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Moisture content levels and decay of hemlock
1986 - IRG/WP 1287
As a model of decay conditions of wooden members in wooden houses, a decay test was set up in which samples of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) under 4 moisture levels were examined. Each week the samples were weighed and if the weights indicated that their moisture contents were lower than the expected levels, distilled water was added. Every 8 weeks 3 samples from each condition were oven dried at 60°C for 48 hours, up to 48 weeks. After 48 weeks, 3 samples from each condition were oven dried every 16 weeks. The results obtained were as follows: After examining the samples for 96 weeks at 27°C, the mean weight loss of the hemlock samples kept at about 50-100% moisture content level was larger than those of the other levels. If the samples were dried every 8 weeks, the amount of decay in them was not significant. Decay was also not significant in the samples kept at approximately 20-30% moisture content level.
K Suzuki


Report on the monographic card on Coniophora puteana
1973 - IRG/WP 114
A Käärik


Field trials of groundline remedial treatments on soft rot attacked CCA treated Eucalyptus poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3222
A total of 17 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles, which were found to contain 2-5 mm of soft rot in October, 1980, were reinspected in October, 1982. In 1980, 11 of the poles were given a supplemental groundline bandage treatment of either Osmoplastic or Patox, while 6 of the poles were designated as untreated controls. Two years after remedial treatment, samples were removed from the poles for microscopic observations and for chemical retention analysis. It was found that the remedial bandage treatments were effective in preventing any further advance of soft rot. Based on the positive results of this study, a treatment efficacy of five years or longer is predicted.
W S McNamara, R J Ziobro, J F Triana


Monographic information on Lentinus lepideus.markup
1973 - IRG/WP 121
G Seehann, W Liese


Decay patterns observed in butylene oxide modified ponderosa pine attacked by Fomitopsis pinicola
1983 - IRG/WP 1183
Small blocks of ponderosa pine chemically modified by butylene oxide to three different weight percent gains (WPG) were decayed for 2 months with the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola. Wood substance loss and the type of decay pattern recognised were fairly similar both for control and blocks treated to 8 and 15 WPG. No difference in attack was observed between radial or tangential walls in latewood tracheids. Microscopical examination of undecayed wood blocks treated to 23.7 WPG revealed numerous cracks in both the middle lamella regions of radial walls and in cell corners of latewood tracheids. The fungus had gained entry to the cracks, possibly via bordered pits and rays. Attack started from the cracks and progressed along the middle lamella and towards the cell lumen.
T Nilsson, R M Rowell


Some observations on Chlorophora pilosus Forst. var. glabromaculatus Goeze (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)
1980 - IRG/WP 1119
A Gambetta


Data sheet on woodboring insects. 1. Bostrychus capucinus (Linnaeus)
1979 - IRG/WP 193
S Cymorek


Monographic card for Stereum hirsutum
1973 - IRG/WP 119 E
C Jacquiot


Wood-attacking organisms in Brazil
1982 - IRG/WP 1168
Lists of the main wood-attacking beetles, termites, fungi and marine borers in Brazil are presented with the respective wood species from which they were collected.
M S Cavalcante


Report on the monographic card on Coriolus versicolor
1972 - IRG/WP 111
C Jacquiot


Monographic card for Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Wulf. ex Fr.) Karst. (First Draft)
1975 - IRG/WP 131
T Hof


Data sheet on wood-boring insects: Ptilinus pectinicornis (Linnaeus)
1987 - IRG/WP 1334
S Cymorek, M-M Serment


Monographic information on Serpula (Poria) incrassata according to the "Model Questionnaire for preparation of monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi"
1980 - IRG/WP 160
J G Palmer, W E Eslyn


First draft of a monographic card for Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fr.) Murr
1973 - IRG/WP 113
T Hof


Remedial treatment of wood attacked by insects
1981 - IRG/WP 3175
A review is presented of remedial treatments against wood-boring insects in wood in service. Preconditions and fundamental principles of insect control are compared with the control of fungal attack and reasons are given for the fact that remedial treatments against insects are more commonly applied than against fungi. With regard to insect control measures with a simultaneous preventive effectiveness, information is given on preservatives, control measures as well as on testing the effectiveness of preservatives with eradicant action. An evaluation of 40 tests according to EN 22 or DIN 52164 revealed that a mean depth of effectiveness of 15 mm is obtained at mortality rates of 80-84% of Hylotrupes larvae. At a mortality rate of below 75% the mean depth of effectiveness was about 10 mm and above 90% it was about 27 mm. Among the control measures without any preventive effectiveness fumigation and hot-air treatments are referred to. With regard to biological control measures, practical results are not yet available.
H Kühne


List of wood-destroying fungi in Iran
1976 - IRG/WP 138
This list gives information on the wood-destroying fungi collected in the Iranian forests and from felled logs and boards in sawmills until now. They are mainly from the region of the Caspian Forests and from the climatically dry region between Teheran and Azarbaidjan, North Iran. It is understood, that this document may help to give more knowledge outside the country about the specific problems of Iran, or concerned with the regions of the Middle East with great varieties of climate. The collection, which is far from complete, includes 76 species of fungi belonging to 46 different genera. Several of the species have been published already nationally, some internationally. Some species have just been recognised recently in Iran and are mentioned for the first time. These species are marked with (+). All samples of fungi collected are conserved and kept in the laboratories of the Department of Wood Science at the Faculty of Natural Resources, Karadj. Their identification was undertaken by the author and with help of the Centre Technique du Bois, Services des Recherches et Essais (Lab Mycologie du Bois), Paris, and of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
P Soleimani


Fiche pour Stereum hirsutum
1973 - IRG/WP 119
C Jacquiot


Chemical evaluation of borate treated pine sapwood attacked by the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20003
Sapwood of hoop (Araucaria cunninghamii Ait. ex D. Don) and slash (Pinus elliottii Englem.) pines were treated by Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) to provide test specimens. The concentration of boron was defined by chemical analyses of the timber, in the zone of primary attack by the termite being bioassayed. A common method of definition of preservative retention, weight uptake of preservative fluid of known concentration, was compared to the chemical assay method for slash pine treatments. Analyses of gradient zones reflect the variable concentration of boron within test specimens. The test specimens were exposed to field termite colonies in a clear of ground completely protected from weather and wetting situation. Termite response was determined by mass loss over 5 weeks and modelled.
A R Moffat, B C Peters


Fungi causing sap stain in wood
1980 - IRG/WP 199
The present paper is a revised edition of former Document No: IRG/WP/125. It contains some additions and an explanation of terminology, as was suggested at a previous meeting of the Group. The paper is a compilation based mainly on available literature. Some of my own unpublished results have been added together with other unpublished data which have been received from the Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung in Berlin and from colleagues at the Department of Forest Products, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, which are acknowledged with thanks. Fungi, described in the text, have been selected according to the following principles: a) the most common and important blue stain fungi, b) less common fungi which have been found in several countries or on several host trees, c) fungi which seem to be of minor interest as blue stain fungi, but which have been used recently in experimental work considering their physiological characters, susceptibility for toxic substances etc. The author regrets that this paper does not cover the tropical fungi, as there have been only a few notes about these in reviews and as the original papers have not been available to our library.
A Käärik


Recovery of copper chromium and arsenic from old CCA treated commodities
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50118
Due to the expected increase in spent treated wood over the next several decades, numerous means to reuse and recycle preserved wood have been proposed. Burning this wood for cogeneration or recycling of CCA treated wood into reconstituted composites are possible methods, but they are limited to laboratory scale because of environmental air emission issues and the manufacturing process. In the available literature, laboratory removal of CCA from treated wood has been conducted on 20 mesh size particles or saw dust. This approach requires chipping and grinding of lumber and poles into particles and saw dust. In the current study, about 95 to 100% copper, chromium, and arsenic were removed from 2 by 4's and pole sections without substantial modification of initial sample size. This extraction yield was obtained within 18 hours at temperatures ranging from 80- 100EC using a combination of citric acid and chelating agent at pH 4.
D P Kamdem, Wanli Ma, Jun Zhang, J Zyskowski


Comparison of performance of wood preservatives in laboratory and field tests of treated commodities
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20010
The purpose of laboratory tests for evaluating efficacy of wood preservatives is usually to establish toxic values against standard strains of wood decay fungi. Exposure conditions are usually chosen as optimal for fungal growth. Toxic values so determined serve as a guide as to expected performance of the preservative in field stake tests or in above ground exposure tests. Test material is selected for uniformity, but exposure conditions, and hence presumably performance, will vary with climate and, if in ground contact, soil type. Service tests measure not only preservative efficacy, but also the suitability of a particular preservative and treatment process to protect particular commodities. Data generated by the NZ Forest Research Institute over the past 40 years on performance of wood preservatives in the above three kinds of test is examined to determine the relevance of each on confident assessment of expected performance of novel preservative systems.
M E Hedley


Performance of preservative-treated timber commodities in above-ground service tests
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20064
Service tests established by NZ FRI are of commodities where treatment has been undertaken in commercial plants and although such data as preservative uptake of individual items is recorded and sample analysis undertaken, material is usually "run-of-mill" for the commodity being treated. The NZ FRI Service Test database includes a wide range of preservative/species combinations in virtually all above ground commodities where timber or plywood is used. They include complete bridges, domestic and commercial building components (sheathing, framing, window joinery, decking, roofing shingles), log houses, cross-arms, cooling towers and geothermal steam bore silencers. Often, such as in glue-laminated bridge components, these tests are the only unequivocal way the fitness for purpose of particular species/preservative combinations can be tested. Prosedures for establishing the programme and maintenance of the database are given with a summary of current tests and a selection of pertinent results from them.
M E Hedley, D R Page


Subterranean termites of economic importance in suburban Melbourne: Wood structures most frequently attacked and damaged
1990 - IRG/WP 1430
An examination of wood structures in forty buildings actively being attacked by subterranean termites in Melbourne revealed that all buildings were being attacked and damaged by Coptotermes species. This indicates the economic importance of these species. Hardwoods were more frequently infested than softwood species. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to termite control, with particular emphasis on eradicating infestations using arsenic trioxide and mirex-treated wood decay blocks.
J R J French


Micromorphological Characteristics of Degradation in Bamboo Attacked by White Rot Fungus Lentinus edodes
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10575
In comparison with micromorphological works for wood decay, little known is about the decay pattern of bamboos by wood decay fungi. The present work was undertaken to understand the general degradation pattern of bamboo and the influence of polylaminate layers in bamboo fiber walls on the restriction of fungal decay. The weight loss of bamboo species Phyllostachys puberscens against the white rot fungus Lentinus edodes after 16 weeks incubation was around 13%. Degradation was restricted to the parenchyma cells while degradation of fiber and vessel walls was limited. Degradation of bamboo fiber cell wall by L. edodes showed two different decay patterns. At the beginning stage of decay, middle lamellae including cell corner middle lamellae were selectively degraded, leaving the fiber secondary walls. In a certain stage of decay, the secondary wall in bamboo fibers was eroded outward from the cell lumen. Lamellation of bamboo fiber cells restricted the movement of fungal hyphse into next lamellae. Narrow layers in bamboo fiber appeared to influence the direct penetration of fungal hyphae into next layer. Cytochemical examinations exhibited that narrow layers were rich both in lignin and in polysaccharides. Chemical composition and microfibril orientation in narrow layers might influence on the movement of fungal hyphae in the bamboo fibers.
Chang Hyun Cho, Kwang Ho Lee, Yoon Soo Kim


The situation of wood preservation in Italy
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40502
This document summarizes the situation of wood preservation in Italy at the present time. Information on the Italian climate and biological hazard of wood commodities are extracted and updated from a document of Gambetta et al., 1985. Data about wood production and industry are obtained by INFC, National Inventory of Forest and Forest Carbon Sink, by ISTAT, the National Institute of Statistics and by a report of Cosmit / Federlegno Arredo. Information on the production volumes and types of preservatives treatments are obtained from Italian companies, as cited in the text.
E Conti, S Palanti


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