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Tests on preservation of wood against marine borers
1976 - IRG/WP 417
The Instituto del Legno has carried out for some years a series of trials about the biodeterioration of wood in the sea. The investigations included the settlement and activity of marine borers, the natural durability of indigenous and tropical woods and the preservation of wood for marine use. This paper reports the trials on the effectiveness of some preservatives in protecting wood against marine borer attack. The trials were carried out at Follonica station, where some investigations had shown that untreated pine samples submerged in the sea were totally destroyed by marine borers within 1 year. Follonica station, latitude 42° 55' North and longitude 10° 45' East, is situated on the Tyrrhenian sea. The recorded temperature varies between 12°C (January to March) to 25°C (July to September), salinity between 37 to 38% and pH about 8. The borers observed in wood were: Nototeredo norvagica Spengler, Bankia carinata Gray, Limnoria tripunctata Menzies and Chelura terebrans Philippi.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi

Evaluation of polystyrene as a protective of wood in sea-water
1986 - IRG/WP 4129
A test is described on the biological protection of wood by treatment with polystyrene. The results, obtained in marine trials, after 18 months, show that the treatment with polystyrene is not all that effective in preventing the attack of marine borers.
A Gambetta

Chelura terebrans (Crustacea: Amphipoda) is capable of degrading wood independently of its associate, Limnoria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4180
Chelura terebans has been reported to be dependent on the tunnelling activities of Limmmoria. However, this study has shown that Chelura is capable of excavating its own grooves in the surface of blocks of the low density hardwood, balsa (Ochroma lagopus). When reared on blocks of balsa, Chelura ingests small wood particles. These particles often show evidence of degradation due to tunnelling bacteria and, in some cases, soft rot fungi. Such degradation is also evident in the wood being excavated. The wood particles are packed into a cylindrical food-mass in the gut. Rod-shaped faeces still containing recognisable, though degraded, wood particles are produced. The surface of these animals supports a luxuriant flora of bacteria which are particularly numerous around the mouth. This microflora may also play a role in the nutrition of Chelura.
S M Cragg, G F Daniel

Marine trials with water-borne salts and organotin compound
1986 - IRG/WP 4128
Pinus sylvestris blocks treated with water-borne salts (CCA, CCB, CCF) and organotin compounds (TBTO, TBTCl) were submerged in the sea at Follonica station. The results obtained after 12 years of immersion are presented. The samples treated with CCA, CCB and CCF at the lowest concentration (2%) were destroyed after 7-9 years and the samples treated with CCB and CCF at the highest concentrations (4%, 6%), which were tested for a longer time than CCA treated samples, were destroyed after 11-12 years. The samples treated with organotin compounds did not show any attack by molluscan borers after 12 years with the exception of those treated with TBTCl at the lowest concentration (0.5%). The organotin compounds were less effective against crustacean borers.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi

Wood-attacking organisms in Brazil
1982 - IRG/WP 1168
Lists of the main wood-attacking beetles, termites, fungi and marine borers in Brazil are presented with the respective wood species from which they were collected.
M S Cavalcante

Observations on the activities of Sphaeroma in Australia
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10059
Polyurethane coated timber specimens are being attacked at Townsville by Sphaeroma terebrans in the tidal zone. To understand this marine borer better, the results from several other marine tests at Townsville are briefly described, and information about Sphaeroma spp. from elsewhere in Australia is presented. At Townsville, Sphaeroma seems to prefer the shady side of timber fender piles. Also, it is rarely found below the tidal zone. After two years, CCA-treated slash pine mooring piles were lightly attacked, and after 5.7-8 years eight double-treated eucalypt fender piles were only lightly attacked, while three were moderately attacked in the tidal zone. Untreated turpentine piles last about 10-16 years in Townsville, due to the damage caused by Sphaeroma. At nearby Bowen, Sphaeroma terebrans in two experimental piles died after the piles were pulled from the sea, and took more than 3 years to recolonise the piles after they were reinstalled. During this time after reinstallation, the original Sphaeroma terebrans holes were inhabited by Sphaeroma walkeri, a non-wood borer. At a brackish water test site at Port Stephens, Sphaeroma is more often found below low tide. It also prefers to bore upwards rather than downwards, perhaps to lessen the amount of silt entering its burrow. In the southern state of Victoria, Sphaeroma is not an economic problem, causing only minor etches and few holes. There in the tidal zone, it can scallop out disused longicorn beetle emergence holes to give an unusual pattern of attack on the pile surface.
L J Cookson

Sphaeroma terebrans Bate: A note on distribution and preservative tolerance in Florida coastal waters
1987 - IRG/WP 4135
Treated test panels were installed in January 1984 in a Florida estuary where Sphaeroma terebrans had severely damaged pilings treated with copper chromate arsenate (CCA). Test treatments were CCA at three retentions, coal-tar creosote at three retentions, creosote with chlorpyrifos, dual treatment with CCA and creosote, and three types of chemical modification of the wood test panels. We describe the condition of the panels after 3 years exposure in the intertidal zone. Results of a 1985-86 survey are summarized, showing that this borer is common in Florida estuaries along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts.
B R Johnson, E D Estevez, S A Rice

An appraisal of the vertical distribution of attack of untreated and treated wood by warm water sphaeromatids at some tropical sites - A discussion paper
1986 - IRG/WP 4124
Examples of the vertical distribution of burrows of warm water sphaeromatids relative to tide levels and mud line from sites in India, Papua New Guinea and tropical Australia are discussed in detail. These data show clearly that these animals concentrate their attack of resistant natural wood or resistant treated wood in the tidal zone, particularly around Mean Sea Level. Supportive evidence from Kenya is also presented. Circumstantial evidence indicating the repellancy of creosote to sphaeromatids is discussed together with suggested reasons why Sphaeroma terebrans Bate syn. Sphaeroma destructor Richardson was not detected in small specimen tests conducted in Australia, Papua New Guinea and at Daytona Beach, Florida whereas these borers are well known in piling timbers on tropical to warm temperate eastern Australian coasts, and were detected recently on preservative-treated piling timbers at the latter locations. It is stressed that test specimens of preservative-treated or naturally resistant wood must be exposed within the tidal zone at sites where Sphaeroma terebrans and/possibly Sphaeroma triste Heller are active, i.e. if truly meaningful measures of the resistance of such woods to these borers are to be obtained.
J E Barnacle, L J Cookson, C N McEvoy

The performance in the sea of seven experimental piles after sixteen years at Port Douglas, North Queensland
1989 - IRG/WP 4151
After 16 years at Port Douglas, two double-treated Pinus radiata piles were in excellent condition, a CCA-treated Pinus elliottii pile was in good condition other than for a confined streak of teredinid attack, while two CCA-treated and two untreated turpentine piles were moderately to severely attacked by Sphaeroma in the tidal zone. The marine borers collected were Sphaeroma terebrans, Martesia striata, Lyrodus sp., Teredo sp., Limnoria unicornis, Limnoria indica and Limnoria insulae.
L J Cookson, J E Barnacle, C N McEvoy

The natural history of teredinid molluscs and other marine wood borers in Papua New Guinea
1975 - IRG/WP 410
The teredinids, commonly known as teredos or shipworms, are bivalve molluscs adapted to boring into wood. They are most closely related to the Family Pholadidae, or piddocks, which bore into mud, stone and coral. The teredinids have a relatively small, hemi-spherically shaped shell, the elongated body extending beyond the posterior end of the shell valves. The soft body, protected by the wood and the calcareous sheath the mantle secretes, contains most of the visceral mass posterior to the posterior adductor muscles. The siphons, which protrude from the burrow into the water for respiration and feeding, are relatively short. At their base are calcareous structures called pallets which seal off the burrow when the siphons are retracted. The shell valves, which function as a grinding tool during the boring action, gape anteriorly for the protusion of the foot and posteriorly for the protusion of the elongated body. As the anterior and posterior adductor muscles contract alternatively, the valves rock around the dorsoventral axis on their dorsal and ventral condyles. The foot holds the denticulated valves close to the head of the burrow so that. small particles of wood are rasped off when the posterior adductor muscles contract.
S M Rayner

Response of Terminalia mantaly H. Perrier wood to beetles tunneling in Southern Nigeria
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10918
Terminalia mantaly (TM), is extremely susceptible to beetles attack, as evidenced by the many scars and/or tunnels on nearly all the trees in the Southern Nigeria. However, information on the responses of wood to insects tunnelling is poorly known for tropical species. To examine the response of TM stem wood to beetles tunnelling in the University of Port Harcourt, we scheduled field observational visitations and measurements daily once. The tunnelling beetles were identified as Apate terebrans. All the trees responded to tunnelling through sequential exudations of resin and gum for mean duration of 47.25±8.25 and 27.42±4.83 days, respectively. Resin significantly contained higher concentrations of compound phenol ˃ tannin ˃ terpenoids ˃ alkaloids ˃ saponin than gum while gum significantly contained elevated contents of element chloride ˃ calcium ˃ Iron ˃ lead ˃ zinc compared to resin, indicating their specificity roles in the healing scenario of TM wood to A. terebrans tunnelling. Healing period was largely positively correlated with tunnel depth (r = 0.990, p<0.000), reflecting the opportunity for greater biochemical responses during the healing process. The results suggest that the resilience of TM against insects attack is highly possible, but the possibility for further degradations by secondary agents is high.
G A Adedeji, U Zakka, A A Aiyeloja, A I Ochuba

Molecular identification of marine borers causing wood deterioration on marine facilities in Korea
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10955
The deterioration factors of wood which was used in the marine environment, Tongyeong (South Coast) and Incheon (West Coast) in Korea, were investigated in order to develop technologies for safe and long-term use of timber in ocean facilities. The marine microorganisms isolated by damaged wood were identified as morphological Chelura sp. and Teredo sp. As a result of DNA sequencing, it was confirmed that they were Grandidierella japonica and Teredo navalis. However, the homology of Chelura sp. was low, so it was difficult to identify by this result alone. As the combination of results between morphology and molecular analysis, it was derived as Chelura sp. and Teredo navalis. Because Korea is surrounded by three seas, it is necessary to study the protection of timber used in various fisheries facilities. For future research, various marine wood-harvesting factors will be explored
Sae-Min Yoon, Min-Ji Kim, Won-Joung Hwang, Yong-Seok Choi, Dong-Won Son