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Timber infesting species of Col. Lyctidae and Bostrichidae imported into Germany since ca. 1985
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10385
This contribution to the knowledge of passively and unintendedly dispersed species of Col. Bostrichoidea has been derived from the author's private investigation in cooperation with German quarantaine institutions from 1996 to 1999. It is a brief summing-up of the importations of timber infesting "Powder-post Beetles" (Col. Lyctidae) and "Borer Beetles" (Bostrichoidae) into a European industrial country at the end of the century. Altogether 26 (Lyctidae: 9; Bostrichoidae: 17) species of Col. Bostrichoidae are recorded as imported into Germany during the last one and a half decade of the century. The foreign species of several samplings sent for identification are compiled in an annotated list of species together with the imported species published in miscellaneous articles of various journals since ca. 1985. All the species of the living samples and most of the finds published by other authors are determined or prooved by the author of this paper. The article is dedicated to the memory of Dr. h.c. Siegfried Cymorek, the outstandingly initiative German specialist of timber insects, particularly of Col. Bostrichoidae, and the leading member of DESOWAG, Krefeld, who in 1987 passed away in the zenith of his creative work.
K U Geis


Penichroa fasciata (Stephens) (Col. Cerambycidae) a pest in wood materials
1988 - IRG/WP 1365
Penichroa fasciata (Stephens) (Col. Cerambycidae) is found to be a frequent pest occurring in hardwood in storage in Italy. This paper reports the characteristic for identification, biological features, distribution and timber liable to attack.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi.


Über den Nagekäfer Oligomerus ptilinoides (Wollaston), Col., Anobiidae: Verbreitung und Einschleppung, Bestimmung, Lebens- beziehungen und Befallsmerkmale mit Vergleichen zu Nicobium
1980 - IRG/WP 1102
Oligomerus ptilinoides occurs in the Mediterranian and Black-sea area, in North-Africa and Asia minor as an important pest causing severe damage to dry wood. By travelling, by the immigration of people from south to north, and by accidental introductions the species tends to establish itself north of the Alps. Severe damage has recently been observed in two museums. An account is given of aspects of taxonomy, the pattern of attack compared with that of Nicobium hirtum and Nicobium castaneum, of the anatomy of the larvae, on symbiosis, and on behavioural features of the beetles.
S Cymorek


Review of the literature on Lyctidae (Coleoptera)
1987 - IRG/WP 1211
E Graf


Studies on the infestation behaviour of the powder-post beetle Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) and its physical control in the wood yards of the Caspian forests of Iran
1985 - IRG/WP 1271
Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) is a pest which has not been previously thoroughly studied in Iran. It severely attacks Iranian hardwoods, especially those used in wooden houses and that have not been treated. Research work was necessary to determine the natural resistance of the most important timber species in Iran against this insect.
P Niloufari


Die Verbreitung de Hausbockkäfers Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) Serville (Col., Cerambycidae). Versuch einer kartographischen Erfassung seines Vorkommens
1980 - IRG/WP 1120
Die Larven des Hausbockkäfers Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) Serville gehören in den meisten europäischen Ländern und in einigen Überseegebieten zu den wirtschaftlich bedeutendsten Schädlingen verbauten Nadelholzes. Über die historische Einstufung und über die Vermutungen der Herkunft des Käfers, über frühere und aktuelle Berichte über Vorkommen und Schäden finden sich zahlreiche Literaturangaben, die der Autor zusammengefaßt hat. In dieser Arbeit soll der Versuch unternommen werden, die bisher bekannt gewordenen Befallsorte und -gebiete kartenmäßig zu erfassen.
H Becker


An annotated list of Anobiidae (Col.) known from New Zealan
1983 - IRG/WP 1200
R Crabtree


The geographical distribution of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L) Serville (Col., Cerambycidae). An attempt at a cartographical compilation of existing data
1978 - IRG/WP 176
The larvae of the house longhorn beetle belong to the most economically important pests of softwood in service in most European countries and also in some areas overseas. I have reported earlier regarding the history, the question of where the pest originally came from, and concerning attacks in earlier and recent times (1968, 1970, 1974, 1976). In this report an attempt has been made to compile cartographically the currently existing data.
H Becker


Threshold levels for dip treatments of chlorpyrifos for borer control
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10137
Chlorpyrifos has been used in non-pressure treatments of freshly sawn lumber and millwork for ten years or longer to control wood boring beetles. Since chlorpyrifos provides a quick kill of existing beetle larvae at the time of the treatment in solution concentrations as low as 0.05%, treaters tend to use less than recommended rates as a cost saving measure. However, laboratory studies conducted in the United States and Europe have shown that concentrations of 0.5% to 1.0% are needed for residual control. A review of these laboratory studies is presented in this paper.
R D Fears, J L Leca


Bemerkungen zu Oligomerus ptilinoides (Wollaston), (Col., Anobiidae): Über Lebensbeziehungen, Merkmale, Verbreitung und Einschleppungen nördlich der Alpe
1978 - IRG/WP 187
Oligomerus ptilinoides occurs in the Mediterranian and Black-sea area, in North-Africa and Asia minor as an important pest causing severe damage to dry wood. By travelling, by the movement of people from south to north, the species tends to establish north the alps. Bad attacks were observed recently in museums. An account is given on taxanomy, the pattern of attack and biological details.
S Cymorek


Laboratory induction of pupation and emergence in Anobium punctatum (Deg) (Col Anobiidae)
1973 - IRG/WP 219
The reluctance of Anobium punctatum to pupate and emerge outside its normal summer emergence period has led to attempts to induce pupation by artificial manipulation of the temperature conditions at which larvae are held. Infested hazel (Corylus avellana) twigs were subjected to temperature schedules which simulated some aspects of a spring climate. It was found that 40 days of a diurnal temperature fluctuation between 7°C and 13°C induced 60% emergence beginning 80 days after return to a constant 22°C. A progressive increase in temperatures after this initial period of 40 days failed to give any marked change in percentage emergence.
R W Berry


New perspectives on the biology of the tropical powderpost beetle, Minthea rugicollis (Walk.)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10085
Minthea rugicollis (Walk.) is one of the most important pests of seasoned hardwoods in the tropics. The species owes its ubiquity largely to its insidious development within a nutrient-filled environment and also to a strong coevolutionary specialization with its natural habitat, wood. Such an environment provides a buffer to extrinsic fluctuations and accounts for a wider range of tolerance by immature stages to variations in climatic conditions than would otherwise be possible. Aspects of culture methods, characteristic habits and external tolerances are emphasised so as to generate new perspectives in understanding the fundamental biology of this organism and to improve current wood preservation strategies.
F Abood, R J Murphy, R W Berry


Über Hausbock Hylotrupes bajulus (L.), (Col., Cerambycidae), in Laubholz: Versuche mit Laubholzarten, Prüfung der Wirkung von Ligninstoffen und von Ginkgo biloba, Beobachtungen an Hesperophanes. [On House-longhorn Beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.), (Col., Cerambycidae) in hardwood: Investigations with several hardwood-species, tests on activity of lignin components and Ginkgo biloba, observations on Hesperophanes]
1982 - IRG/WP 1144
Hylotrupes bajulus-larvae feed and develop in softwoods, hardwood acts as a feeding poison. The reason for this is still little known. According to literature some observations contradict this established opinion and the question was raised, whether the colour-strain scutifer (= lividus) is able to live in hardwood. Testing ten European and tropical hardwood-species (following the DIN-EN test procedure 46) with recently hatched larvae of the normal strain and var. scutifer (F3), all larvae died within 4 weeks. Breeding and test results indicated a lethal-factor in the scutifer-strain, as postulated by BECKER (1977). Larvae of medium weight (50...160 mg) transfered into blocs of 9 hardwood-species died or were badly affected within 60 days. Only in Ilomba (Pycnanthus angolensis) 7 of 10 larvae survived, 3 were still in good condition. In combined hardwood-softwood blocs, larvae survived much better, feeding predominantly in the softwood. But they often gnawed through the hardwood and pupation and development into the beetle-stage occured there. Derivates of lignin were tested according to testprocedures DIN-EN 46 (preventive activity) and DIN-EN 47 (determination of thresholds). None of the substances were active in nominal value within the range of concentrations (2.5 or 4%, 18 to 27 kg/m³) tested. The syringa-group, typical for hardwood-lignin, tested by Syringaacid, Syringaaldehyd and Acetosyringon, had no special effect. Wood of the Maiden hair-Tree, Ginkgo biloba (which shows negative reaction to Mäule-reagent by lack of the syringa-group like softwood) was very poisonious even after extractions by water and solvents to the larvae. Thus the softwood-indicator Hylotrupes bajulus underlines the more independent systematic position of the Ginkgobsida. The syringa-group seems not to be decisive alone. Observations of Hylotrupes in hardwood were reported mainly from South- and Southwest-Europe. New observations and breedings of single larvae revealed the probability, that this findings depend on Hesperophanes-species. For example the larvae of Hylotrupes and Hesperophanes cinereus are difficult to distinguish.
S Cymorek


Methods of culturing Lyctidae
1980 - IRG/WP 1126
Members of the tropical countries in the IRG Sub-Group "Insects in dry wood" requested a paper on the breeding of lyctids. Compared with other wood boring insects, such as cerambycids and anobiids, the breeding of lyctids is not as difficult and time consuming. Nevertheless some basic principles have to be observed in the laboratory to obtain successful cu·ltures. It is the intention of this report to give some guidelines for breeding powder-post beetles although I am aware of the fact that a lot has been published in this field.
H Kühne


On the species problem in Nicobium castaneum (Col., Anobiidae)
1975 - IRG/WP 134
Nicobium castaneum (Oliv.) is one of the most important wood and book worms of the Mediterranean area (eg Portugal) and South Russian. It also occurs in the USA and Japan. A previous paper (Cymorek 1972) left open the question: is Nicobium castaneum one or two species? Nicobium castaneum is currently regarded as forming two varieties or sub-species - sub-specific taxa which are rarely well defined in the Coleoptera. When dealing with an insect of economic relevance, the exact determination of its status is necessary for the best application of control measures. The subject is also of interest for the taxonomy and systematics of the Anobiidae. First cross breeding results lead to the impression that probably a single species was concerned. Trials of the fertility of hybrid populations were planned to test this opinion. Results are given below.
S Cymorek


Wood attacking insects in urban areas in Sao Paulo State - Brazil
1985 - IRG/WP 1267
From 1974 to 1984 the investigators of Wood Division (IPT) inspected, for insect attack, more than 1,500 buildings of several kinds: commercial, residencial and historical buildings, houses and industries. In all cases, IPT was asked to give advices on control and erradication. During that time three papers concerning this problem were published (Cavalcante, 1976; De Lelis, 1978; Zanotto & Canedo, 1982). This paper, comprising partial data from the above papers, lists insects found, estimates the costs necessary to control them, and reports the most common factors that have been found favouring infestations in the inspected buildings.
P A Zanotto, M D Canedo, D A T Lelis


Minthea rugicollis (Walk.) (Coleoptera: Lyctidae): A pest of rubberwood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1570
Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) has grown in prominence as a source of timber in recent years. One of the drawbacks in the utilization of this species is its susceptibility to attack by powder-post beetles belonging to the family Lyctidae. In Malaysia, Minthea rugicollis (Walk) is the, most commonly found species attacking seasoned rubberwood. In this paper, information available thus far on Minthea rugicollis is collated in brief and an outline given of a current research project aimed at developing comprehensive information on the biology of this important pest of rubberwood. Some inherent properties of rubberwood and their effect on the activities of Minthea rugicollis will also be investigated.
F Abood, R W Berry, R J Murphy


Evaluation of fungi isolated from the galleries of the striped ambrosia beetle Xyloterus lineatus (Ol.) (Col., Scolytidae)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10092
Fungi from the galleries of the striped ambrosia beetle Xyloterus lineatus (Trypodendron lineatum) (Ol.) found in spruce logs were studied. The following fungi were isolated and identified: Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, the yeast Pichia anomale Hansen (Kurzman), the blue-stain fungus Ceratocystis piceae (graphium) (Münch) Bakshi and a fungus closely similar to Ceratocystis araucariae (anamorph). The growth rate of the fungi was determined on potato dextrose agar (Difco). The most intensive mycelial growth activity was observed at 20 and 25°C. Fungi stained the wood but did not cause significant weight loss of spruce and pine sapwood samples in laboratory conditions. Enzymatical activity was studied by using simple laboratory test methods. Specific ectoenzymes involved in wood decay were determined.
G Babuder,F Pohleven


Note and literature survey on the "Eucalyptus borer" Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col.; Cerambycidae), a pest in between forest and wood
1984 - IRG/WP 1228
In the Eucalyptus-forests of Huelva, Spain, Phoracantha semipunctata appears as a severe forest-pest fatal to trees impaired by drought. The population snowballed in two and a half years, millions of larvae reduce the value of wood to "papermill-quality''. One of the intentions of the paper is to collect knowledge for help and cure. A literature survey forms the main part of the paper.
S Cymorek