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Bacteria and wood. A review of the literature relating to the presence, action and interaction of bacteria in wood
1971 - IRG/WP 101
S E Rossell, E G M Abbot, J F Levy


Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius resistance to chemical preservatives in piles of pine and birch wood chips
1981 - IRG/WP 1146
Investigation has been carried out on the communities of fungi developing in birch and Scots Pine chip piles in the Ostroleka Pulp and Paper Mill in the North-East of Poland The species composition or fungal communities and their development in a dozen of chip piles during storage was investigated. Untreated and chemically treated birch and pine wood chips were investigated. In all samples the gre...
M H Zielinski


Microbiological degradation of wooden piles in building foundations
1988 - IRG/WP 1370
White rot, soft rot and bacterial attack have been detected in softwood piles under buildings. In some cases bacteria were found to be the main degradation organisms in the studied piles. The water content of degraded piles was very high. The compression strength was quite low also in the piles deteriorated by bacteria. The density of wood was very variable, and the degree of degradation could not...
L Paajanen, H Viitanen


Report on the treated piles and fenders in the wharves in Port Moresby harbour, and the Huon Gulf, Lae
1977 - IRG/WP 433
To investigate the resistance of Papua New Guinea timber, vacuum pressure impregnated with Copper-Chrome-Arsenic salts, to marine borer attack in the waters of Papua New Guinea....
S M Rayner, C R Levy


Some experiences with attack of microorganisms on wooden constructions supporting foundations of houses and bridges
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10232
Reconstructions of bridges and public buildings or damage of houses during the construction of subway lines in Berlin have led to a number of inspections of wooden foundations, mostly pine or spruce piles, representing service lives of between ca. 70 and 140 years. In all cases bacterial attack was found both in wood submerged in ground water and in surface water. The extent of deterioration diffe...
M Grinda


Radio frequency heating times for sterilization radiata pine solid piles
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40815
In this work was sterilized wood packaging material of radiata pine, stacked as solid piles without stickers, for determining the heating times using radiofrequency treatment. The experiments were performed in a radio frequency semi-industrial equipment. The results showed that the radio frequency heating times increases with wood volume and that radio frequency treatments were faster than convent...
H Esquivel, V Sepúlveda, J Torres, L Salvo, R A Ananías


Observations on the activities of Sphaeroma in Australia
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10059
Polyurethane coated timber specimens are being attacked at Townsville by Sphaeroma terebrans in the tidal zone. To understand this marine borer better, the results from several other marine tests at Townsville are briefly described, and information about Sphaeroma spp. from elsewhere in Australia is presented. At Townsville, Sphaeroma seems to prefer the shady side of timber fender piles. Also, it...
L J Cookson


The use of propionic acid to prevent Pinus patula biodeterioration during outside chip storage in Zululand
1989 - IRG/WP 3531
Pinus patula SCHIEDE ET DEPPE IN SCHLD. ET CHAM. is susceptible to biodeterioration during outside chip storage (OCS), reducing pulp quality and tear and burst indices of resulting paper. Accelerated laboratory trials showed that chips treated with 2% (w/v) propionic acid and stored for 17 weeks, produced pulp of quality indistinguishable from fresh untreated chips. Pulp tests during field trials ...
S Ismail, E J Smith, A A W Baecker


Non leachability of arsenic, copper and chromium from 15 years old CCA-C treated southern pine poles used in brackish water as jetty piles in Bangladesh
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50103
Revealed that chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C) treated southern pine poles used in Central Warehouse Jetty of REB, Khulna are stable and resistant to chemical and biological attack without loss of any component from outer 0-12.5 mm zone after 15y of use. Slightly reduced retention (4.44% less) was noted in above water location of piles (bottom end of tree) which would be due to continuous ...
A K Lahiry


Controlling marine borer attack of timber piles with plastic wraps
1981 - IRG/WP 479
Plastic films 20 to 40 mils thick have been used for many years to wrap creosoted timber piles in service to protect them from attack by marine borers. As long as the wrap remains undamaged, this procedure provides complete protection to the pile. Properly applied, wraps generally provide protection for 25 yeara or longer. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) films are specially formulat...
F Steiger, G Horeczko


Sediment toxicity study of marine piles treated with CCA-C
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-35
A study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of 10-day exposure to sediments mixed with leachate from chromated copper arsenate Type-C (CCA-C) southern pine marine piles treated to a retention of 40 kg/m³ (2.5 pcf) and untreated southern pine piles on the benthic amphipod, Ampelisca abdita. The biological endpoint used to establish effects was organism survival. Leachate obtained during a 28...
W J Baldwin, E A Pasek, P D Osborne


The performance in the sea of seven experimental piles after sixteen years at Port Douglas, North Queensland
1989 - IRG/WP 4151
After 16 years at Port Douglas, two double-treated Pinus radiata piles were in excellent condition, a CCA-treated Pinus elliottii pile was in good condition other than for a confined streak of teredinid attack, while two CCA-treated and two untreated turpentine piles were moderately to severely attacked by Sphaeroma in the tidal zone. The marine borers collected were Sphaeroma terebrans, Martesia ...
L J Cookson, J E Barnacle, C N McEvoy


Wood boring species present in the Tagus Estuary and the severity of their attack on wooden piles exposed in the area: a case study
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10664
Wood exposed in the marine environment is subject to degradation by wood boring organisms. This is probably one of the reasons why wood has been substituted by concrete and steel in maritime structures in many European coastal areas. Wooden piles obtained from a wharf exposed in the Tagus Estuary, Porto Brandão (Almada, Portugal) provided an opportunity to understand the main agents of biodeter...
L M S Borges, L Nunes, A A Valente, P Palma


Termite Resistance of Different Wood Panels Treated with Bifex® under Laboratory and Field Trials
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10745
The effects of Biflex® on termite resistance of laminated chip Board, MDF (Medium Density Fiber), Ply Wood and Veen Board at 50 ppm were evaluated. Laboratory and field trials resistance tests showed that all woods treated with Biflex were resistant to termites as compared to untreated ones. It was concluded that as chemical loadings increased, termite mortalities increased, and at the same time...
F Manzoor, S A Malik, B M Ahmed Shiday, A Liaquat, N Naz


Protective Levels of Borates in timber Foundation Piles 5 – 18 Years after In-situ Remedial Treatment in Areas with Wet Clay Ground Conditions. The Jerbor and Eurobor Protocol, Part 1.
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30571
Timber has been used as foundation piles and grillages for decades or even centuries. Since the late 1970s a method for investigate, analyze and treat building timber foundations in soft clay grounds against decay fungus with a biocide have been developed and used by the late professor Allan Jerbo. Settling of buildings in soft clay grounds is continuously monitored and if damages to the building ...
M Theorin, K-M Bandh


Effectiveness of Water Based Bentonite-Borate Slurry for In-situ Remedial Protection of Historic Wooden Piles: The Eurobor Protocol, Part 2
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30574
The study of the biocide product Eurobor®, water mixture of boric acid, borax and sodium bentonite, aimed to verify previous findings regarding borates penetration from a clay-water mixture of foundation timber. The product was applied on samples from 100 year old timber foundation from the city of Göteborg. Although in ground for this long the timber was in acceptable god condition due to groun...
M. Theorin, K. Fimmerstad, K-M. Bandh


Performance superiority of CCA-C treated wooden jetty poles and piles used for 30 years in Bangladesh against marine borers
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30582
Observational study along with previous investigation and records revealed that chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C) impregnated southern pine poles and piles of jetty constructed in most vulnerable brackish water in Bangladesh are stable and resistant to attack of all types of marine borers after 30 years of use. It is evident from the service records of other construction materials that CCA-...
A K Lahiry


Foundation piles: analysis of beech wood decay in service life conditions
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10858
Wood piles foundation system was largely used over decades. Thus, numerous buildings over the world are based on this constructive system. In the context of reduction of CO2 emissions in the building field of constructions, substitution of concrete by wood as material for foundation piles seems to be a promising alternative. However, fluctuation of the water table level in soil may promote fungal ...
Q Kleindienst, A Besserer, M-L Antoine, C Perrin, J-F Bocquet, L Bléron


Exploration of waterlogged piles and wooden constructions of Riga Dome Cathedral
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10901
The Riga Dome Cathedral’s waterlogged wood piles and the roofs and tower's wooden structures were investigated, the extent of biological damage was evaluated, and the wood rot fungi and insects were identified. The pile wood’s component composition and elemental composition were analysed; the wood structure damage by erosion bacteria was microscopically determined. In the roofs and tower ...
B Andersons, I Andersone, I Irbe, V Fridrihsone, R Lūsis


Protecting Sustainable Wood Infrastructure ̶ Improving the Performance of Poles, Piles, Ties & Timbers with Dual Treatments
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30735
Wood is by far the best structural material in terms of environmental impact, as shown by a number of LCA studies. This environmental impact superiority can be improved if the longevity of the commodity is extended. The main durability concern in large cross-section treated materials is the susceptibility of the heartwood to decay, as it is not typically treatable using traditional methods. This ...
J Lloyd, A Taylor, C Brischke, N Irby, M Manning