Your search resulted in 115 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Protecting wooden structures
1980 - IRG/WP 392
Chromium-containing chemicals that effectively retard weathering of wood improve performance of subsequently applied finishes. Current work is focusing on the performance of wood-derived products (plywood, hardboard, fiberboard, particle board) after surface treatment with inorganic chemicals. The overall objective of the continuing research is to investigate new environmentally safe procedures to...
W C Feist
Studies of the mechanism of chromated-copper preservative. Fixation using electron spin resonance
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3701
Two softwoods and one hardwood species were treated with chromium trioxide, copper sulphate, chromated-copper wood preservative (CCA). The treated wood samples were analyzed during fixation by electron spin resonance (ESR). ESR spectra indicated that more than one Cr(V) species was generated from Cr(VI) soon after CCA treatment. The Cr(V) signal became strong within increased several hours followe...
K Yamamoto, J N R Ruddick
Results of chemical analyses in the field of wood preservation in the Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung
1973 - IRG/WP 321
The results of qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of wood preservatives are often the basis for evaluating the various works in the field of wood preservation. In the past 10 to 15 years a number of such works was carried out in the Bundesanstalt fur Materialprüfung, Berlin-Dahlem, dealing with the identification and effectiveness of wood preservatives and with methods of wood preserv...
H J Petrowitz
Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones ...
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen
Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50...
H Willeitner, K Brandt
Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated Scots pine exposed in sea water
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50149
A laboratory leaching trial combining a static and a flowing seawater system was carried out to measure the leaching rates of copper, chromium and arsenic from the surface of Scots pine panels vacuum-pressure treated to 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 kgm-3 CCA. Untreated and treated panels were exposed in flowing seawater for up to 8 weeks followed by 2 weeks submersion in static seawater which was taken fo...
C J Brown, R A Eaton
A discussion of current theories concerning CCA fixation
1983 - IRG/WP 3238
The understanding of the fixation mechanism of CCA and related preservatives in wood has been greatly improved by a significant series of recent scientific papers. In view of recent concerns in New Zealand regarding the long-term efficacy of CCA in high decay-hazard situations, it was considered appropriate to review this recent work and to contrast it with theories presented by previous workers....
D V Plackett
Developments in wood preservation
1977 - IRG/WP 393
The purpose of this paper is to comment very briefly upon recent developments and trends in wood preservation so that members of this Working Group have a basic knowledge of activities in other countries. The last paper was prepared in April 1976 and the present paper refers to developments, since that time....
B A Richardson
Collaborative field experiment: Analysis of copper and chromium in stakes of the four reference timbers
1982 - IRG/WP 3213
The stakes analysed belong to the Swedish set of the four reference timbers of the collaborative field experiment (Document No: IRG/WP/367). Before the field exposure 60 mm were cut off the end of each stake. This was done in order to be able to carry out chemical analyses as well as different types of testing. Some of the material has been used in softrot tests (Document No: IRG/WP/1151)....
Quantitative determination of Chromium: A comparison of three instruments
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50053
A comparison is made between three instruments for measuring levels of chromium in the leachate of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated timber. These include an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer and the RQflexâ. The RQflexâ is a new hand-held instrument which measures chromium by dipping a ReflectoquantÒ strip into the leachate and inserting the stri...
S Walley, P R S Cobham, P Vinden
Improved PEC preservatives with added biocides
1985 - IRG/WP 3322
Biocidal chemicals have been incorporated into formulations within the broad framework of pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) to provide novel potential multi-purpose preservatives. Preparations of PEC plus TCMTB, Boracol 40, copper ethanolamine nonanoate, Quatramine 80, arsenic trioxide, Troysan Polyphase, and CCA have been formulated and assessed for preserving ability in soil-jar and Accelerated ...
H Greaves, C-W Chin, J B Watkins
Migration of active ingredients from treated timber into fresh water
1991 - IRG/WP 3669
Spruce roundwoods and segments were treated with three different wood preservatives. Two of them containing copper and chromium the other one free of chromium. After fixation (3 weeks, 20°C) the specimens were leached by using artifical rain or by shaking the segments for one hour in contact with demineralized water. The water was analysed for the relevant elements of the preservative tested. Lea...
H Klipp, H Willeitner, K Brandt, A Müller-Grimm
The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and ...
M Van der Zee, W J Homan
Examen chimique du traitement de poteaux effectué à St-Michel s/Meurthe
1974 - IRG/WP 337
J Guillemain-Thévenot, C Jacquiot
CCA fixation experiments. Part 2
1989 - IRG/WP 3505
CCA fixation in wood was measured by both squeezing solution from treated wood that had not been dried and analyzing the solution for copper, chromium and arsenic, as well as using a chromotropic acid test to detect the presence of chromium VI. Both methods provide useful information on the CCA fixation process and illustrate that chromium VI disappears as CCA becomes fixed within wood....
W S McNamara
Investigation of the fixation in wood of chromated zinc chloride and copperised chromated zinc chloride preservatives
1976 - IRG/WP 372
A biological method of evaluating the extent to which CZC and CCZC preparations are retained in wood in terms of the potential protection which they afford against destruction by Merulius lacrymans (dry rot) is given. CCZC is recommended for protection of wood under moderate leaching conditions, while the use of CZC under such conditions is not recommended....
V N Sozonova, D A Belenkov
Lignin-copper, a new wood preservative without arsenic and chromium
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3702
A more environmentally sound treatment for wood with preservatives containing no arsenic or chromium, has been developed and studied on a laboratory scale. The method involves a first step impregnation with an aqueous solution containing modified, water-soluble kraft lignin followed by a second step involving impregnation with a copper salt solution to give fixation of the lignin into a water-inso...
B Ohlsson, R Simonson
Assessment of contamination of soil and water at a CCA treatment plant: A demonstration project
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50067
Soil, sludge, dust and water samples were collected at a copper/chromium/arsenic wood preservation plant. Contamination of soil, sludge, dust and surface water with copper, chromium and arsenic was detected. Levels of contamination were sufficiently high to require remediation. Contamination originated from preservative solution dripping from recently treated wood. Migration of contaminants was vi...
P N Durrant, D C R Sinclair, G M Smith
Fungal degradation of wood treated with metal-based preservatives. Part 2: Redox states of chromium
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10164
Concerns have arisen about the leaching of heavy metals from wood treated with metal-based preservatives, such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Of particular concern is the toxic redox state of chromium and arsenic in aging and decayed CCA-treated wood. Generally, hexavalent chromium is more toxic than trivalent chromium and trivalent arsenic is more toxic than pentavalent arsenic. The desired ...
B Illman, S Bajt, T L Highley
Literature survey on the permanence and distribution of salt-type wood preservatives
1969 - IRG/WP III 1B
The objective of this survey is generally to review some of the more important published work dealing with the distribution and permanence of salt-type waterborne wood preservatives in treated timber. The survey is limited to the major chrome-containing formulations and the classification system proposed by Becker (1964) has been adopted throughout. CK - chromium, copper (copper, chrome); CKA - c...
Justification for use of mirex in termite control
1988 - IRG/WP 1346
In August 1987, organochlorines were withdrawn in North America from use in termite control. This has left the industry and the community with reduced options in long term protection of wood and wood products. A case is presented to justify the use of the slow-acting stomach termiticide, mirex, under special permit, for use only in the bait-block method of termite control. This method, while not a...
J R J French
Leaching of chromium and other cca components from wood-cement composites made with spent CCA treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50153
Wood cement composites are an attractive option for recycling spent treated wood, since the CCA treatment enhances the physical, mechanical and biological resistance properties of the composite. However, we have noted a higher than normal leaching of chromium from these products and this appears to result from conversion of some of the trivalent chromium to the more leachable and toxic hexavalent ...
D Qi, P A Cooper
Disposal of CCA treated waste wood by combustion - An industrial scale trial
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50068
Totally 272 m³ (62.7 t) of CCA treated utility poles were chipped and incinerated at Jalasjärvi Gasification Plant. In average the whole batch of chips contained 57 kg of elementary copper, 95 kg chromium and 76 kg arsenic. During the 56 h combustion trial the measured arsenic emission to the air was 76 g in total. Copper and chromium emission was less than 1 g. The condensing water from the coo...
A J Nurmi
Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated slash pine heartwood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50020
Drying green slash pine with any of three high temperature drying schedules produced a product in which both the sapwood and the heartwood could be penetrated with CCA using a modified Bethell treatment schedule. Required H3 retentions were achieved in both sapwood and heartwood, from 200 litres per m³ charge uptake. Post-treatment fixation/drying was accomplished by three different regimes, incl...
M J Kennedy, G Palmer
The course of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives
1972 - IRG/WP 307
Copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservatives in contact with wood result in an instant extensive increase of pH, because of ion-exchange and adsorption reactions with the wood. During precipitation of the active elements the pH continuously increases but reaches a maximum, when all chrome is consumed. Some of the early reaction products are unstable and slowly convert via dissolution into stable comp...