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Silicic acid-Boric acid complexes as wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30273
A silicic acid monomer aqueous solution (SAMS) or colloidal silicic acid solution (CSAS) was combined with various metal compounds or boric acid. Agents where SAMS or CSAS was combined with boric acid gave good protection against decay caused by the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris, the treated wood (Cryptomera japonica D. Don) specimens after the leaching test maintained a high resistance to decay. The leaching and decay tests revealed high quantities of chemicals leaching from wood treated with SAMS-metal agents. However, when wood was treated with SAMS-boric acid, there was little leaching of agent in either test. The mechanism of resistance of wood, which was treated with boric acid mixed with CSAS or SAMS, to the brown-rot fungus F. palustris were investigated. When the concentration of boric acid was high, mycelial growth was inhibited completely and no protein production was detected. When the amount of boric acid was low, the xylanase, mannase and cellulase activities were lower than with control wood powder. When wood was treated with silicic acid only, its resistance to termites increased, but not to the marked extent observed after treatment with a mixture of silicic and boric acids. Also, increasing the quantity of boric acid increased the mortality rate of termites, and shortened the time to death. From field tests on stakes over three years, it was shown that even if stakes were placed near the termite exit, those treated with silicic acid and high levels of boric acid maintained their original form. Combustion tests showed that with high levels of boric acid, flaming and glowing combustion times were shortened. When boric acid-methanol solution was added at of rate of not less than 25 ml for 100 ml of CSAS, flaming and glowing combustion were not observed. Though the charring length of the wood- specimen, which was treated with silicic acid¡boric acid agent, decreased to 1/3 of that of control wood, the charring lengths were not influenced by the level of boric acid. However, the volume of smoke decreased relative to the amount of boric acid that had been added. When powdery boric acid was combined with CSAS, it was considered that the treated woods have higher anti-weather properties than when boric acid-methanol solution was mixed with CSAS. The agent- preparation method adopted should be considered carefully after taking the treatment process and the intended use of the preservative-treated wood into account.
H Yamaguchi

Effects of Borax and Boric Acid as Fire Retardants on the Resistance of Pterygota macrocarpa Wood to Fire Tests
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30770
The combustible nature of wood as a building material, when exposed to hazards of fire underscores the reason for fire retardant treatments. Pterygota macrocarpa wood is commonly used by builders in Nigeria for roof and other structural applications. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the effect of Borax and Boric acid on the fire-retardant properties of P. macrocarpa wood. Wood samples of dimension 200 x 95 x 10 mm were obtained from the harvested tree of P. macrocarpa across and along at 25%, 50% and 75% of the total length. The result revealed that the control samples without any fire retardant treatment had the highest weight loss of 16.06±7.61 %, followed by samples treated with boric acid (14.74%), while the lowest percentage weight loss of 4.26±1.51 % was observed for P. macrocarpa wood treated with borax. The study shows that percentage weight loss due to combustion of borate-treated wood samples decreases with an increasing proportion of borax in the treatment combination revealing that borax provides better protection than boric acid.
J M Owoyemi, O Apogbona, T O Akinwamide

Proposal for further work on accelerated ageing
1988 - IRG/WP 2314
M-L Edlund

A comparison of soft rot, white rot and brown rot in CCA, CCP, CCF, CCB, TCMTB and benzalkonium chloride treated Pinus radiata IUFRO stakes, after 9-15 years exposure at five test sites in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1485
The aim of this study was to determine if decay type varies significantly between five field trial test sites of different soil type, aspect and climate in 9-15 year old, replicate CCA, CCF, CCP. CCB, TCMTB and AAC treated IUFRO stakes. A visual on-site assessment of decay type on every test stake was made and observations confirmed by microscopical examination. Regression analyses were used to determine significant differences of percentage frequency of occurrence of each rot type between sites and preservatives. Large differences in percentage frequency of occurrence of rot type were evident between sites. One site was dominated by brown rot (85%) and two were dominated by soft rot (99 and 91%). The fourth site had intermediate proportions of brown rot (40%) and soft rot (71%) but had the second highest occurrence of white rot (32%) (highest = 37%; lowest = 11%). The fifth site was distinct in that a large proportion of stakes (69%) had both well established brown rot and soft rot. Stakes at the other four sites tended to have only one rot type. Some highly significant preservative effects were also found. Possible causes of these differences are discussed in terms of inter-site soil type, climate and other differences.
R N Wakeling

Finishes for outdoor timbers
1975 - IRG/WP 378

Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy creosote were less decayed than poles treated with medium-heavy creosotes. Poles treated with a light creosote were most decayed.
Ö Bergman

Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity is examined. These wastes can be classified according to their danger characteristics, taking into account the type of additives, their concentration, their availability for the environment, the physical state of the waste. Different disposal pathways are then considered. Combustion, with the possibility of energetic valorization seems the best answer for a major part of these wastes. But this is only possible if good combustion conditions are defined, so that no harmful products are emitted. Moreover, these conditions must be affordable on the technical and economical point of view. Then, some wastes cannot be burned in such a simple way, and need a larger approach, which is presented in this document.
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix

Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions.
M Fougerousse

Collaborative soft rot tests. Names and addresses of collaborators
1973 - IRG/WP 231
IRG Secretariat

Co-operative studies on determining toxic values against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes: Progress report to May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 2339
This document reports progress on the co-operative study between nine laboratories set up following the proposals contained in Document IRG/WP/2316. Results have been received from two laboratories. Toxic values data have been established successfully using the test fungus Coniophora puteana but problems have been encountered with the other test fungi.
A F Bravery, J K Carey

Collaborative soft rot tests: PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1973 - IRG/WP 223
These tests were undertaken as a preliminary to the next series of collaborative soft rot tests. An interim report has already been presented at Berlin in 1972 as Document No: IRG/WP/211
J K Carey, J G Savory

Current techniques for screening initial formulations against Basidiomycetes and soft rot
1978 - IRG/WP 2103
J D Thornton, H Greaves

Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examination. These tests were usually performed with a defined maximum load or deflection path regardless of the remaining degree of elasticity of the test specimens. Recent studies at the BAM revealed that by modifying the method, i.e. by restricting the applied load to the non-destructive interval for each individual test specimen, the calculated modulus of elasticity (MOE) reflect the changing strength properties caused by biological deterioration and allow within a relatively short time valuable predictions on the service life of the treated timber in soil contact.
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph

Moisture content levels and decay of hemlock
1986 - IRG/WP 1287
As a model of decay conditions of wooden members in wooden houses, a decay test was set up in which samples of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) under 4 moisture levels were examined. Each week the samples were weighed and if the weights indicated that their moisture contents were lower than the expected levels, distilled water was added. Every 8 weeks 3 samples from each condition were oven dried at 60°C for 48 hours, up to 48 weeks. After 48 weeks, 3 samples from each condition were oven dried every 16 weeks. The results obtained were as follows: After examining the samples for 96 weeks at 27°C, the mean weight loss of the hemlock samples kept at about 50-100% moisture content level was larger than those of the other levels. If the samples were dried every 8 weeks, the amount of decay in them was not significant. Decay was also not significant in the samples kept at approximately 20-30% moisture content level.
K Suzuki

Marine testing of selected waterborne preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 4137
In 1978 a marine test was established at West Vancouver, B C. to determine the performance of selected waterborne preservatives. The preservatives in test were chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA-C), ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA), a modified formulation of ACA which contained a higher copper content (modified ACA), ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and ammoniacal zinc arsenate (AZA). The wood species used for the test was red pine. After eight years in test the CCA is providing excellent performance at all retentions, while the modified ACA is showing significant deterioration only at the lowest level. The ACA is performing quite well although it shows signs of surface deterioration at all retention levels. The performance of the ACZA is rated as unsatisfactory at retentions below 32 kg/m³ while AZA was considered to be unsuitable for use in the marine environment.
J N R Ruddick

Synergistic effect of boron on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing conidial germination of sapstain and mold fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1565
We evaluated the synergistic effect of boron (4% BAE solution of Tim-Bor or 4% boric acid) on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi using plate bioassay, Southern yellow pine and sweetgum block tests, and green pine log sections: sapstain -- Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi -- Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, and Trichoderma spp. Inhibition of spore germination in plate bioassay by metabolites with boron was more effective than without added boron. Treatment of wood samples with the mixture of boron and unconcentrated metabolites also resulted in the synergistic effect and completely inhibited spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi.
S C Croan, T L Highley

Japan's comments on ISO/DIS 12583-1/2
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20100
The paper describes an accelerated field test for the evaluation of timber preservative formulations against subterranean termites. The method has been adopted by the South African wood preservation industry as a screening method for the approval of wood preservatives for use under SA conditions. The method which is based upon the fungal cellar test offers a rapid means of evaluating the comparative performance of new wood preservative formulations in an environment that accurately reflects field conditions.
P Turner, D Conradie

On Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouzar
1986 - IRG/WP 1285
Donkioporia expansa is found more often in houses than realised until now. Virulence tests according to EN 113 show not only an attack of oak, but also of other hardwoods and even soft-woods.
G Buchwald

Soil virulence tests using Scots pine sapwood
1973 - IRG/WP 222
Following the tests reported in Document No: IRG/WP/210, in which soils from different laboratories were investigated for virulence, supplementary tests have been carried out using Scots pine sapwood and an extended incubation period.
J K Carey, J G Savory

Essais biologiques sur poteaux traités à la Wolmanit C.B. suivant le procédé Boucherie modifé
1974 - IRG/WP 336
D Lapetite, C Jacquiot, J Campredon

Evaluation of new creosote formulations after extended exposures in fungal cellar tests and field plot tests
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30228
Although creosote, or coal tar creosote, has been the choice of preservative treatment for the railroad industry since the 1920s, exuding or "bleeding" on the surface of creosote-treated products has been one incentive for further enhancements in creosote production and utility (Crawford et al., 2000). To minimize this exuding problem, laboratories such as Koppers Industries Inc., USA, and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Division of Chemical and Wood Technology, Melbourne, Australia, have developed changes in processing of coal tar that produce distillates with fewer contaminants. This "clean distillate" is then used to formulate "clean creosote" as a preservative. These new, unique creosote formulations are being investigated as part of a program to enhance the use of regionally important wood species in the United States. Four retention levels of each of two new creosote formulations creosote, one pigment-emulsified creosote (PEC) and one creosote formulation that meets the AWPA Standard C2-95 for P1/P13 creosote (AWPA, 1995a), were applied to two softwood species and two hardwood species. Two laboratory procedures, the soil-block and fungal cellar tests (accelerated field simulator), were used to evaluate the four creosote formulations. These procedures characterized the effectiveness of the wood preservatives. The soil-block tests were used to determine the minimum threshold level of the preservative necessary to inhibit decay by pure cultures of decay fungi. In general, the soil block tests showed there was little difference in the ability of the four creosote formulations to prevent decay at the three highest retention levels as summarized in a previous report by Crawford and DeGroot (1996). The soil-block tests will not be discussed in this report. Fungal cellar tests expose treated wood to mixtures of soil-borne fungi that promote accelerated attack. Crawford and DeGroot (1996) discussed the evaluation of the creosote formulations after 17 months of exposure in the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), fungal cellar. At that point in time data from the fungal cellar tests showed that softwoods are protected better than hardwoods for all four formulations of creosote tested. This report will discuss exposure of the fungal cellar stakes upto 36 months. In addition, field stake tests are being used to verify service life of the new creosote formulations in vivo. Results from accelerated tests are indicative of field performance, but the correlation between laboratory and field results is still being investigated. Field stake tests are regarded as critical, long-term evaluations that provide results most directly related to the performance of treated products in service. In this study, we report on the performance of the creosote formulations after five years of exposure in field tests.
D M Crawford, P K Lebow, R C De Groot

Fungicidal activity of some organic solvents, copper carboxylates and their complexes with 2-aminoethanol
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30136
We evaluated the activity of eight organic solvents against wood - rotting fungus Trametes versicolor in order to choose the most appropriate one for rapid screening tests of some copper(II) carboxylates and their adducts with 2-aminoethanol. Their activity against the selected fungus was classified in the following order: chloroform > N,N-dimethylformamide > acetonitrile > methanol > dimethyl sulfoxide > ethanol > acetone. The non-polar white spirit did not dissolve in the growth medium and the results could not be directly compared with the results for other solvents. As an appropriate solvent for screening of the tested copper(II) carboxylates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was chosen. Minimal inhibitory concentration against Trametes versicolor of the screened carboxylates was in the concentration range of 1x10-4 to 1x10-3 mol/l. Coordinated amine ligands slightly, and not significantly, decreased fungicidal properties of the tested carboxylates.
M Petric, F Pohleven

Possible regulatory status of treated wood waste and implications
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-07
In relation to the European Community or the French regulations, treated wood waste can get two different regulatory status: <<recycled product or fuel>> or <<waste>>. Then, into the waste status, two categories are possible for these residues: <<domestic waste and assimilated>> or <<hazardous waste>>. These different status and categories are important for the environmental issue of treated wood waste management. But they also can have strong economical implications, linked to the waste management cost on one hand and on the materials image on the other hand. On the basis of the EC regulations, up to now, no treated wood waste is namely quoted as <<hazardous waste>>. However, through the classification criteria defined by different EC directives, creosote or heavy metals treated wood waste could be to considered that way. The technical arguments for such a classification and the practical implications are discussed.
G Deroubaix

Protocol for evaluation and approving new wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 2159
M E Hedley, J A Butcher

Results of stake tests on wood preservatives (Progress report to 1974)
1975 - IRG/WP 361
A number of field stake trials on preservative-treated wood have been carried out at Princes Risborough Laboratory from 1928 to the present day, and many of the tests still continue. This paper presents in detail the results obtained to date, covering about 15 000 individual test stakes exposed over the period.
D F Purslow

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