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New technique to analyze impregnation processes
1988 - IRG/WP 2304
Equipment has been developed to measure liquid flow in wood during impregnation processes. Basic principles of flow measurements using directly heated negative temperature coefficient thermistors, and some characteristics of the hardware developed are presented in this paper....
J P Hösli


Soft rot and bacterial decay in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1155
Bacterial type decay was observed in CCA and PCP treated eucalypt power transmission poles. Detailed observations made with the SEM revealed bacterial colonisation and decay, especially in fibres. Plug samples taken from poles throughout Queensland were examined for preservative retention and presence of soft-rot decay. The severity of decay was different according to location, retention and speci...
L E Leightley


Patterns of bacterial attack in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1984 - IRG/WP 1223
Patterns of bacterial decay have been examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Two morphologically distinct patterns have been recognised in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles. Bacterial Decay I (BDI) involves the removal of the secondary wall layers initiating with erosion of the S3 layer from the cell lumen. As decay progresses the S2 layer and S1 layer are degr...
G A Willoughby, L E Leightley


Positive dosage response of CCA in hardwood power poles to soft rot indicated from New South Wales soft rot survey dat
1983 - IRG/WP 3233
Experience and observation have shown that retentions of less than 16 kg/m³ in the sapwood of individual hardwood poles are unlikely to delay its deterioration sufficiently to ensure an economic performance in some instances. The higher retentions of current practice should do so subject to adequate inspection and maintenance. Increases in retentions requirements up to 35 kg/m³ more or less, dep...
A J Witheridge


Isolation and identification of bacteria from CCA-treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1987 - IRG/WP 1317
Bacteria have been isolated from CCA treated Eucalyptus maculata poles which possessed characteristic bacterial decay patterns. Cultures were isolated on a number of different media which had been inoculated with a splinter of degraded wood. Primary tests indicated that most isolates belonged to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus. The species Pseudomonas cepacia was most frequently isolated....
G A Willoughby, A C Hayward, L E Leightley


High CCA retentions and the protection of eucalypt power poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3226
Tasmanian power pole material treated to high retentions, was analysed to accurately determine the amount of CCA preservative in the timber. Material from the same disc was subsequently exposed in unsterile soil in order to determine the effectiveness of treatment. Results showed that even at high retention levels, soft-rot attack was not prevented. Fourteen further poles were sampled, but this ti...
L E Leightley, J Norton


A behaviour of CCA penetration of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40346
A behaviour of CCA penetration of Bornmulleriana fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications was illustrated for the main flow directions by the experimental pictures....
I Usta, R Despot, M Hasan


Sampling variation in a copper chrome arsenic treated power transmission pole
1990 - IRG/WP 2351
The Queensland Forest Service routinely samples poles treated at all treatment plants throughout the State. Each treatment plant is issued with a Certificate of Registration and the accompanying documents list the different levels of preservative retention required for performance in various service conditions. The posted levels represent the.minimum permissible, and it is to these concentrations ...
J Norton


Soft rot studies on CCA treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1981 - IRG/WP 1132
Initial results found for sixty CCA treated eucalypt poles, from a soft-rot survey are discussed. Retentions of CCA within above and below ground pole samples were variable. The variation was attributed mostly to biodegradation and effect of soil environment, rather than leaching. Bacterial decay was found in many poles and was severe in some cases. Although found in the presence of soft-rot decay...
L E Leightley


The rate of losses of creosote from power transmission poles during storage
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-24
The purpose of this work was to study the rate of losses of creosote from power transmission poles and its consequences on the expected life of the poles stored for a long period in horizontal position. Apart from this main target of the study, the results could allow a rough estimate of the load of creosote substances on the soil especially when the poles are stored and this load accumulates over...
Z Vassou, A Satanakis, C Koutsikopoulus, J Petinarakis


Butt-end incising to improve penetration and retention of creosote in Eucalyptus saligna power transmission poles in Kenya. Preliminary results
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40249
Incising as a possible technique to improve penetration and retention of creosote in the butt end of Eucalyptus saligna power transmission poles in Kenya was investigated. Debarked, butt-end samples from whole poles were seasoned (15% MC), incised using four patterns of incisions, sealed at the top or small diameter end, and pressure treated with a mixture of creosote-furnace oil (60/40 mix) at a...
R Venkatasamy


Possibilities of improving the oscillating pressure method
1991 - IRG/WP 3668
Studies on the dynamics of pressure changes in wood during impregnation revealed no significant effect of fast pressure changes for green spruce as used by OPM (IRG/WP/3615). The following experiments were carried out on several hundreds of spruce palisades to examine the modification of single procedure parameters of common use OPM and to record the effects on the impregnation result with the aim...
S Goetsch, R-D Peek


Comparison of variable, constant and fluctuating pressure methods
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40212
The objective of this work was to evaluate potential improvements in pressure treatment arising from the use of a control valve. A constant pressure of 1035 kPa was compared to the conventional variable pressure method where the pressure is allowed to drop to 860 kPa as the solution is absorbed by the wood. A fluctuating pressure method (FPM) where the pressure cycles between 1000 and 1070 kPa was...
S M McFarling, P I Morris


The effect of rate of pressure application on preservative uptake along and across the grain of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp and constant pressure times
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20292
This study was particularly design to determine the preservative uptake at different ramp (rate of increase in pressure) and constant pressure times on longitudinal, tangential and radial penetrations of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) which grown indigeneously in Turkey. The samples of 2 cm cubes of kiln-dried wood (nominated to 12% moisture content) were treated at different ramp times varied ...
I Usta


Failure of overhead power transmission and telecommunication poles in Tanzania: Causes, preventive and remedial measures
1988 - IRG/WP 3465
Unless measures are considered urgently to combat massive pole failures occuring in service, it is likely that wooden poles may soon become unpopular. Consequently, pole users may be forced to use costlier alternatives such as underground cables and concrete or steel poles. In trying to countercheck this trend, this paper names the main agents of pole failure, discusses different models of pole fa...
K K Murira


Control of termite attack using a trapping method and acoustic emission (AE) monitoring a case study at an electric power plant
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10224
To prevent subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe) from invading the buildings of an electric power plant and to control their attack, artificial traps were buried around the buildings. The attack of the termites in and around the traps was monitored by detecting acoustic emissions (AE) generated by the feeding behavior of the workers. The cylindric...
Y Fujii, Y Imamura, E Iwatsubo, S Yamamoto


Soft rot fungi found in copper/chrome/arsenic treated hardwood power transmission poles in Queensland
1978 - IRG/WP 185
In Queensland the effective service life of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) treated hardwood telegraph and power transmission poles is being dramatically shortened due to attack by soft rot decay fungi. The Australian Wood Preservation and Pole Industries are funding research into this serious soft rot problem involving C.S.I.R.O. and the University of Queensland. The C.S.I.R.O. is actively engaged wi...
L E Leightley


Further studies on soft rot decay in CCA treated Eucalyptus power transmission poles in Queensland, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 1115
Preliminary results on the examination of fungi isolated from CCA treated Eucalyptus power transmission poles were presented at the 10th Annual IRG Meeting. Since then further examination and identification of fungal isolates has been completed together with screening tests for wood decay ability and tolerance to creosote and CCA and its components. Chemical analyses for CCA retention have also be...
L E Leightley


The potential use of impregnated coconut wood for power line poles in rural areas of Java
1980 - IRG/WP 3130
Electrification of rural areas in Java needs thousands of power line poles which are relatively cheap in price, but have adequate strength and are fairly durable. A choice of wood species is available in the country. One alternative is coconut wood found in abundance in the villages. This may give a solution to Java's needs since supplies are readily available almost everywhere. Based on ...
H Yudodibroto


Examination of power poles by computerized tomography
1980 - IRG/WP 2142
The technique known as computed axial tomography (CAT or CT) has become widely known because of the success it has achieved in medical imaging and diagnostics. It has now been used to give non-destructive crosssectional pictures of a variety of industrial objects, including wooden power poles, with a spatial resolution of about 1 mm (0.04 in.). It is obvious the benefits that would be derived from...
J A Taylor, I L Morgan, H Ellinger