taghiyari, K Heidarhaee, P Noori, A Karimi

Surface energy characterization of thermally modified wood using inverse gas chromatography
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20532
The objective of this work is to characterize surface energetics of thermally modified wood. Such information may be useful for a better understanding and predictions of adhesion properties between the modified wood and other material systems, e.g. coatings, adhesives or matrices in composites. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was used to study the surface energy characteristics of thermally modif...
S Källbom, K Segerholm, D Jones, M Wålinder

Nano-Zycosil in MDF. Part I: Gas and Liquid Permeability
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40652
Effects were studied of zycosil nanoparticles, with size range from 20 to 80 nm, on liquid and gas permeability of medium density fiberboard. Nanozycosil was used at four consumption levels of 0, 50, 100, and 150 g/kg dry wood fibers. Density of all treatments was kept constant at 0.67 g/cm3. The obtained results indicated that the addition of zycosil to the mat resulted in a significant increase...
H Reza Taghiyari, A Karimi, P M D Tahir, O Schmidt, E Bari, P Nouri , A Jahangiri

Expert versus multi-sensor evaluation of wood samples after short term weathering
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20587
Understanding the influence of weathering factors and the material degradation mechanisms are fundamental for modelling the weathering process of wood. The goal of this work was to investigate the combined effect of time and exposure on the physical-chemical mechanisms of wood weathering. Four exposure directions (North, South, East and West) were investigated. Experimental tests were performed fo...
A Sandak, J Sandak, I Burud, L Ross Gobakken, M Noël

How carbon stored in harvested wood products contribute in a greenhouse gas accounting perspective
2017 - IRG/WP 17-50327
In 2014 the net annual removal by Norwegian forests was 30.4 mill ton CO2-eqvivalents while the emissions in other sectors was 53.2 mill ton CO2-eqvivalents. Hence, forests can play a major role in the national greenhouse gas balance. But forests also contribute to the carbon pool stored in wood products. The aim of this paper is, by using Norway as an example, to illustrate how the greenhouse gas...
G Alfredsen, G Søgaard

Performance of modified wood in service - multi-sensor data fusion and its multi-way analysis
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20660
Recent developments in the field of electronic sensors and analytics provide new opportunity for accurate characterization of materials often based on portable and non-destructive methods. By using several complementary techniques, the material description is precise and complete. The data provided by multiple equipment, however, are often not directly comparable due to different resolution, sensi...
A Sandak, J Sandak, M Cocchi