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Computerized axial tomography. A non-destructive method for three-dimensional wood density/moisture content measurement
1987 - IRG/WP 2285
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT-scanning) - used for medical investigations of the brain - has been evaluated as a nondestructive method of three-dimensional wood density/moisture content measurements. Density can be measured with an accuracy of ±3 kg/m³, and the accuracy in average moisture content is ±1% below and above fibre saturation point. It is theoretically possible that measurements...
L O Lindgren

Moisture distribution in coated wooden panels. Studies of moisture dynamics by computerized axial tomography
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2413
Certain modern coatings have been held responsible for the rot damages in wood sidings, which have, during the past few years, appeared at an increasing extent in Scandinavia and which have occurred rather soon after the application of the coating. In this study, the moisture excluding effect of different coating systems intended for sidings have been studied with the help of an X-ray technique, c...
J Ekstedt, L O Lindgren, S Grundberg

Examination of power poles by computerized tomography
1980 - IRG/WP 2142
The technique known as computed axial tomography (CAT or CT) has become widely known because of the success it has achieved in medical imaging and diagnostics. It has now been used to give non-destructive crosssectional pictures of a variety of industrial objects, including wooden power poles, with a spatial resolution of about 1 mm (0.04 in.). It is obvious the benefits that would be derived from...
J A Taylor, I L Morgan, H Ellinger

Report on a field demonstration of methods for detecting defects in wood poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2232
P I Morris, H Friis-Hansen

Imaging fungal deterioration of wood using x-ray microtomography
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10240
Nondestructive tomographic images of solid Southern yellow pine (SYP) wood and SYP during deterioration by wood decay fungi were obtained by using a new class of synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (CMT). The CMT images will provide information about spatial relationship between degrading fungi and wood structures. Wood samples were scanned with synchrotron-generated X-rays at high resoluti...
B Illman, B A Dowd

Non-destructive evaluation of wood decay
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20479
Evaluation of wood decay is often prone to subjective assessment. Standard rating scales are based on human perception of decay, often in addition to weight loss measurements. Especially the assessment of graveyard specimens or other long term testing material that has to be monitored regularly on a non-destructive basis, is challenging. In this paper two techniques are presented that can deliver ...
J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, N Defoirdt, J Van Acker

Use of X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography to Visualize Copper in Preservative Treated Wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20488
This study tests the hypothesis that X-ray micro-computed tomography will be able to visualize the distribution of copper in wood treated with a micronized wood preservative containing copper carbonate. A small wood block measuring 12 x 12 x 19 mm was cut from a 2.4 m x 51 mm x 51 mm southern pine batten that had been treated with a micronized wood preservative. Tomograms of the wood block were ob...
P D Evans, A Limaye, H Averdunk, M Turner, T J Senden, M A Knackstedt

Plywood under the scanner: linking moisture dynamics and 3D structure
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20491
Plywood is highly esteemed as a construction material. Yet, the influence of moisture on both strength and durability are important factors. Especially the dynamics of moisture desorption and absorption should be taken into account when assessing the quality of a panel, which is a fact for all panel materials. This paper therefore focuses on the monitoring of the moisture dynamics of plywood subje...
J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, N Defoirdt, J Van Acker

Analysis of decay progress anisotropy by X-ray computer tomography
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20501
Wood has a serious handicap as structural materials that it is vulnerable to decay by fungi. A weather exposed bridge has a possibility of an abrupt fall down, and wooden houses with heavily decayed structural members are easily destroyed by large earthquakes. To avoid such damages, a new predicting method on the decay progress in timber structures, and also its strength losing behavior along with...
K Maeda, M Ohta

Visualization of Copper in the Voids and Cell Walls of Treated Wood using X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40640
This study extends our observations of the distribution of copper in treated wood. A small wood block was cut from a southern pine batten that had been treated with a particulate-copper preservative and similar sized block was cut from a batten that had been treated with a copper-amine preservative. Both blocks were imaged using X-ray micro-computed tomography. We obtained tomograms of each treate...
P D Evans, A Limaye, H Averdunk, M Turner, T J Senden

Observation of Boring Process of Larvae of the Bamboo Powder-post Beetle (Dinoderus minutus)
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10821
The bamboo powder-post beetle Dinoderus minutus is a major pest of felled bamboo in Japan. X-ray computer tomography (CT) was applied to non-destructively trace the movement of the larvae of this beetle inside the infested bamboo samples. The bamboo samples were prepared from pieces of the Japanese timber bamboo Phyllostachys bambusoides culms that were enclosed with adult D. minutus beetles for a...
H Watanabe, Y Yanase, Y Fujii

Modern Instrumental Methods to Investigate the Mechanism of Biological Decay in Wood Plastic Composites
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40674
Various instrumental techniques were used to study the fungal decay process in wood plastic composite (WPC) boards. Commercial boards exposed near Hilo, Hawaii (HI) for eight years in both sun and shadow locations were inspected and tested periodically. After eight years of exposure, both boards were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while a selected area of the board exposed in sh...
G Sun, R Ibach, M Gnatowski, J Glaeser, M Leung, J Haight

Visualization of Feeding Process of Larvae of the Wood-boring Beetles Using X-ray Computer Tomography
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10953
X-ray computer tomography (CT) was applied to observe the movement of the larvae of the wood-boring beetles Lyctus brunneus, Lyctus africanus, and Heterobostrychus aequalis inside the infested wood specimens. The larvae bred with artificial diet were inserted into the hole of wood specimens of rubber wood Hevea spp. or Japanese oak Quercus crispula. The wood specimens with larvae were scanned usin...
Y Yanase, H Watanabe, I Fujimoto, T Yoshimura, Y Fujii

Validation by micro-computed tomography of an assessment method to measure the residual strength of anobiids infested timber
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20650
In this article a quantitative correlation study of pine timber structural elements, which have been subject to attack by anobiids, is presented. The main objective of the study was to establish a valid empirical correlation between the lost material percentage (consumed by beetles) and original/residual apparent density. Since the beetles’ attack produces a diffuse damage with a set of tunnels ...
J L Parracha, M F Pereira, A Maurício, P Faria, L Nunes

Analysis of larval development and feeding of an Anobiid beetle using X-ray computed tomography
2020 - IRG/WP 20-10961
Priobium sp., an anobiid beetle, can attack wood used for historic constructions in Japan. Its life history and feeding biology, especially larval development and behavior, are poorly understood because the beetles are hidden inside wood most of the time. We used X-ray computed tomography (CT) to regularly scan wood blocks infested with the larvae of the Priobium sp. and observed the process of ...
H Watanabe, R Kigawa, Y Fujiwara, Y Fujii

Virtual Reality of Wood Protection
2023 - IRG/WP 23-20698
Virtual reality (VR) is a technology that allows people to explore and interact with computer generated environments using devices that stimulate different senses (sight, sound and touch). VR is mainly used for education, training and entertainment, but it also has the potential to provide new insights into scientific phenomena. In this paper we describe the evolution of VR and its many uses, focu...
D Feng, Y Liu, M Turner, A Limaye, P D Evans

Investigating wood anatomical factors influencing the treatability of refractory southern pine- an imaging approach
2023 - IRG/WP 23-40975
Southern pine sapwood is non-durable, and preservative treatment is necessary to protect it against biological degradation. According to AS 1604.1 2021, timber products must have their sapwood fully treated with preservatives for various applications and hazard classes. However, there is a growing industry concern over the refractory sections of sapwood, which are untreated pockets of wood that do...
M Shirmohammadi, M R Karbaschi, B Hassan, W Leggate

Do naturally sequestered biocidal metals contribute to the marine borer resistance of turpentine?
2024 - IRG/WP 24-11036
Turpentine wood is renowned for its resistance to attack by molluscan marine borers. This resistance is thought to be due to its high silica content, and possibly the presence of other, as yet unknown, compounds. Silica in turpentine wood is present as particles in rays, but in many plant species silica also occurs in cell walls. We hypothesized that Si is present in cell walls of turpentine, but ...
P D Evans, H Matsunaga, D Feng, M Turner, C Kewish

X-ray micro-computed tomography of copper distribution in CA, ACQ and MCA treated wood and changes in microstructure of ACQ-treated southern pine following natural weathering
2024 - IRG/WP 24-20707
We hypothesized that X-ray micro-CT would be able to visualize: (a) the distribution of copper in CA-treated southern pine; and (b) microstructural changes in ACQ-treated southern pine exposed to natural weathering. Small blocks were removed from southern pine samples treated with CA and also southern pine treated with ACQ and MCA. Small blocks were also removed from ACQ-treated boards (flat and p...
D Feng, M Turner, P D Evans

Virtual reality of wood protection
2024 - IRG/WP 24-20727
Virtual reality (VR) is a technology that allows people to explore and interact with computer generated environments using devices that stimulate different senses (sight, sound and touch). VR is mainly used for education, training and entertainment, but it also has the potential to provide new insights into scientific phenomena. We describe our work on the use of VR as a learning tool for students...
D Feng, Y Liu, M Turner, A Limaye, P D Evans