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Factors affecting leaching of preservatives in practice
1978 - IRG/WP 3113
At the 7th Meeting of the IRG in Poland in May 1975, the findings of collaborative laboratory leaching techniques were discussed, and the dangers inherent in using such results to predict the behaviour of preservative-treated components in service were emphasised. In order to improve our understanding of the factors governing leaching of preservatives in practice, and to identify areas where furth...
R Cockcroft, R A Laidlaw

Contribution to study of the degradation caused in Pinus spp. poles used in field test
1989 - IRG/WP 1417
The study of the degradation produced by soil natural microflora on wood in contact with it in the field, has been going on for several years now. Our contribution to this aim in the present work has dealt with the possible relationship of the microorganisms in the soil. The microscopic visualization of wood colonization by the microorganisms, and the chemical analysis of the degraded wood compare...
M T De Troya, A Garcia, M J Pozuelo, A M Navarrete, A Cabanas

An experimental method to simulate incipient decay of wood by basidiomycete fungi
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20200
At very early stages of decay of wood by basidiomycete fungi, strength loss can be measured from wood before any measurable weight loss. Therefore, strength loss is a more efficient measure of incipient decay than weight loss. However, common standard decay tests (e.g. EN 113 or ASTM D2017) use weight loss as the measure of decay. A method was developed that allowed progressive removal of samples ...
S F Curling, J E Winandy, C A Clausen

Biodegradation of acetylated southern pine and aspen composition boards
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40020
This objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated wood fiber, Phenol-formaldehyde resin content level, two wood fiber species, three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistence of high density composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species...
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Powell

Conditions and possibility of nanobiocides formulation for wood protection
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30467
During development of nanobiocides for wood protection the need to identify mineral composition of wood in respect of trace elements and nourishing conditions of wood destroying fungi in relation to these elements was discussed....
J Wazny, A Kundzewicz

Effectiveness of Busan 30 treated birch blocks in a soil medium
1987 - IRG/WP 3409
TCMTB based formulation has been anticipated for use in dip-diffusion treatment in Papua New Guinea to replace BFCA Wood preservative. One such formulation is the Penacide (TCMTB + MBT Boron) which is currently being tested against fungi and insects. Accelerated laboratory test in soil exposure was employed to test a related formulation (Busan 30) to determine its effectiveness against soil inhabi...
H C Konabe

Effect of media composition on the antagonistic properties of Trichoderma spp. against wood decay fung
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1538
Most screening of potential biocontrol agents of wood decay fungi has previously been undertaken using artificial media. Similarly experiments designed to evaluate the mechanisms involved in antagonism between biological control agents and target fungi, have largely been carried out in conditions which do not accurately reflect the nutrient status of wood. This paper examines the influence of nutr...
U Srinivasan, A Bruce, H J Staines

Treatability problems - Relationships between anatomy, chemical composition and treatability
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40213
This report documents the results of phase 1 and 2 of a 3-phase research program. In phase 1, two hundred and fifty-six (256) Southern pine (pinus spp.) nominal 2 x 6's (38 mm x 140 mm) from a single mill in Georgia (southeastern US) were evaluated for treatability with CCA preservative. After treatment, 128 pieces representing a broad range of treatment characteristics were selected and ...
J E Winandy, F Green III, D Keefe

Correlation between changes in colour and chemical composition during photo-degradation of wood surfaces
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40301
Changes in colour of wood (yellowing) during photo degradation or weathering reflect chemical changes in wood. Therefore, the relationship between changes in chemical composition and CIELAB colour parameters is very important to characterize photodegradation of lignocellulosic surfaces. In this study, the changes in chemical composition and yellowing due to photo-degradation was studied by expos...
K K Pandey

Creosote for wood preservation
1971 - IRG/WP 36
By creosote one usually means coal tar creosote, although there are creosotes of other origin. For example, wood tar creosote is a product of wood distillation. It is, in fact, in this connection that the word 'creosote' was first used. Early in the nineteenth century the oily product obtained by distilling wood was said to have an odour which resembled 'smoked meat&...

Influence of sampling on the composition of test solutions
1985 - IRG/WP 2235
For four commercial products of CCB-salts the influence of the kind of sampling on the composition of test solutions has been tested. For each product several 5 g samples have been taken at random, after careful mixing the content of each bottle, and after grinding the whole content. With each sample a 5% test solution was made and analyzed on the content of chromium, copper and boron. Altogether ...
H Willeitner, K Brandt

Kinetics and mechanism of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives. Part 5: Effect of wood species and preservative composition on the leaching during storage
1975 - IRG/WP 354
Conversion reactions during storage of CCA treated wood take place even at and below the fiber saturation point as long as ion transport is possible. Increase in drying temperature increases the final pH of the treated wood and the leachability of Cu and decreases slightly the leachability of Cr, while the leachability of As is not affected. This temperature effect is considered to be of no techni...
S-E Dahlgren

The effect of composition on the effectiveness and fixation of CCA and copper/chrome preservatives. Part 1: Effectiveness. Part 2: Selective absorption and fixation
1973 - IRG/WP 324
A preliminary study of a wide range of copper-chrome-arsenic formulations indicates that the most effective are in the region, CuSO4 · 5H2O - 35 to 45 per cent; K2Cr2O7 - 40 per cent and above; As2O5 · 2H2O - 25 to 15 per cent or less. Effectiveness appears to depend more on the copper content than the copper - arsenic. Observations on selective absorption and leaching suggest that the chromium ...
D N R Smith, A I Williams

Study of the degradation caused by micro-organisms in Pinus sp. waterlogged wood
1989 - IRG/WP 1411
So far, the different Centers are trying the restoration and the conservation of wood structures, coming from subaquatic archeological deposits, with interest from the historic - artistic point of view. The main objective of this paper has been the determination of the decay level of Pinus sp. wood coming from a roman ship (approximately 2000 years old), where we have analyzed their physical prope...
M T De Troya, M C Escorial, J Garcia, A Cabanas

Differences in pH, electrical resistance, cation composition and NIR spectra of red spruce wood during early stages of brown rot degradation
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10449
Red spruce sapwood was exposed to degradation by the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Postia placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Serpula lacrymans for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks using a modified soil block assay design. Average weight losses over time ranged from 0-8.9% during this time period. Detectable changes in pH, electrical resistance and cation compostion were observed in the wood as early as 1 ...
J Jellison, S Kelley, B Goodell, D Hui, A Ostrofsky

Effect of species composition of preservative-treated Douglas fir plywood on its decay resistance
1978 - IRG/WP 2114
Plywood is now commonly used for constructional purposes in environmental situations where decay by wood-destroying fungi can be a considerable risk. However there seems to be a lack of understanding of the relative durability of plywood, both untreated and when treated with wood preservatives. Part of the reason for this situation has been the difficulty of carrying out laboratory decay tests on ...
R S Smith, P Balcaen

Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from Trichoderma spp.: effect of media composition on VOC production and level of inhibition of wood decay fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10207
Production of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) by two Trichoderma isolates grown on either malt extract or minimal media was examined and statistically assessed to identify which VOC's were predominantly produced on each of the two media types. The VOC's were captured onto chromatographic absorbent from above the cultures of the fungi before being analysed by integrate...
A Bruce, R E Wheatley, C Hackett, A Kundzewicz

Composition of urushiol and cardanol from Japanese lacquer tree and related origins
1991 - IRG/WP 3667
Wood may be protected against insects and weathering based on the paints. Japan has been used to protect wood from weathering, insects, checking that ordinarily develop when unprotected wood is exposed to the weather. Japaned wood gives a hard, durable, various gloss especially black. The yield of culture-urus hiol obtained from Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vermiciflua Stokes) was 0.6% based on the...
Y Inoue

Effect of fungal degradation on the chemical composition of acetylated beech wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40267
This study investigated the impact of fungal attack on the chemical composition of acetylated wood. Beech wood acetylated to different degrees was exposed to decay by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor under solid-state fermentation conditions. Laboratory soil-bed assays were also conducted to study the degradation of acetylated wood by soft rot fungi and other soil-inhabiting microorganisms...
H Militz, Dong-won Son, L Gómez-Hernández, R Sierra-Alvarez

Creosote for wood preservation. (Reissued from earlier OECD draft)
1970 - IRG/WP III 1A
The literature on this subject is extensive and, to some extent, repetitive so that for pratical reference purposes it is essential that selective surveys and bibliographies be prepared. Many of these exist and, as an example, the reports issued by The Coal Tar Research Association (Numbers 0156, 0292 and 0396) may be quoted. The following bibliography, listing the more important sources of inform...

Resistance of pine and spruce heartwood against decay - The effect of wood chemical composition and coating with water-borne wood oil product
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10597
Natural durability of wood has been widely studied, but the combination of the natural durability and different treatments has not been the focus of many studies. The durability of wooden products is mainly based on the water permeability and the resistance against organisms. In this study, the water absorption and decay resistance of sapwood and heartwood of Scots pine and Norway spruce were exam...
H Viitanen, S Metsä-Kortelainen, T Laakso

Improvement of Grevillea robusta durability using heat treatment
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40333
Heat treatment of Grevillea robusta was carried-out under inert conditions to improve its durability. Resistance of heat treated samples was evaluated by malt agar block tests after three months of exposure to several wood rotting fungi. Results showed that the fungal durability was greatly improved after treatment. There was a good correlation between fungal resistance and mass loss which is a fa...
F Mburu, S Dumarçay, F Huber, M Petrissans, P Gérardin

Wood properties influencing the penetration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood with the wood modification agent furfuryl alcohol
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40470
The European standard EN 350-2 classifies Scots pine sapwood as class 1 (easy to treat). However large variations in sapwood penetration exist which affect a homogenous distribution of preservatives. Hence individual penetration schemes have to be developed and adjusted to the material most difficult to treat in order to provide adequate sapwood penetration. To ensure better economic process con...
K Zimmer, E Larnøy, G Koch

The effect of chemical changes on the wood-moisture relationships in thermally-modified wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40473
Small specimens of three wood species were thermally modified following twenty schedules in the 190-245°C temperature range for treatment times between 0.3 and 16 h. Five wood-moisture relations were subsequently determined, namely: anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), movement, hygroscopicity (adsorption and desorption), transversal swelling (radial and tangential directions), and equilibrium moistur...
M M González-Peña, M D C Hale

Development of markers to predict decay durability of heat treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40496
Effect of heat treatment temperature on elemental composition of Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) has been investigated in the range of temperatures between 220 and 250°C. Results revealed an important increase of carbon content, while oxygen content significantly decreases. Independently of the heat treatment temperature, elemental composition is strongly correlated with the mass losses due...
Ž Šušteršic, A Mohareb, M Chaouch, M Pétrissans, M Petric, P Gérardin

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