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Generic code of good practices for wood protection facilities. Part 1: Wood protection (antisapstain) facilities
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50003
In general, the potential of high toxicity (aquatic and human) of wood protection (antisapstain) chemicals dictates the need to protect the environment and humans from its harmful effects. This document is a compendium of recommendations for the design and operating practices of wood protection facilities. The suggested recommendations focus on achieving the objectives of protecting the environment and workers in a wood protection facility from harmful exposure to wood protection chemicals.
G Das, V N P Mathur


Canadian code of good practices - Recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities
1990 - IRG/WP 3582
The rationale and procedures for the development of a set of recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities in Canada are discussed. Multi stake holders involvement in problem identification, problem assessment, state of the art knowledge database, implementation and periodic assessment procedures are important considerations for the successful development of a Code of Good Practices for wood preservation facilities.
V N P Mathur, G Das


The new National Directive on wood preservation in the Netherlands
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-03
In the Netherlands the major part of treated timber is sold under the KOMO-certificate. The National Directive for vacuum pressure treated timber on which certification is based, is currently being revised. The new National Directive will contain a code of good practice including maximum leaching figures. It incorporates quality requirements for treated timber, existing legislative requirements and guidelines on site hygiene, storage, safety and other requirements on the treatment plant. The objective is to make the KOMO-certificate mandatory for all treated timber which is produced, imported and traded in the Netherlands. The legal implications within the framework of European legislation are currently being scrutinised. The new Netherlands National Directive will have consequences for national timber treating companies and foreign companies producing for the Dutch market.
W J Homan, J K B Kwisthout, J Dubelaar


Generic code of good practices for wood preservation facilities
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50037
Wood preservation chemicals are designed to be toxic to wood destroying organisms. This toxicity, however, may not be limited to target organisms but the use of these chemicals can potentially harm various biota and humans as well. This fact dictates that adequate precautionary measures be employed to prevent any harmful effects to humans and the environment. The extensive experience with wood treatment chemicals has led to the preparation of a "Generic Code of Good Practices for Wood Protection Facilities" (IRG/WP 93-50003). Other international activity exists to develop guidelines for the proper use of wood treatment chemicals, such as by the United Nations (Cleaner Production Guidelines - Wood Preservation, Draft 1, March 1994) and by individual countries, e.g. Germany. These activities show that the desire for proper use guidelines is wide spread. Recognizing the need for good practices, this IRG Document presents a general outline, of which elements might be included in a Code of Good Practices for Wood Preservation Facilities. It is based on existing Technical Recommendations Documents developed and implemented in Canada, which is one of the world's largest manufacturer of preserved wood. This Document is a compendium of recommendations for the design and operating practices of wood preserving facilities. The suggested recommendations focus on achieving the objectives of protecting the environment and workers in wood preservation facilities from harmful exposure to wood preservation chemicals. The recommendations should be considered as generic. Country- and site-specific circumstances may require recommendations specifically adapted to the individual locale in order to best achieve the objectives. This Document addresses only facilities that apply pressure, thermal or double vacuum processes. Although such facilities produce the vast majority of treated wood products throughout the world, it is recognized that a variety of other preservation methods are being practised. To attempt to cover them all would be outside the scope of this Document. However, the Document provides a matrix containing the basic elements and format that should allow its adaptation to incorporate othher types of preservation facilities, chemicals and processes. The Document has been divided in five parts: A - Overview: describing general aspects of wood preservation; B - Design: outlining basic good plant designs; C - Operating Practices: covering safe operations and contingency planning for spills and fires; D - Specific requirements for individual preservatives; E - Regulatory requirements. Although this Document concentrates on the design and operation of wood preservation facilities, the regulatory requirements affecting the industry in many countries may go beyond these issues. It may therefore be beneficial for a Code to cover additional issues, important to the overall life cycle of preservative use, such as recommendations for plant site rehabilitation, the disposal of plant wastes and the disposition of obsolete, treated wood.
V N P Mathur, G Das


Information regarding a report on the "Code of Good Practice" for the use of chlorophenoxides for wood preservation
1984 - IRG/WP 3302
In 1981 the British Columbia Chlorophenate Wood Protection Task Force was formed to respond to workers' health and environmental concerns regarding the use of chlorophenoxides for control of sapstain and mould fungi at sawmills and lumber export terminals. The task force consisted of representatives of both the federal government (Environment Canada) and the provincial government (British Columbia), the B.C. forest industry and labour unions. After two years of deliberations the task force has produced a document "Code of Good Practice" for the design and operation of wood protection facilities. This code provides recommendations for workers' health and safety and for the storage, transportation and disposal of chlorophenoxide liquids and contaminated water and solid wastes. The code details in ten sections such aspects as the need for wood protection; chlorophenols and chlorophenoxides - physical and chemical properties, toxicity, human health effects; personnel protection; general practices at wood protection facilities; recommended design features; recommended operating practices; transportation of chlorophenoxide-containing materials; disposal of wastes; spill contingency planning and a summary of the Canadian legislation on the topic.
V N P Mathur


Framework document for an international code of good practices for wood preservation and wood protection (anti-sapstain) facilities
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3683
At the Kyoto meeting, the Health & Safety committee agreed to form a task force to prepare a global plan for writing a code of good practices (Code) for wood protection and preservation facilities (Doc. No. IRG/WP/3681). The Canadian document had been presented to the IRG group earlier (Doc. No. IRG/WP/3447) and similar documents were solicited from other countries for preparing a framework document to assist in the task. Documents were received from Germany, France, UK, and Sweden. These documents provided information on similar efforts toward establishing a Code in those countries. The guiding principles for preparing the Code will be to reduce or eliminate the releases of preservative/anti-sapstain chemicals in the environment and to minimize the workers' exposure to these chemicals for their health and safety. The recommended practices should be based on the current knowledge of existing technology and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the chemicals. Cooperation of all stakeholders, that is, industry, chemical supliers, regulatory bodies, workers, and other interest groups, in the preparation and approval of the Code should be sought to increase its credibility, usefulness, and effeness. It is proposed to develop a model Code which can be adopted in whole or with modifications in any country, reflecting the site-specific conditions, legislation, and the state of technological sophistication in the industry. The work to date has been conducted ad hoc with the cooperation of Dr. Peek (Germany), Monsieur Ozanne (France), and Dr. Chris Coggins (UK), and the authors acknowledge their assistance in supplying the documents. Based on the available information, it is suggested that the enclosed table of contents be used in the preparation of the framework document for the Code. A task force will be formed to prepare and present the final Code at the next meeting.
V N P Mathur, G Das


A status report on code of good practices
1991 - IRG/WP 3679
Code of Good Practices - Anti Sapstain documents, presented to IRG meetings in the past, are the basic documents for health and safety of the workers and the environment in Canada. The BC Ministry of Environnment has now issued regulations in the area of effluent discharge. While Pentachlorophenols (PCP) are not used by the industry, the documents are still used as a guideline document for the other anti sapstain chemicals. New chemicals suppliers are adhering to the same format in preparing similar documents, for example, Kop-Cote has issued a Code of Good Practices document on the use of NP-1. In Eastern Canada, Environment Canada and the Atlantic Provinces have now set up a task group to develop a chemical management guidance document for the regional wood protection industry. In the near future, it is expected that a generic code of good practices will be developed based on the chemical management guidance document. The generic code shall be used by all anti sapstain facilities in Canada, irrespective of the chemical used. Code of Good Practices - Wood Preservation documents were published and reported to IRG in earlier meetings. An assessment of effectiveness and use of these documents is nearly complete. Forestry Canada will support other federal departments in setting up a task force to update these documents in 1992. Through a contract, a video has been prepared to increase the awareness among the plant personnel on the Code of Good Practices for oil-borne preservatives. We expect that the IRG Health and Safety Committee will create a dialogue among all the members from different countries so as to increase the awareness of health and safety of workers in the wood preservation industry and the safety of the environment. Information should be exchanged regarding the actual studies, proposed plan etc., so that all can benefit from the work done by others, rather than duplicating the work already done by somebody else. The Committee should set up a task group to prepare a global plan for writing a Code of Good Practices for wood protection and preservation facilities.
V N P Mathur, G Das


A report on the development of "Technical Recommendations Document for the Canadian wood preservation and protection facilities"
1987 - IRG/WP 3447
The wood preservation and wood protection industry uses chemicals which are similar. However, because the methods of applications of preservatives are different in wood preservation (pressure treatment) and wood protection (surface treatment) plants, their problems need to be resolved separately. As a part of a federal strategy to protect the environment and human health from potentially toxic commercial chemicals in use in Canada, Environment Canada (EC) decided to develop Technical Recommendations (TR) documents for the Canadian Wood Protection and Preservation facilities. These TR documents define design and operational measures which will protect the environment and worker health. The measures are based on current knowledge of existing technology and current knowledge of physical, chemical and biological properties of the preservative chemicals. A significant amount of background information has been included in the TR documents in order to provide readers with the factual basis which supports the suggested designs and recommended operational practices. Although the recommendations are specific, the focus is on achieving the objectives of protecting the environment and workers from harmful exposure to preservative chemicals. Site-specific circumstances may require the modification of certain recommendations in order to best achieve these objectives.
G Das, V N P Mathur


Soft-rot testing. Memo to CEN
1983 - IRG/WP 2206 A
1. Development of a single test procedure to assess performance of preservatives against soft rot fungi is an ideal that cannot be realised at present, if results are to be both reproducible between laboratories and pertinent to the practical requirements of individual countries. 2. Consensus opinion amongst members of Sub Group I - Soft rot tests, of Working Group II - Fundamentals of Testing, of the IRG, is that the immediate needs of CEN would be best answered by: (a) a code of recommended practice, (b) a multiplicity of test procedures, and (c) a degree of flexibility in test procedures. 3. The code of recommended practice should recognise the need for: (a) a pure culture, synthetic medium (sand or vermiculite + nutrients), single wood species test to be adopted by all laboratories as a common reference point of testing, (b) mixed inoculum and/or unsterile soil laboratory or fungus cellar tests which account for local variations in the fungal flora, (c) incorporation of a range of wood species where applicable (i.e. where mixed hardwoods comprise the main resource), (d) provision of local internal standards of known performance under field conditions, (e) incorporation of leaching procedures other than standard methods with deionized water (e.g. mild acid, milk alkali, ionic solutions of various salts) where applicable to local exposure conditions, (f) precise definition of the criteria used for establishing toxic thresholds (mass loss, strength loss, microscopic examination). 4. Initial screening tests should remain the province of the individual research worker. 5. The code of recommended practice should have the sole purpose of establishing provisional retention levels for subsequent confirmation by field trial. 6. IRG should list and approve test procedures considered adequate to establish toxic thresholds for preservatives against soft rot fungi. 7. It should be clearly understood that when using a series of test techniques, it is inevitable that a range of toxic thresholds will be obtained for the same preservative. 8. Guidelines should be drawn up for interpretation of test data for subsequent transformation to provisional retention levels. 9. Adoption of the broad principles outlines above is recognition of the dynamic nature of toxic thresholds. The additional information obtained by a more flexible, and complex, approach to testing may make interpretation more difficult but should provide data from which response of preservatives to varying biological and environmental hazards can be more realistically assessed. 10. It is recommended that CEN adopt, in principle, the basic philosophy of testing outlined above and move towards formulation of a Working Document in collaboration with IRG
J A Butcher, D J Dickinson


Developments in the protection of wood and wood-based products
1980 - IRG/WP 340
Technology is playing an increasingly important role in the field of wood protection. This current review highlights how modern techniques have provided greater insight into the biological and physical processes affecting the durability of wood and wood-based products. Emphasis is also given to developments in preservative testing methodology and to the encouraging changes towards both the correct use of timber and the improvement of Standards and Codes of Practice. A final section, on recent technical developments in wood preservation, considers subjects ranging from an evaluation of new specific biocides to methods of increasing the permeability of refractory timber species.
J M Baker


Factors affecting leaching of preservatives in practice
1978 - IRG/WP 3113
At the 7th Meeting of the IRG in Poland in May 1975, the findings of collaborative laboratory leaching techniques were discussed, and the dangers inherent in using such results to predict the behaviour of preservative-treated components in service were emphasised. In order to improve our understanding of the factors governing leaching of preservatives in practice, and to identify areas where further research is required, it was agreed that a literature review should be prepared. This is presented below. Some points may be made regarding its format and content. First, the review shows that a large number of factors are of importance, including the properties of the wood, the leach water, the preservative and method of application and the nature of the environment to which the product is exposed. In many situations these factors interact and it is clearly impossible within the scope of this short paper to discuss all aspects of the problem in detail. However, the compilation of references will give ready access to the literature on particular topics. For ease of collation, the findings are discussed under a number of different headings. Secondly, less than one-third of the references cited deal with the results of service or field trials, while the others describe laboratory experiments designed to provide comparative data. The reservations expressed above concerning such small-scale experiments must be borne in mind when considering the validity of these findings. The information available on this topic up till 1964 was comprehensively reviewed by Wallace who identified and commented upon many of the factors discussed below. Her paper contained discussion on the performance of individual preservatives and on the mechanism of their fixation within the wood. These topics will not be considered here in any detail except insofar as they reflect general trends.
R Cockcroft, R A Laidlaw


Japanese Classification of Wooden Building Members for ISO Use Classes according to the Building Code in Japan.
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20337
Because of the international approve of use class system for the biological degradation of wood by ISO/DIS 21887 and ISO/DIS 21892, Japanese committee of ISO/TC165/SC1 asked to the JWPA for classify the wooden commodities by use class of these draft ISO. The JWPA was prepared a draft use class model in Japan. Japanese building code systems are described and Japanese draft use class system is also described.
K Suzuki


A study of salt imbalances observed in recycled copper/chrome/arsenic preservative solutions in commercial practice
1987 - IRG/WP 3461
The study reported monitored tank solutions, sludge and other by-products using a standard CCA solution, when recycled. This recycling of the CCA solution is quite usual in between any commercial treatment schedules. Salt imbalances were observed and the possible reasons for such phenomena were studied. The paper discusses the procedure followed, the method of sampling the liquid after the charge and the analysis, to arrive finally at an aggregation and conclusion from the data.
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee


The practice of using concrete on wood piling for marine use in Thailand
1982 - IRG/WP 492
The practice of using concrete on wooden poles has been carried on in Thailand for a long time in pile-houses and pier constructions which have been situated in, or partly in the sea. In such instances, the hewed round and/or square-sawn heartwood poles of naturally durable timber species have been coated with concrete of about 5 to 10 cm or more in thickness, and to about 100 cm above the highest tide level. Very durable species such as Xylia kerrii Craib & Hutch., Shorea obtusa Wall., Pentacme suavis A.DC., Hopea odorata Roxb., and Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz were used for such poles. They were well air-dried before the application and coated with a special mixture of concrete, which consisted of sand, crushed lime and stone, and cement powder which was used 1-2 times more than the concrete mixture used for general masonry. The performance of these poles treated in this way, as far as could be ascertained from the users, is about 15 to 20 years, or even more in some instances. Unfortunately it has not been possible to obtain exact data on the service life of these concrete-coated poles. Also palm trees have been used in sea-water without any treatment. The palm trees that have been used are Livistona saribus Herr., and Livistona speciesa Kurz. These have been used as piling for anchoring fishing boats to, because of their high elasticity and also as piles for supporting piers. They have given performances of more than 10 years of service. The outer parts of these trees are very strong and naturally durable to marine borer attack, but the inner parts of them are not resistant to decay fungi, although even though their inner parts have become rotted, they have remained strong enough for the above-mentioned purposes of utilization. If these palm trees are treated with suitable preservatives before being put into use, in order to protect them against the decay fungi, their service lives are much greater than those of untreated palms.
B Anuwongse


Impregnation of timber and regulations applied to preservation practice in Greece
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-04
The practice of wood preservation in Greece was started about 80 years ago and refer to creosote-treated timber used in ground contact (i.e. railway sleepers, poles). At present, three creosote impregnation plants and thirteen CCA or CCB units exist in Greece treating about 90.000 m3 of wood per year. Most of the research on wood preservation has been carried out in the last 15-20 years and refer to the application of creosote and water soluble preservatives (CCA, CCB) to native wood species. However, research on a number of specific topics of wood impregnation is lacking. Impregnation of wood is of great importance for Greece, a country with great wood deficit, and, for this reason, the elongation of wood durability is strongly desirable. On the other hand, the environmentally safe impregnation of timber and the use of preservatives in a non-hazardous manner to humans or animals are gaining an increasing importance. There are some national and EU regulations applied to the use of preservatives, while the Greek Organization of Standardization (ELOT) is responsible for approving European standards. The organizations of Greek Telecommunication, Electricity and Railway apply their own standards.
S Adamopoulos, E Voulgaridis


An audit of copper chrome arsenic timber treatment plants throughout Queensland
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50047
Thirty seven copper chrome arsenic (CCA) timber treatment plants in Queensland were assessed according to the operational criteria specified in Australian Standard 2843.2 - 1985, Timber Preservation Safety Code - Plant Operation. The criteria have been designed to provide information on the design and operational activities of a CCA plant. Design aspects that have an effect on the environment are also covered. The paper presents a summary of the responses obtained from a survey based on a checklist provided in AS2843.2. The responses indicate a range of compliance with the Standard. Relevance of the various specifications are also discussed.
J Norton


Survey of North American practice in conditioning forest products before preservative treatment
1972 - IRG/WP 308
Seasoning requirements for the wide range of forest products which are treated with preservatives and fire retardants must be capable of dealing with a very complex set of conditions which are summarized under a number of variables including type and hazard of end use, the most effective distribution of preservative, a wide range of cross sectional dimensions, the possibility of seasoning by a range of special methods which are in part dependent upon available treating facilities and a wide range of physical properties of the wood including, for example, its permeability to fluids. In addition, the wide range of species utilized in end uses requiring preservation means that large inventories are associated with certain seasoning processes such as air drying to the cost of the treater and consumer. There have been trends to use rapid seasoning methods wherever possible, such as boultonizing, and there are now trends to extend the use of other drying methods to some of the products of a larger cross section which are given preservative treatment. These products include railway cross ties and utility poles, and the methods include, for example, vapour drying and special techniques of kiln drying.
J Rak, T S McKnight


Field Tests on Poles. A report from practice
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20343
A routine field inspection of some 1000 creosote poles during summer 2005 in northern Jutland, Denmark. The routine inspection was done by hammering, Pilodyn testing and taking core samples with a Matson Borer. Additionally a drill resistance measurement was done with a device consisting of the drill machine with a long, flexible steel needle with 1,5mm diameter and the measuring computer/battery-block (“Resistograph”). The needle is drilled with constant speed into the wood and the power uptake of the drill is measured. It showed excellent features for the investigation of poles or other wooden elements in service. But it is time consuming and heavy, thus, the old hammer method revealed to be still the fastest possibility to find out questionable poles. Thus, as an additional tool the Resistograph can be used at least on poles that were found to be in questionable condition and also on poles of particular importance, for example near roads or other places where a failure could lead to severe damages.
A Peylo, C-G Bechgaard


Practice Makes Perfect: A Biodeterioration Diagnostics Database that Makes Practice
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10648
Replacement of bio-based materials deteriorated by pests costs billions annually and wastes natural resources. Wood replacement rates have remained relatively stable despite significant advances in wood preservation. This may be explained, in part, by poor end-use by uninformed users and by inadequate pest management once products are in service. This problem may be exacerbated by two opposing facts: 1) bio-based products are diversifying, leading to novel issues and a wider array of problems, and 2) students and professionals in biodeterioration fields rely primarily on hands-on diagnostics experience. This experience accumulates slowly for most, especially those who are not yet called upon as experts. There is a growing knowledge gap. I am developing a biodeterioration database as one potential technology-enhanced solution, aiming to create a continuously-updated teaching tool for students and to give diagnostics practice to professionals, including young faculty. The Biodeterioration Diagnostics Database (the ‘Rot Bot’) acts as an online compendium of real-world biodeterioration case studies and was built using a web-based wiki prototype. Unlike an operable wiki site, however, the database allows for a review process both to provide control by the site manager and to give contributors an incentive with an authored, printable, and citable document. The working database design, with tables and relationships, is constructed first (back-end forward approach). The web front-end is created second with optimization of site navigation via PHP scripts (11 total scripts). An image upload feature to standardize pixel size is set up, along with an automatic email notification when new contributions are made. The site is housed on the University of Minnesota server, and is intended for international users to share case studies, to learn, and to strengthen the expertise within our field of wood protection.
J S Schilling


Ensure Durable Wood-Frame Construction under the Climate and Biological Hazards in Shanghai
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20413
This paper provides technical background for developing durability-related provisions for the Shanghai wood-frame construction code. It summarizes the related climate, decay and termite hazards in this area as well as traditional durability solutions used for wood and wood hybrid constructions in China. The overall durability principles or philosophy used throughout this durability chapter are to improve and ensure building durability using integrated protection methods by appropriate design and construction and by using preservative-treated or naturally durable wood where necessary. Of these principles, durability by design is taken as the most fundamental approach for achieving good long-term performance of a building as a whole, and using durable wood where necessary to ensure the durability of individual components. This chapter covers moisture and termite management, and whenever possible multiple lines of defence are provided. Meanwhile, the practical side is also taken into consideration in order to make sure that all measures are buildable on construction sites with a reasonable cost.
Jieying Wang, Chun Ni, Jiahua Zhang


Acquisition of sorption isotherms for modified woods by the use of dynamic vapour sorption instrumentation: Principles and Practice
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40518
The complex wood-water relationship has been the topic of numerous studies. Sorption isotherms – in particular – have been derived for hundreds of wood species, their sap- and heartwood sections as well as for decayed, engineered and modified wood materials. However, the traditional methods for obtaining sorption isotherms are very time consuming. With new dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) instrumentation, the acquisition of data for constructing sorption isotherms is suddenly dramatically lowered. Where the traditional methods often required months, data can now be obtained in a matter of days depending on the number of data points required. The fast data acquisition makes DVS a useful tool in studying the sorption properties of wood, and especially in studying the effect of different modification treatments on these properties. This study includes an investigation of the sorption properties of heat treated and acetylated softwood. The results of both are compared with results for untreated softwood, and general remarks regarding the acquisition and interpretation of sorption data are made. It is pointed out that care must be taken when interpreting results such as desorption isotherms not commencing from full water saturation. The sorption properties of heat treated Scots pine (Celloc) and acetylated Radiata pine (Accoya) showed a greater hysteresis effect for the previous than both acetylated and untreated softwood. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the different modification treatments was quantified by the reduction in moisture content relative to untreated Scots pine sapwood. This may be used in future documentation of the resistance of modified wood to fungal decay.
E T Engelund, M Klamer, T Mark Venås


Managing termite risks – An Australian perspective and a cautionary tale
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20482
The management of the risks of termite attack on new buildings in Australia falls to a range of agencies and is mostly achieved through controlling the process by which structures are certified as complying with the Building Code of Australia. Australian Standard AS3660 parts 1, 2 & 3 have historically been the core of this function but now the Building Codes Board's own certification scheme, Codemark™, is making inroads. Subterranean termites are a threat to structures across the whole of mainland Australia but the risk is lower towards the south and is zero in Tasmania. Management of the termite risk for new buildings is required wherever there is deemed to be a threat. In parts of Victoria, some areas are deemed not to be at risk even though these endemic pests are active. Australian Standard AS3660 parts 1, 2 & 3 is currently being updated and the revisions are expected to be published in early 2013. The peak structural timber pest manager group, the Australian Environmental Pest Managers' Association, has begun a series of industry Codes of Practice which set out industry practice an so exceed Australian Standards which necessarily set minimum criteria. This paper discusses the regulatory system in Australia and current industry trends.
D Ewart


Depictions on Wood: Acceptation and Internalization of Wood, which is an intercultural interaction tool, as “A Valuable Object” (Wood is Good)
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40694
These sample descriptions have been made for the course named “Importance of Wood in Intercultural Interaction”, a new elective course for all undergraduate students of Hacettepe University, within the framework of the curriculum of Wood Products Industrial Engineering, which has been updated within the scope of Bologna Process. With this course, designed by a woodlover viewpoint for the first time in our country, it was aimed to sample the role of wood in intercultural interaction through informing students about the role/importance of wood in intercultural interaction and introducing its phenomenal construction in various cultures through descriptions in order to raise awareness about wood, a natural material.
I Usta


Termite Management and the U.S. Experience: A Case for Wood Treatment & Integrated Control
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30678
A brief overview of termite control is given using specific experiences from the U.S.A. Five major types of termite treatment now prevail: soil applied chemical barriers, in-structure chemical barriers (in-situ applied wood and foundation treatments), physical barriers, treated wood and termite baits. In general, ‘stand-alone’ pretreatments or ‘primary’ treatments are often discussed and even required, although in actuality control typically relies on a number of interacting factors. The different termite control systems are discussed as well as some important building code and construction aspects which can help or hinder long-term protection against termites. The control strategies in current use are explained and performance of primary control strategies for various pests and construction types, and possible supplemental treatments are suggested. It was found that no single treatment can perform in all areas and on all construction types and a summary table developed should help specifiers select appropriate protection.
J D Lloyd, K van den Meiracker


Durability of acetylated Radiata pine: Laboratory tests and performance in practice
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40899
Wood acetylation is an established process to enhance biological durability and dimensional stability of lower valuable wood species without the use of biocides. Acetylated Radiata pine (ACCOYA® wood) has been on the market for more than 10 years now, starting in 2007. Numerous lab tests have confirmed the high durability of acetylated Radiata pine. Here, additional data with four Radiata pine assortments of different origin and quality are shown. All tested variants achieved durability class 1 in both the basidiomycete test and soft rot test according to EN 350. Thereby, no significant differences of the durability characteristics between and within the assortments were found, even though different initial wood qualities were used. Since acetylated wood has not been on the market for that long, less is known about the long-term performance in practice although several long-term field tests are running. As a result of an inspection and evaluation of seven Accoya® constructions exposed outdoors in the Netherlands and Germany over a period of 1 to 10 years, the high dimensional stability and durability against wood-destroying fungi could be confirmed. From the perspective of the authors of this study, the results of the investigation confirm the results of standard lab tests and practical experiences, where the durability class 1 "very durable" (EN 350) was determined.
K Jacobs, W Scheiding, B Weiß