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The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman

Termiticidal chemicals derived from tropical tree resins
1991 - IRG/WP 1477
To test the hypothesis that defensive chemicals protect tropical primary forest trees against biological attack, a bioassay and fractionation program was conducted in Indonesia. Fresh dipterocarp resins were fed in no-choice tests to Neotermes dalbergiae termites on 4.5 cm filter papers, or tested for inhibition of fungal growth. Fractionation of biologically active resins via flash column chromatography, followed by subsequent bioassay and analytical chemical studies, revealed that several sesquiterpene compounds inhibited fungal growth and killed 50% of test termites in 3-7 days. Toxic fractions contained caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, alloaromadendrene, and other compounds. From the relatively non-toxic a-gurjunene, novel termiticidal compounds were synthesized, indicating the potential for manufacture of insecticides from natural products.
A Messer, K McCormick, D Richardson, Sunjaya, H Hagedorn, J Meinwald

Laboratory evaluation of organophosphates as termiticides
1985 - IRG/WP 3330
In accordance with Japan Wood Preserving Association Standard 11(1) laboratory evaluations of five organophosphate insecticides and chlordane were conducted. Superficially treated sapwood of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (10 x 10 x 20 mm³) was compulsorily exposed to the attacks of 150 workers and 15 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki for 21 days at 28±2°C in the dark. Percentage weight loss of the wood blocks was determined at the end of the test. Termite mortality was additionally calculated at regular intervals. Of five organophosphate insecticides evaluated, chlorpyrifos and phoxim were the most effective and were followed by acephate and tetrachlorvinphos. Required treating concentrations were < 0.1% for chlorpyrifos, phoxim and tetrachlorovinphos, 0.1-0.2% for acephate and 0.2-0.4% for fenitrothion. For chlordane 0.5-1.0% was desired. Results based on the percentage weight loss indicated that organophosphates were generally more effective than chlordane in controlling termites. It is, therefore, worthy to take up potential chemicals for further investigation.
K Tsunoda, K Nishimoto

The use of TCMTB in applications other than sapstain prevention: A review
1990 - IRG/WP 3606
The efficacy of TCMTB against staining fungi and surface moulds has been thoroughly investigated during the last decade. As a result, the chemical is used as an alternative to the chlorinated phenols in various parts of the world for the preservation of freshly sawn timber. Less known are the data obtained against brown rot, white rot and soft rot fungi. The termite repellent and bactericidal properties of the chemical widen the scope of application possibilities. The objective of this article is to report on the data actually available.
R Van der Eynde

Evaluation of chlorpyrifos as an insecticidal component of a wood preservative
1984 - IRG/WP 3301
After two years of laboratory and field testing, chlorpyrifos is showing excellent potential as an insecticidal treatment to wood. In laboratory termite tests, retentions as low as 1-2 parts-per-million or approximately 0.0008 kg/m³ (0.00005 lbs/ft³) are effective against the Coptotermes formosanus. Laboratory leaching tests have shown no significant effect on the concentration of the retained chlorpyrifos. Pressure treatments and dip treatments, as an aqueous emulsion or oil solution, have resulted in good penetration of effective concentrations. Combinations of chlorpyrifos and various fungicides are being evaluated.
K Rose, J Kozuma, P Sparrow

FIPRONIL - une nouvelle molécule insecticide Rhône Poulenc pou le PCO et la protection du bois [FIPRONIL - A new insecticide from Rhône Poulenc for PCO and wood preservation]
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-16
We will explain here after the advantages and key points of the new insecticide "FIPRONIL" from Rhône Poulenc Agrochemicals. We will have a look from the physical and chemical properties to the possible uses in PCO and wood preservation, including toxicology, efficacy and the main beneficial impacts on the environment. FIPRONIL, a new solution against undesirable and damageable insects, from cockroaches and termites up to woodworms, highly active with very low dose rates.
M G E J Van Maanen

Oxine copper (NYTEK® GD) for the control of mould and sapstain on lumber in North America
1989 - IRG/WP 3517
NYTEK® GD is a new, water-based, micro-dispersible formulation of oxine copper registered in the United States and Canada for control of mold and sapstain-causing fungi. NYTEK GD is noncorrosive and of low hazard to applicators and people handling treated lumber, when used according to the label. The product is an effective wood protectant applied as a dip or spray treatment at concentrations of 0.32-0.63% ai (by wt.) on major species of lumber including hem-fir and southern pine. The duration of activity is 4-6 months on artificially inoculated wood incubated in environments that encourage fungal development. Shorter duration control may be observed on Douglas fir. Efficacy is improved by a tank mixture with 2% borate. The unique combination of safety, noncorrosiveness, and efficacy make NYTEK GD a sound alternative to penta-and tetrachlorophenates for wood protection.
D F Myers, J M Fyler, C H Palmer, G D Rosebery

Antifeedant activities of flavonoids and their related compounds against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10305
Antifeedant activities of some flavonoids and their related compounds against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were examined with no-choice and two-choice tests. The activities of these compounds were considered in relation to their chemical structures. All flavonoids tested showed antifeedant activities whereas catechinic acid without A-ring and pyran ring in the molecule showed attractant activity. As to the chemical structure-activity relationships, it was found that compounds containing two hydroxyl groups at C-5 and C-7 in A-rings showed the significant antifeedant activities. The presence of carbonyl group at C-4 in pyran rings was necessary for the occurrence of extreme activities. Flavonols and flavanonols with 3&apos;, 4&apos;-dihydroxylated B-rings exhibited activities higher than those with 4&apos;-hydroxylated or with 3&apos;,4&apos;,5&apos;-trihydroxylated B-rings.
W Ohmura, S Doi, M Aoyama, S Ohara

Tebuconazole - A new triazole fungicide for wood preservation
1990 - IRG/WP 3629
The main cause of economic damage to timber and millwork worldwide are Basidiomycetes (brown and white rot). After testing a wide range of triazole derivatives for their effectiveness against decay fungi, Tebuconazole, a triazole compound, was selected. The physico-chemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological data of this substance are described. Tebuconazole is unleachable, light-stable, heat-stable and suitable for use in both solvent-borne and water-borne formulations. Tests carried out by official institutes show that Tebuconazole is resistant to both leaching and evaporation. Toxic values measured in accordance with EN 113 and EN 73 (e.g. Gloeophyllum trabeum: 0.03-0.08 kg/m³ a.i.) reveals the great potential of Tebuconazole to protect treated wood against decay fungi.
R Gründlinger, O Exner

IPBC - A new fungicide for wood protection
1984 - IRG/WP 3295
3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) is presented as a potential low toxic alternative to pentachlorophenol and the sodium chlorophenoxides. Data on its effect against basidiomycetes is shown. Tests according to both the European standard method, EN-113, and American, ASTM D-413, have shown its potential. The chemical gives protection against both the wood destroying fungi, blue stain, mould and algae. It is possible to have it formulated in both water-based and organic solvent-based products. Treatment of wood out of ground contact (vac-vac products, pretreatment products, primers, stains, etc.) and sapstain control are some of the most potential end use areas within wood protection. Besides wood protection, the IPBC is used as a fungicide in paint, adhesives, caulks and sealants, cement, leather, paper, cutting oil, ink and in different roofing materials.
J Hansen

Evaluation of the effectiveness of defence anti-stain in the control of sapstain in laboratory and field tests
1990 - IRG/WP 3593
The anti-sapstain product Defence Anti-stain (DAS) has been evaluated internationally in laboratory and field tests during the years 1988 and 1989. Results of tests carried out by institutes and by own companies in countries like Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands and Spain will be presented. In the several tests Defence Anti-stain showed a high fungicidal activity to sapstain and mould fungi on wood. The product is a promising alternative to sodium pentachlorophenoxide from biological and other product characteristics point of view.
G Rustenburg, C J Klaver

Suitability of propiconazole (R 49362) as a new-generation fungicide
1989 - IRG/WP 3529
Propiconazole (R 49362), an anti-fungal triazole-compound of Janssen Pharmaceutica, has been extensively tested to determine its potential use as a wood preserving fungicide. Various tests in both private laboratories and official institutes indicate a good activity against Basidiomycetes (brown and white rot) and Ascomycetes (blue stain-in-service). The active ingredient seems very resistant to weathering (leaching and evaporation). The compound shows a good lateral penetration into wood. Following mean toxic values (kg a.i./m³ wood) can be given: Coniophora puteana: 0.27-0.39, Gloeophyllum trabeum: 0.37-0.49, Poria placenta: < 0.22 and Coriolus versicolor: 0.25-0.33. Propiconazole does not break down in solventborne and waterborne formulations when exposed to various temperatures. The fungicide is stable in treated wood and can be traced back by using HPLC-or GC-methods. An extensive toxicological and ecotoxicological file has been composed according to OECD and EPA guidelines
A R Valcke

Influence of the decay of spruce chips by the selected fungi on their chemical structure and the pulp properties
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10510
The paper focuses on changes in the weight and in the molecular structure of spruce chips submitted to long-term storing as well as to medium- and long-term model rotting degradation caused by some chosen fungi identified at storing processes on the pile. For the model decay of chips under laboratory conditions during 3 or 6 weeks the white-rot fungi: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Heterobasidion annosum, Onnia circinata or Climacocystis borealis, and the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola, have been used. Mass losses and changes in chemical composition of chips depended on the fungus used and time of decay. The highest weight losses were caused by the fungi H.annosum and F.pinicola, the most of cellulose was removed due to F.pinicola, the most of lignin due to H.annosum, at which the amounts of removed lipophilic extractives depended selectively on the fungus and time of degradation. The further aim of this work was to evaluate biodegradation processes in wood for the pulp production. Pulps prepared from the model rotted chips and also from the long-term stored chips had changed properties, obviously reduced Kappa number, content of rejects, tear length and tear index.
R Solár, L Reinprecht, A Geffert, F Kacík

Decomposition of biocides in aqueous media cases of MTC and TCMTB
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-26
Our laboratory is interested in the fate of modern biocide molecules in the environment. Here we present recent work which has been done on the fate of two compounds with fungicidal and bactericidal properties: methylenedithiocyanate (MTC: NCS - CH2 - SCN) and thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazol (TCMTB). We have studied separately the influence of pH, temperature and ultraviolet irradiation in aqueous media. The results show that the higher the pH (the more basic) and the higher the temperature, the easier these biocides decompose, liberating other compounds, essentially cyanide and thiocyanate ions CN¯ and SCN¯ along with organic decomposition products, namely mercaptobenzothiazole in the case of TCMTB and a thioamide and a diamine in the case of MTC. Moreover, for both of the biocides, we have noticed shown both in the aqueous phase and in the gazeous phase bordering the aqueous phase the formation of CS2 and a sulfur containing heterocyclic compound, i.e. 1,2,4 - trithiolane. The photochemical decomposition of TCMTB (between 350 and 700 nm) in water as such and in presence of traces of H2O2 is significant for long exposition times. In both cases we noticed the formation of mercaptobenzothiazole. On the other hand, MTC is not decomposed in this wavelength interval.
R Perraud, M Papazian

Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons treated by the empty cell method have better performance than those prepared by the toluene dilution method. The naphthalene coupons treated by the full cell method show no attack after six months&apos; exposure.
B R Richards, D A Webb

The restricted distribution of Serpula lacrymans in Australian buildings
1989 - IRG/WP 1382
Temperature data has been gathered over a number of years, not only for flooring regions of various buildings in Melbourne, but also within roof spaces and external to the buildings. Findings are discussed in relation to the distribution of Serpula lacrymans within Australia, its restriction to certain types of building construction and its restriction to flooring regions. The subfloor spaces of badly-ventilated, masonry buildings are highlighted as being better suited than are the subfloor spaces of, for example, Japanese buildings for the activity of this fungus. Hence Serpula lacrymans is very restricted in its distribution in Australia, yet where it is active it does grow rapidly and causes rapid flooring failures.
J D Thornton

Results of chemical analyses in the field of wood preservation in the Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung
1973 - IRG/WP 321
The results of qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of wood preservatives are often the basis for evaluating the various works in the field of wood preservation. In the past 10 to 15 years a number of such works was carried out in the Bundesanstalt fur Materialprüfung, Berlin-Dahlem, dealing with the identification and effectiveness of wood preservatives and with methods of wood preservation. Fundamental realisations were made which will be summarised below. It seems advisable to differentiate between inorganic and organic chemical wood preservatives and methods of analyses. These are two distinct fields which differ also with regard to the analytical techniques applied.
H J Petrowitz

The decay resistance of chemically modified aspen composites to the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quelet
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40122
Chemical modification of Aspen wood (Populus tremula L.) in the form of solid wood, veneers and sawdust was undertaken by a two step procedure consisting of esterification with maleic anhydride (MA) and subsequent oligoesterification with MA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) or allyl glycidyl ether (AGE). Modified wood was thermoplastic and was thermally formed by hot-pressing to produce veneer or solid wood samples with smooth glossy surfaces, while plastic-like wafers were obtained by hotpressing modified sawdust. Chemical modification alone was shown to enhance the biological resistance of Aspen to decay by Coriolus versicolor. In addition, hot-pressing enhanced decay resistance of both unmodified wood and esterified wood veneer samples, although no improvement was found by hot pressing oligoesterified wood. The most effective treatment for the improvement of decay resistance was chemical modification of the sawdust in conjunction with hot-pressing. A microscopic examination of chemically modified and control samples following exposure to the fungus showed more extensive colonisation and decay in untreated, unpressed samples.
M C Timar, A J Pitman, M D Mihai

Protocol for evaluation and approving new wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 2159
M E Hedley, J A Butcher

Di-sodium fluorophosphate, a new fluorine containing, water-borne wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 3373
The physical, chemical properties of Di-sodiumfluorophosphate (Na2PO3F) are compared with those of a trade-mark SF-salt. The opposition of biological activity and toxicological data showed that Di-sodiumfluorophosphate may be a suitable alternative to SF-salts ( based on MgSiF6).
D Seepe, W Metzner

Discussion of diiodomethyl p-tolyl sulfone (Amical® 48) as a fungicide for wood preservatio
1987 - IRG/WP 3425
The effectiveness of diiodomethyl-p-tolyl sulfone (Amical® 48) as a fungicide for preservation of wood is supported by a discussion of results from the literature and current research programs.
J M Stamm, K J Littel, F M H Casati, M B Friedman

Preliminary results of investigations on screening test of chemical compounds suitable for the preservation of lignocellulosic materials against biodeterioration
1976 - IRG/WP 262
This paper investigates the possibilities of reducing the time needed for the determination of the effectiveness of chemical compounds from the point of view of their eventual application to lignocellulosic materials for preservation against decay and soft-rot.
K Lutomski, S S Neyman

Chemical compounds from Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora heartwood and their biological activities against wood destroying fungus (Coriolus versicolor)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30373
The chemistry analysis of the compounds present in dichloromethane and ethanolic fraction as well as bioassays enables to understand the durability differences of Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora. The principal distinction between these two species is the acidic subfraction of diterpenoic extract, which is antifungic in Eperua falcata when tested in in-vitro conditions. This study also enables to show that ethanolic fraction plays an important role in the mechanism of natural durability. It also reports the first isolation of cativic acid in Eperua falcata wood.
N Amusant, C Moretti, B Richard, E Prost, J M Nuzillard, M-F Thévenon

Basidiosporogenesis by the white-rot basidiomycetes in vitr
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10081
Basidiospores of all forest-inhabiting basidiomycetes are a primary source of infection causing wood decay. However, most studies evaluating wood preservatives have used mycelia or basidiospores obtained from wild mushrooms. The objective of this study was to demonstrate in vitro methods that promote carpogenesis and basidiosporogenesis by the white-rot basidiomycetes, Schizophyllum commune and Trametes versicolor. After preincubation in the dark at 27°C for three to fifteen days, basidiospores were produced in four to sixteen weeks in basidiomes exposed to light at 12°C. Adequate light exposure, aeration, and low temperature treatment after preincubation are essential for fruiting body of these white-rotting basidiomycetes. Carpogenesis and basidiosporogenesis of Schizophyllum commune is controlled by nitrogen and carbon limitation. However, fruiting body formation in Trametes versicolor was induced by nitrogen limitation. Walset cellulose was found to be the best carboun source for carpogenesis and subsequent basidiosporogenesis. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using various potential inhibitors on basidiospore germination rather than relying on mycelial growth.
S C Croan

Contribution to study of the degradation caused in Pinus spp. poles used in field test
1989 - IRG/WP 1417
The study of the degradation produced by soil natural microflora on wood in contact with it in the field, has been going on for several years now. Our contribution to this aim in the present work has dealt with the possible relationship of the microorganisms in the soil. The microscopic visualization of wood colonization by the microorganisms, and the chemical analysis of the degraded wood compared with the undergraded.
M T De Troya, A Garcia, M J Pozuelo, A M Navarrete, A Cabanas

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