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Fungicidal combination products
1987 - IRG/WP 3426
Due to the increased pressure on some of the established fungicides used in wood preservation, possible alternative products become more interesting. The requirements for new chemicals are mainly lower toxicity and greater environmental acceptability. However the efficacy to target organisms should be as good as that of the currently used ones, preferably better. A possibility for progress in this direction could be fungicidal combination products showing broader spectrum of efficacy and synergistic effects. Mixtures of tributyltin compounds with Furmecyclox and K-HDO respectively are tested for this purpose. Toxic values with and without artificial ageing (wind-tunnel exposure and leaching) were determined. Investigations have been made with coating-formulations in order to test penetration, evaporation and the influence of UV-radiation. Aqueous formulations were tested for special purposes such as the treatment of freshly cut timber and the protection of brickwork. The results obtained are very promising, especially regarding long term durability. Further investigations mainly with the aqueous formulations including other test fungi and field trials are necessary to confirm the suggested application as wood preservatives.
H A B Landsiedel

Oxygen index levels and thermal analysis of wood treated with melamine-formaldehyde-boron combinations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30135
Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin was impregnated into scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens with aqueous solutions of 5, 10 and 20% concs. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) was added to MF resin at the concentration levels of 0.25, 1.00 and 4.70% to each level of resin concs. BA and BX mixture was prepared at the 5:1 (w/w) ratio considering resultant pH of solutions and better fire resistance. Untreated and treated wood with all combinations were subjected to oxygen index test according to ASTM D 2863-91 and thermal analysis. Results were evaluated in terms of improvement of fire retarding performances of wood by sole or combination treatments.
M K Yalinkilic, W-Y Su, Z Demirci, E Baysal, M Takahashi, S Ishihara

Environmentally benign wood preservatives based on organic biocide antioxidant combinations: A brief review of laboratory and field exposure results and discussion of a proposed mechanism
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30335
The combination of various organic biocides with commercial antioxidants generally increased the biocides’ efficacy 2-3 fold against wood-destroying fungi in short-term laboratory decay tests, and some positive results have been obtained after 2-4 years of outdoor exposure. The two antioxidants principally examined, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene, are low cost and, since both are food additives, benign. The biocides studied have either been examined as potential wood preservatives or are used in commercial wood preservative systems. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) briefly summarize our prior laboratory decay results; 2) briefly discuss results obtained so far from outdoor exposure tests, both above-ground and ground-contact exposure; 3) discuss differences in results between laboratory decay tests and the outdoor exposure data; and 4) propose a mechanism by which antioxidants could protect wood.
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, W Henry, C Pittman, D Wipf, B Goodell

Protection of pile tops using combinations of internal treatments and water shedding caps
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30020
Preservative treatment produces an excellent barrier against fungal, insect, and marine borer attack; however, fabricators often disrupt this barrier during construction, creating avenues for entry of decay agents. This problem is particularly acute in marinas along the coastal United States. Standards recommend the application of a water-shedding cap at the time of installation to prevent pile top decay, but this practice is often ignored because the preservatives are sloppy and difficult to apply. As a result, piles along the cost have a high incidence of top decay. In this report, we describe the results of field trials of a variety of simple capping devices in combination with remedial chemical treatments at a marina located near Newport, Oregon. In general, capping alone significantly reduced the incidence of decay fungi in the piles as did application of remedial chemicals. Combinations of both caps and biocides provided the highest degree of protection.
P Schnieder, M A Newbill, J J Morrell

Wettability and bonding strength of wood thermally-treated with different combinations of soy oil and chemical additives
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40454
Thermal treatment is a method which has gained wider acceptability as an alternative to the chemical treatment in wood preservation. In order to maximize the benefits of this technique several options have been adopted including the use of soy oil in transferring the heat to the wood. Available information on thermal treatment in general and the oil method in particular show that there are still need for further investigations on the possibilities of improving the available options in order to evolve new techniques. Thermal treatment of three wood species of commercial importance in Canada and North America in general was carried out at in different combinations of soy oil, slack wax and cobalt stain medium. The effect of chemical additives in soy oil during thermal treatment depends on both wood species and the type of additives. The slack wax generally has higher impacts than the cobalt stain and black spruce (Picea mariana) shows more consistent response to the effects of the chemical additives.
L Awoyemi, P A Cooper, T Ung

The Concept of Copper and Boron Synergy: Why Copper Naphthenate and Borates are a Couple Made in Heaven
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30622
Fungicides are often combined for four basic reasons:(1) to widen the spectrum of the fungicidal activity in which to broaden the spectrum of activity, (2) to exploit additive and synergistic activities between actives, and the activities are increased and thereby reducing the needs for the higher loadings of the active in the substrate, (3) to delay the resistance of one of the actives in the formulation while the population of the pathogens/fungi while the mixture controls biological attack, and (4) to control a active resistant fungi or group of fungi indiginant to the area in which the fungicidally protected substrate is being utilized.This paper explores the copper plus co-biocide systems that have been used and shows that Copper Naphthenate plus Boron is an extremely effective combination, considering all the copper salts/soaps, and demonstrates some of the reasons this system is very superior for many industrial applications.
M H Freeman