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The waste wood situation in Germany - legislative and practical consequences
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-06
Waste wood or 'reclaimed wood' is produced in numerous areas of private and public life, in trade and in commerce, and its re-use is increasingly posing problems in Germany. This development has been reinforced as a result of legislation, such as the Trade Cycle and Refuse Act (KrW-/AbfG), the law regarding the supervision and control of the cross-frontier transportation of waste (AbVerbrG), the decree for the regulation of waste materials which need particular supervision (BestbüAbfV), the decree for the regulation of the processing of waste materials which need particular supervision (BestüVAbfV), the TASI (technical instructions regarding settlement refuse) and other legal regu-lations. The construction sector can be expected to produce an increased amount of waste wood in the next few years, particularly within the framework of the new building and reconstruction meas-ures in the new federal states. In the Federal Republic, the orderly, environmentally-correct and thus harmless disposal of timber treated with preservatives is still in its initial phase. The relevant regulations are often of only a gen-eral nature and lead to uncertainty on the part of the authorities entrusted with the disposal which in turn leads to different requirements being made of the quality of the disposal in different federal states. For the market operator this means that there are unequal conditions in competition.
The multi-phase pressure (MPP) process. One stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process
- Concepts proved by repetitive pilot plant treatments
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40079
Twenty-four charges of radiate pine roundwood or sawn timber were treated using the MPP Process and hot CCA solution. Treated timber met the CCA retention and penetration requirements of the NZ Timber Preservation Council for Hazard Classes H3 to H5. The objectives of the trials were: (1) To "stress" CCA solution by repetitive heating, treating and cooling to determine its stability in the process; (2) to determine any effects of pre-drying regimes on the standard of treatment; (3) to determine the extent of fixation influenced by various treatment variables. At the finish of the trials, the working solution was clear with no propensity to sludging. Preservative element ratios remained constant throughout the trials. Wood moisture content at the time of treatment had, not unexpectedly, most effect on degree of fixation achieved. Kickback liquid contamination with residual CCA and organic carbon was greater when wood moisture contents were high.
A J Pendlebury, J A Drysdale, K Nasheri, H Pearson, M E Hedley
Fungal colonisation of the keelson and associated structures of a nineteenth century wooden frigate: Concepts of community structure and development
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10072
The early stages of microbial colonization and succession of wooden surfaces exposed to the sea have been extensively studied as have the community structures of archaeological timbers subjected to submergence and then retrieval from the sea. The frigate UNICORN, a largely intact 19th century wooden ship based in Dundee, Scotland, provides the microbial ecologist with a unique opportunity to study the microbial community structures of untreated and treated (with brine) English oak timbers of a vessel which apart from the occasional dry-docking, has remained afloat since 1824. The spatial structure of the keelson and sister keelson areas will be described as will the decay abilities of isolates and the decay status of core samples. The results will be discussed in terms of the development of community structures under different moisture content regimes.
N A White, J W Palfreyman, G M Smith
Service Life Forecasting and Planning – Why, and Concepts to do it
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20625
The importance of the building and construction sector in society cannot be overestimated. It is globally the major industry sector, a main contributor to gross domestic products, a dominant employer, and the main consumer of material resources and energy. The environmental impact of constructing, running and demolishing the built environment is huge. The products of construction are normally long-lived works, crucial for social and economic development, and for improving the living environment. Buildings and infrastructures are subject to changes over time, in performance as well as in expectations. Renovation, re-build, and refurbishment is a major part, in many nations periodically dominating, of building and construction activities. All existing materials meet and are expected to efficiently co-act in the resulting buildings and civil engineering works. It is well known that the value chain in building and construction is complex, and the sector is in all nations dominated by very to extremely small companies. Few industrial sectors are in such need of standards and standardized approaches to support efficient processes and to ease trade of products and services. This is underlined by ever increasing sustainability requirements, e.g. energy efficiency in building concepts, ambitions to reduced resource consumption in building and construction, and to decrease emissions of green-house gases and negative climate effects. Building and construction is in addition largely a scene for political ambitions and economic control mechanisms, good and bad. This key-note contribution to the IRG annual meeting 2017 in Ghent gives an overview of theories and principles of service life prediction and planning in building and construction, and the resulting international and regional standards. The European regulatory work as a driving force is addressed. The international durability conferences, the DBMC´s, have over the years functioned as invaluable platforms for communication and scrutiny of ideas and research results and by that also strengthened the international standardisation work. The contribution will reflect why so is the case, and on some of the mechanisms.