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Durability of Bamboos in India against termites and fungi and chemical treatments for its enhancement
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10553
Bamboo is a very important forest resource that benefits the life of people in a myriad ways including meeting the need for structural uses like posts, pole fencing, scaffoldings, house building, etc. Although it is one of the strongest structural material available, often succumbs to fungal decay and biodeterioration by insects (termites and powder post beetles) during storage and usage. Studies were undertaken on the natural durability of some selected bamboo species against termites in the field condition and against decay under accelerated laboratory conditions. Also the efficacy of CCA treatment by two methods of applications and two organosphosphorous, three synthetic pyrethroid insecticides and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) were evaluated for enhancing the durability of bamboo against subterranean termites. The studies indicated that the durability of different species varied greatly and flowered bamboos more durable than nonflowered bamboos against termites and fungi. Boucherie process of treatment with CCA was found more effective than sap displacement method. Among the insecticides evaluated Chlorpyriphos was found most effective in enhancing the durability. The findings were discussed in the present communication.
O K Remadevi, R Muthukrishnan, H C Nagaveni, R Sundararaj, G Vijayalakshmi

The evaluation of the effectiveness of wood preservatives by means of IUFRO's method for field tests with wooden stakes
1985 - IRG/WP 3348
Pinus elliottii and Eucalyptus saligna stakes treated with CCA-A, CCA-C, CCB, Cashew Nut Shell Oil and Benzotar solutions were exposed in seven test sites in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After five years of exposure, between oil-borne preservatives Benzotar show better performance than CNSL (cashew nut shell liquid), and within waterborne preservatives the performance of CCB is not so good as that of CCA-A and CCA-C, which show similar performance.
G A C Lopez, A M F Oliveira, E S Lepage

Evaluation of copperised Cashew nut shell liquid and Neem oil as wood preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30368
An effort has been made to develop eco-friendly wood preservatives using naturally available plant by-products with less toxicity. Copper was incorporated into Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and Neem seed oil. Rubber wood samples were treated with these solutions employing dipping and pressure techniques in 3 different levels. These samples have been evaluated to find out the effectiveness as wood preservatives against decay fungi and termites. The combinations of copper & CNSL and copper & Neem in pressure treatment have resulted in discernibly high protection against wood rotters and termites.
D Venmalar, H C Nagaveni

Effectiveness of wood preservatives by IUFRO's method
1984 - IRG/WP 3305
Pinus elliottii and Eucalyptus saligna stakes treated with 4.9; 6.9; 9.6 and 13.5 kg/m³ of CCA-A, CCA-C and CCB and with 30-50; 60-80; 90-110 and 120-140 kg/m³ of Benzotar and CNSL (cashew-nut shell liquid) were exposed in seven test sites in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After 4 years it was concluded that the mean useful life of untreated Pinus elliottii stakes was 8 months and of untreated Eucalyptus saligna was estimated in 42 months; CCA-A, CCA-C and CCB showed better performance than Benzotar and CNSL, which, in turn, showed similar performance to fuel oil treated series; Eucalyptus saligna 4.9; 6.9 and 9.6 kg/m³ CCA-A and CCA-C treated showed better performance than Eucalyptus saligna treated with the same retentions of CCB; CCA-A and CCA-C showed similar performance for both wood species in all retentions
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage, O B Neto

Composition of urushiol and cardanol from Japanese lacquer tree and related origins
1991 - IRG/WP 3667
Wood may be protected against insects and weathering based on the paints. Japan has been used to protect wood from weathering, insects, checking that ordinarily develop when unprotected wood is exposed to the weather. Japaned wood gives a hard, durable, various gloss especially black. The yield of culture-urus hiol obtained from Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vermiciflua Stokes) was 0.6% based on the dry weight of Japanese lacquer root. 3-(pentadecatrienyl- 8' ,11' ,14') catechol and 3-(pentadecatrienyl- 8', 11' ,13')-phenol were obtained from lacquer-urushiol. The composition of urushiol and cardanol was investigated from different origins including adventitious root, natural root, Japanese lacquer and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Also, the composition of the olefinic components of urushiol and cardanol from different origins was examined. On the other hand, 0.4% of cardanol existed in Japanese lacquer. Cardanol exists in both Japanese lacquer and the tissue culture of Japanese lacquer tree. The isolation of cardanol from Japanese lacquer and the adventitious roots of tissue cultures supports the presumed path way of urushiol, cardanol, cardol, and anacardic acid.
Y Inoue

Durability of timber from exotic species against termite attack in Indian conditions
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10629
Exotic trees species, Acacia mangium Willd. and A. auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. and their hybrid are widely grown in India for multiple uses including use as timber. It is essential to know the natural durability of timbers against termites for predicting the service life of the timber and deciding on the application of preservatives to enhance the durability. Studies were conducted to test their durability against termites with and without chemical treatments and in comparison to the natural durability of Rubberwood, which is a highly perishable wood. Test panels (30.5 x 3.8 x 3.8 cm) were prepared from pure heartwood and treated with CCA (Copper-Chrome-Arsenic), Permethrin and Cashew Nut Shell liquid (CSNL) formulation by pressure impregnation. They were buried half their length in the termite test yard along with untreated stakes and rubber wood stakes and tested as per Indian standards (IS 4833-1968). Bimonthly observations on termite infestation were recorded for a period of 5 years. A. auriculiformis, A. mangium and the hybrid were found to be more durable as compared to Rubberwood, which was fully damaged within 6 months of field exposure. The hybrid was highly resistant to termite attack and both treated and untreated stakes were found undamaged or with negligible damage upto 5 years. A. auriculiformis was slightly less durable than hybrid showing 10% damage by 5 years. The damage in A. mangium was 10% by one year, more than 30% by 2 years and by 5 years the damage was 100%. Pressure treatment with CCA (4%) and Permethrin (1%) gave 100% protection to all stakes against termite attack in the field. CNSL (30%) treatment was also effective to a great extent. The comparative performance of different timbers on field exposure to subterranean termites is discussed in the paper.
O K Remadevi, R Muthukrishnan

Effect of bio-resin from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) on decay resistance properties of wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40649
This study assesses the decay resistance properties of bio-resin modified wood against decay fungi of the Basidiomycota according to the EN 113 protocol. A bio-resin system was developed by ozonolysis process from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), a naturally occurring mixture of phenolics. Small wood blocks from sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon) and Gmelina (Gmelina arborea) were vacuum impregnated with methanolic solutions containing CNSL resin and tested for decay resistance against the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana and Postia placenta, and white rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus. The relationship of fungal species, extent of resin treatment (WPG) and mass loss (ML) induced by decay were examined. The ML caused by the decay fungi, however decreased with the increasing WPG in all of the wood species against all of the fungi tested but at the highest loading of resin the protection threshold was not reached. The increased decay resistance is attributed to polymerization of the CNSL resin either in the wood cell wall or in the cell lumen providing a barrier decay fungi. The effects of ML by decay fungi and level of resin modification (WPG) on the final moisture content of resin modified wood at the end of the decay test were also examined. The moisture content at the end of the decay test was influenced by the decay fungi and the extent of resin modification. All the wood species modified with CNSL resin enhanced the hydrophobic nature of wood. As the protection threshold was not reached higher treatment levels for CNSL resin are required for full protection.
M Ashaduzzaman, M D Hale, V Tverezovskiy, G A Ormondroyd

Liquefaction of woody waste: A novel approach in wood protection from CNSL based liquefied wood polyols
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30711
Liquefaction of lingo-cellulosic biomass is one of the thermo-chemical conversion processes for developing new materials, adhesives, preservatives and energy systems. The process also provides an opportunity to utilize waste wood such as saw-dust, woody wastes, branches and twigs for the development of value added products. Thus, this research paper deals with an investigation of antifungal and antitermite properties of cashew nut shell liquor (CNSL) based liquefied wood at different liquid ratio. The woody waste were liquefied by using cashew nut shell liquor (CNSL) as liquefying media at 140oC for 120 minutes at various wood : CNSL ratio as 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 using mild acid as catalyst at different reaction conditions. In all the cases, a viscous and sticky black liquid was obtained which was used for protection of wood against of fungi and termite. The highly perishable rubber wood specimens were treated by employing impregnation pressure processes following Indian Standard No.4873:1968. The treated sample along with control specimens have been evaluated for their efficacy as wood preservatives and periodic observations shows that the formulated preservatives increased the durability of timber against termites and wood rotter fungi. Wood polyols at higher liquid ratio show complete protection against timber against termites, wood rotter fungi than of lower liquid ratio. The liquefaction of wood open up new avenues for utilization of woody bio - waste as raw materials for production of green material to reduce the carbon foot print from earth atmosphere.
A Kumar, G B.Nagarajappa, S Singh Chauhan