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Wood preservation in Canada - Regulation and Registration
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-02
The Canadian wood preservation industry is at a critical juncture now as a number of initiatives converge on the industry over the next few years. Issues facing the industry include: Re-evaluation of the conventional wood preservative chemicals - inorganic arsenicals, creosote and pentachlorophenol targeted for July 2001. Delayed registration of new actives as a result of re-evaluation activity and priority. ?Implementation of the Environment Canada "Strategic Options" recommendations for preservative components considered "toxic" under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, including hexavalent chromium, arsenic, PAH contaminated wastes, benzene hexachloride, dioxins and furans. Updating of the Technical Recommendation Documents for the design and operation of wood treating plants (now complete). The backgrounds, implementation, interactions and impacts of these initiatives on the Canadian Wood Preservation Industry are discussed.
P A Cooper

Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity is examined. These wastes can be classified according to their danger characteristics, taking into account the type of additives, their concentration, their availability for the environment, the physical state of the waste. Different disposal pathways are then considered. Combustion, with the possibility of energetic valorization seems the best answer for a major part of these wastes. But this is only possible if good combustion conditions are defined, so that no harmful products are emitted. Moreover, these conditions must be affordable on the technical and economical point of view. Then, some wastes cannot be burned in such a simple way, and need a larger approach, which is presented in this document.
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix

Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones that may promote its re-use. Inside this approach, the electrodialytic process (ED) seems a promising technique for removal of preservative chemicals from treated wood waste. The method uses a direct electric current and its effects in the matrix as the “cleaning agent”, combining the electrokinetic movement (mainly due to electromigration, but also electro-osmosis and electrophoresis), with the principle of electrodialysis. This work reports results from the application of the electrodialytic process to an out-of-service Portuguese creosote and CCA-treated Pinus pinaster Ait. railway sleeper and pole. The behaviour of the process is described and the main results discussed. The average removal rate, estimated in accordance with prEN 12490, for creosote from treated timber waste was around 40 %.. For CCA treated timber waste, experimental conditions that could optimise the process efficiency (e.g. current density, time) were studied. The highest removal rates obtained until now, in our studies, were 93 % of Cu, 95 % of Cr and 99 % of As for sawdust using 2.5 % oxalic acid (w/w) as the assisting agent. For CCA treated wood waste in the form of chips, the best removal rates obtained until now were 84 % of Cu, 91 % of Cr and 97 % of As.
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen

Establishment of a laboratory method to characterise the ecotoxicity of a polluted soil
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-23
This method consists in using the underground grub of the Oxythyrea funesta beetle as a bioindicator of the soils pollution. Due to the significant tolerance of the organism, a large type of substrate of different nature and grain size could have been studied. We have tested substances and preparations such as wood preservation products even under powder or liquid form but also some wastes of different nature as well as samples of polluted soils. Quick ten days lasting and decisive test, the lecture criteria are from one hand acute, based on death rate but, on another hand subacute. The grubs, when they are used, are in a phase of high development since their weight can increase five times during the test period. The answer to the toxic substances is a drift of the weight variation which enable to obtain more precise results, with much lower doses than acute criteria allow. Taking into account the results already obtained as well as sensitivity, repetability and reproductibility terms, we consider the future of this method with optimism.
P Martinet

Proposal for further work on environmental questions
1988 - IRG/WP 3494
Although very much is known about the environmental and health and safety aspects on various wood preservatives and treated wood knowledge is still lacking on some important issues. Some examples are: - The fate of wood preservatives in the environment, eg by leaching from treated wood and contaminated soil; - How big is the "problem" of pollution, etc from the wood preserving industry in comparison with that from other sources? - What are the consequences of using alternative materials when particular attention is paid to the environment, health and safety, service life, etc? We propose that the "Health and safety aspects" Sub-group identifies the most important problems regarding the environment, health and safety and that an action plan for further work is presented at the next meeting.
J Jermer, M-L Edlund

Bioconversion of wood wastes into gourmet and medicinal mushrooms
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50129
Increased wood wastes, including thinned material from stagnated and overstocked small-diameter forests, are a menace to forest health, to the sustainability of ecosystems, and to community economic viability. The objective of this study is to recycle wood wastes into value-added products, such as gourmet and medicinal mushrooms, by using the white-rot basidiomycetes, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. populinus, P. pulmonarius, and other Pleurotus species. When supplemented with low concentrations of dextrose, these basidiomycetes exhibit an excellent ability to colonize and stimulate fruiting body production on wood wastes. Inoculated wood wastes in air-permeable bags are incubated at 24°C in the dark for 3 to 5 weeks. When exposed to light cycle (10-h day), humidity, and air, they fruit within 4 to 8 weeks. Lyophilization of cultures stimulates filamentous mycelial growth and fruiting is then initiated within 3 to 7 days.
S C Croan

Review of remediation methods of sites contaminated by wood preservatives - testing of filter material for use in permeable barrier technology
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50141
Several treatment methods are currently available for treatment of contaminated sites. Soil and water can be treated by immobilisation, separation or destruction of contaminants. It has been common to use intensive treatment methods starting with soil excavation to reach strict purification goals. However, technical and financial reasons make it difficult to reach the desired treatment criteria. As a result, alternative treatment methods are now being allowed. Less intensive in situ methods are being developed, such as natural attenuation, phytoremediation and permeable barriers. A permeable barrier is a passive treatment method for contaminated groundwater. A study was conducted to test various barrier materials for filtering creosote contaminated groundwater. Peat, compost, bark, sewage sludge and sewage sludge pellets were tested out for sorption of phenol, 2-methylphenol and 2,4-dimethylphenol. Peat and compost showed best sorption efficiency. Peat and compost were mixed with sand in various fractions to see if sand can be used to improve hydraulic properties of the filter material.
G Rasmussen, H Iversen, S Andersen

Alternative technologies for wood wastes recycling - Part B: Biotreatment of PCP- and creosote-treated wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-18 b
Alternative technologies have been investigated to detoxify treated wood. Two classes of organic compounds are studied. Creosote-treated wood are classified in France as dangerous wood wastes. A conventional incineration could be provided for these wood wastes but the cost of this elimination could be very high (> 2000 FFR/ton). For these reasons, we have tested two kinds of new processes as alternative ways. The developed strategy is described in this paper and illustrated by a few examples. Part B - The second one is based on an oxidative degradation of organic compounds directly in the wood: oxidative degradation by fungi. Few examples are presented in this paper. Three fungi are tested directly on treated wood. High levels of contaminants are tested around 0.6 g of PCP/kg and 3.7 g of 8 PAH/kg of wood. Few oxidation products generated by this biological treatment are identified. An ecotoxicological assessment is performed to validate this process. Technical feasibility of these developed processes as well as economic aspects are discussed,
S Legay, P Marchal, G Labat

Remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated soils using wood-degrading fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50021
Microbiological treatment of hazardous wastes has generally been associated with the use of bacteria. During the past decade a significant body of evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that fungi, in particular white-rot fungi, have the ability to degrade a wide range of hazardous organic compounds (xenobiotics) and thus might also be useful for treatment of materials contaminated with these compounds. Our work has focused on the development of a soil remediation technology that is based on the xenobiotic-degrading abilities of these fungi. This work has demonstrated that the technology is useful for remediation of pentachlorophenol-contaminated soils and may also be useful for creosote-contaminated soils. In this presentation the fungi and their xenobiotic-degrading abilities will be described and a summary of applications of this technology to remediation of PCP and creosote-contaminated sites and a discussion of technological developments necessary for commercialization of the technology will be given.
R T Lamar, T K Kirk

Studies on the mobility of arsenic, copper and chromium in CCA-contaminated soil
1990 - IRG/WP 3571
CCA contaminated soils from six Swedish preservation plants were investigated primarily to study the mobility of arsenic but also that of copper and chromium in the soils. The soil samples represented average types with different amounts of clay, organic matter, arsenic, copper, chromium and different pH. The total soluble amounts of the elements were measured. The pH dependent solubility and the water-soluble fraction were investigated. The fixation capacity of arsenic by treatment with iron and aluminium salts and the toxicity of CCA contaminated soils to ryegrass were also investigated. There is strong evidence that when the soils are contaminated by CCA solution or leachate, a fraction of the arsenic, copper and chromium is precipitated as copper and chromium arsenates or as other salts in the soils. The solubility of arsenic, copper and chromium is pH dependent and the release of these elements increases both with decreasing and increasing pH, with the lowest release at between pH 6 to 7. The elements are released at a constant rate in equilibrium and in proportion to the precipitated arsenates. The water-soluble fraction of the elements are higher in sandy than in clay rich soils. The mobility decreases in the order As>>Cu>Cr. It is possible to fix the arsenic in sandy soils with Fe(II) salts and this is most effective at about pH 5. The growth of ryegrass decreases when the arsenic content in the soil solution exceeds 0.25 mg/L and its growth is totally inhibited when the arsenic content exceeds 1 mg/L.
J Bergholm

Composting of waste building up in sawmill dipping basins
1990 - IRG/WP 3570
We have studied composting of waste building up in dipping basins at sawmills although this waste can also be disposed of by incineration. Controlled composting within the sawmill area seems to be a feasible method. Another possibility is to accomplish composting directly at the local dumping site. Waste containing antistain chemicals is generally classed as hazardous. It cannot therefore be placed as such at common dumps. However after successful composting the permission to do so can probably be obtained. The composted dipping basin waste might also be suitable as land filling or in some cases as soil improvement material - at least in parks and green belt areas.
I A Linderborg, U Ek

Determination of chlorine-containing wood preservatives in art objects using Micro-XRF
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20266
The applicability of a mobile energy-dispersive micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectro-meter for the analysis of organochlorine-containing wood preservatives in art objects was tested. Information about the relative degree of contamination and the efficacy of detoxification measures with emulsive solvent systems can be gained using the intensity of the chlorine signals. μ-XRF technique combines the advantages of a high spatial resolution, as needed in studies of penetration profiles and transport processes of cut sections and the possibility to analyze larger areas in a relatively short time. The method allows a non-destructive determination of the degree of surface decontamination after cleaning treatments.
J Bartoll, A Unger, S Krug, K Püschner, H Bronk

Alternative technologies for wood wastes recycling - Part A: Supercritical extraction of PAH compounds from wood wastes
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-18 a
Alternative technologies have been investigated to detoxify treated wood. Two classes of organic compounds are studied. Creosote-treated wood are classified in France as dangerous wood wastes. A conventional incineration could be provided for these wood wastes but the cost of this elimination could be very high (> 2000 FFR/ton). For these reasons, we have tested two kinds of new processes as alternative ways. The developed strategy is described in this paper and illustrated by a few examples. Part A - The first one is based on the use of supercritical fluid as C02 to solubilize organic compounds as organochlorine compounds and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (creosote) from treated wood. Kinetics results of this extractive process are presented on the basis of 200 g of wood.
L Schrive, C Perre, G Labat

Solidification - A viable option for the safe disposal of CCA treatment plant wastes
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-21
Treatment plant operations generate small quantities of waste materials contaminated with wood preservatives - for example, sludges, contaminated sawdust, yard dirt. A practical system involving the immobilisation of such wastes has been established to assist the operators to safely dispose to landfill sites. The results of cold water and hot dilute acid leaching regimes are described, which simulate conditions likely to be found in a landfill site. By using controlled mixing procedures, appropriate packaging and documentary control, the waste can be safetly disposed to landfill in a condition which will remain stable and with no adverse impact to the environment.
M R Gayles, D Aston

Bioremediation of surfactant contaminated waste
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50070
The objective of this work was to determine the potential of fungi as agents for the bioremediation of wastes (particularly wood and soil) contaminated with quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). Until now only bacteria have been investigated for this purpose. Tolerant strains of Gliocladium roseum and Verticillium bulbillosum were studied for their ability to degrade the following QACs: didecyldimethylammonium chloride, cocoalkyltrimethylammonium chloride, and dicocodimethylammoium chloride. Preliminary experiments were used to determine the toxic threshold concentrations for selected QACs in solid and liquid media. As solid media, wood and soil were treatet with the different QACs and inoculated with one of the fungi. After a pre determined incubation period, the QAC was extracted from the wood and soil samples and the loss of chemical was measured by HPLC using an indirect photometric detection. Both fungi were able to degrade considerable amounts of all QACs tested under the experimental conditions.
J L Bürgel, J Dubois, J N R Ruddick

Remediation of a site contaminated with creosote and CCA - a case study
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-12
Over sixty years of wood preservation activity conducted by ImpregNor at Ilseng, Norway, has caused serious contamination of the soil. High concentrations of creosote have been found at two separate sites, one in connection to the creosote wood preservation plant, and one further downstream were residues from the creosote preservation have been deposited. High levels of chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) are found in a third area around the CCA wood preservation plant and the related dripping/fixation area. A site investigation of the contamination situation revealed that both creosote and CCA were spreading out of the wood preservation plant area directly through the sewer and drainage systems and with the ground water. There was no acute danger for exposure to humans, but further spreading would increase the exposure risk. A remedial actions plan to prevent further spreading of contaminants was requested by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authorities in July 97. Three drainage trenches for the collection of groundwater have been constructed downstream from the contaminated areas. The trenches were excavated down to a confining low permeable clayey silt layer. HDPE membranes on the downstream wall of the trenches prevent contaminated water from migrating across the trenches. Free phase creosote and creosote contaminated water from the trenches are pumped through an oil separator constructed to remove creosote oil. The groundwater from the CCA contaminated area is collected and pumped through a sedimentation basin and reused in the preservation plant. Control of the effluent during the first six months will show if further water treatment is required. The use of in situ bioremediation to increase the remediation rate of the creosote contaminated areas will be further investigated to limit the duration of the "pump and treat" operation.
T Rødsand, K Hellum, H Lillemaehlum

Optimisation of an analytical method for the determination of total fluoride in preservative-contaminated soils using water steam distillation and an ion-selective electrode
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20153
This paper describes a simple modified procedure for the quantitative fluoride determination of different origin in a soil matrix using a water steam distillation and an ion-selective electrode. Distillation methods generally require a preliminary preparation step like fusing. The modified method presented here is based on the direct distillation of fluoride so that no further sample preparation is necessary. The separation is carried out in a perchloric acid medium and the analysis takes place by means of a reduced Total Ionic Adjustment Buffer (TISAB) solution. This technique allows also the application of a battery equipment, i. e. simultaneous distillation will be possible. Using a 2-flask system approximately 10 soil samples with two parallels can be analysed per day. The adaptation of the test method, possible checked parameters of influence, the obtained results and observed problems are discussed. The results showed that in general satisfying (>90%) recovery rates can be received.
E Melcher

Environmental situations on wood preservation industries in Japan
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-21
Because of environmental civil oppinions, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Japan, reviesed "the standards for sawn lumber" in 1994. For the possibilities of the use of preservatives out of CCA, by the using of the hazard levels, new products like ACQ, DDAC and emulsified zinc-naphthenate can be used in the standards. Since 1994, the permitable limit of the arsenic in the waste water become severe to 0.1 mg/l, but untill Fev. 1997, it's possible to allow the level of 0.3 mg/l. The Wood Preservers Association in Japan considers the possibility by accerlated fixation of CCA for decreasing the level of the arsenic in waste water of wood preservation industries.
K Suzuki

The growth and metal content of plants grown in soil contaminated by a copper/chrome/arsenic wood preservative
1977 - IRG/WP 3110
Salts of copper, chromium and arsenic are used together in water soluble formulations for the preservation of wood against insect and fungal attack. Copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) preservatives are of proven efficacy and, used correctly, ensure a useful service life for timber for 30 years or more with little, if any, attendant threat to the environment from the treated wood itself. The preservative treatment site can, however, provide a point of entry for the preservative into the general environment by way of spills and leaks of the treating fluid and run off from treated wood, with resultant contamination of the surrounding soil. The possible effects of the CCA salts on plant growth and metals uptake are the subject of this paper. In a series of greenhouse pot experiments the effects of varying concentrations of CCA in soil on the germination, growth and cropping of beans, carrots and tomatoes was studied. Crops produced by the plants were analysed for their copper, chromium and arsenic contents. Additionally, grasses were grown to assess possible land reclamation difficulties. It was found that soil having a combined copper, chromium and arsenic concentration of approximately 7000 ppm completely inhibited the growth of all the plants tested, while certain concentrations below this inhibited or retarded growth to some degree. Carrots grown in soil containing approximately 1000 ppm Cu, Cr, As (200 ppm As) produced crops containing nearly twice the current recommended limit for arsenic in food. Relating the levels of CCA used in the experimentally dosed soil with the amounts found in soil samples taken from preservative treatment sites, it is apparent that many contaminated areas would not support plant life. Less heavily contaminated soil will support growth and may give rise to crops with arsenic levels higher than those deemed to be safe.
C Grant, A J Dobbs

Plant uptake of CCA components from contaminated soil
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50043
The above ground portions of lettuce and rye grass grown in CCA contaminated soil collected at the base of CCA-C treated poles in service did not absorb appreciable amounts of copper, chromium and arsenic, even at soil concentrations above the recommended levels for soil remediation for agricultural uses. At high soil arsenic levels whole radish plants absorbed more As, but not the other elements. The uptake of all elements by the root portion of rye grass increased with increased soil contaminant levels. The Cr, Cu and As content of lettuce roots was more than double that of the leaves and for copper appeared to increase with increasing soil concentration. Natural growing horsetails (Equisetum) accumulated all three elements in proportion to the soil concentration; cattails did not accumulate the elements appreciably and grass growing close to CCA treated poles had relatively higher concentrations of Cr and As compared to other plants.
P A Cooper, E Jasonek, J-P Aucoin

Environmental characterisation of retification process by-products (liquid and gaseous wastes)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-10
In order to reduce environmental risks during the service life of the treated wood and to find new alternative developments on the durability of wood, some research and technology development have been made on thermal treatment. The retification process is one of these processes. The retification process induces chemical modification of the lignin and cellulosic components and modifies the intrinsic properties of wood : efficient increases the durability against fungi and insects, increases of the dimensional stability, decrease of the mechanical properties. The interest of this process is to reduce the environmental impact during the service life. In order to confirm the high interest of this process for the reduction of the environmental impact, an environmental characterisation of wastes on pilot plant have been carried out. chemical analysis on gaseous and liquid effluents have been performed. An energetic assessment has been realised. The results indicate the high interest of this process in terms of possible biodegradable wastes and chemical valorisation interest, interest on energetic consumption in comparison with other wood processing treatment, interest on using retification treated wood in flooring according to indoor air quality requirements.
G Labat, E Bucket, S Legay, C Yriex, P Marchal, E Raphalen, M Vernois, R Guyonnet, H Besset, E Fredon), G Vilarem, L Rigal, C Raynaud

Electrodialytic remediation of a soil from a wood preservation industry polluted by CCA
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-14
Soil contamination is often found at wood preservation sites due to spills, dripping of excess preservatives and deposition of sludge associated with dissolved salts of copper, chromium and arsenic (CCA). The electrodialytic process is a promising heavy metal soil remediation technique. It is based on a combination of the electrokinetic movement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialysis. The technique was tested in five experiments using a laboratory cell on a CCA contaminated Portuguese soil. The duration of the experiments varied (from 18 to 125 days) but the dc current density was kept constant (0.2 mA/cm2). The development of the contaminant concentration profiles in the soil after the experiments was investigated. pH and the speciation of contaminants were identified as key parameters of importance to the remediation process. It was found that it was possible to decontaminate the soil to an extent lower than the recommended critical values for copper concentration in soils.
A B Ribeiro, A Villumsen, G Bech-Nielsen, A Réfega, J Vieira e Silva

Diagnostics methods and routes proposalsto define selective sorting of demolition wood wastes
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50177
Wood wastes are more and more often used in different wood waste valorisation industries (panels, wood energy, cement factories, ...). These industries are in progress to include in their processes, wood wastes coming from demolition wood. A state of the art and an analysis have been made to propose : (1) diagnostics methods to carry out a classification of wood wastes on demolition sites and in the sorting sites based on analytical methods, (2) routes to carry out the classification of wood wastes (according to products present in wood wastes : biocides, finishing products, and according to French regulation requirements). Some proposals are discussed.
G Labat, E Bucket, C Fréret, G Deroubaix

Treatment and recycle of CCA hazardous waste
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50007
Chromated copper arsenate containing hazardous materials is generated from the manufacture, treatment of the wood, and from the wood itself, after its life cycle. Laboratory treating of these wastes has resulted in materials suitable for recycle or disposal as non-hazardous residues. The extraction, by both acidic and ammoniacal routes, of CCA production and treating plant waste materials has been done. Complete extraction of the CCA components is found for strongly acidic reagents. For the ammoniacal systems with various chelating compounds, a variety of results are obtained, ranging from no extraction to nearly complete. Fixative techniques for residues generated from the production of arsenic acid were developed such that the treated wastes pass the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The burning of CCA treated wood was also investigated. The laboratory experiments show no copper and chromium loss. Experiments with low air flows indicate conditions for which arsenic volatilization approaches zero, i.e., in excess of 1100°C. The resulting ash made of chromium, copper and arsenic compounds offers a feed stream for obtaining these materials.
E A Pasek, C R McIntyre

Wood preservation sites polluted by CCA. Is potassium diphosphate incubation a catalyst for the electrodialytic remediation of these soils?
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50106
As part of an evaluation of a newly developed electrodialytic soil remediation technique, we investigated the incubation of a contaminated soil (from a Portuguese wood preservation site polluted with CCA) with potassium diphosphate as a possible catalyst for the removal of heavy metals and metalloids. A chemical sequential extraction scheme (SE) applied to the soil has shown that the potassium diphosphate (0.1 M), used for the attack of forms organically bound, extracted 30% of Cu, 15% of Cr and 23% of As. Two electrodialytic laboratory experiments (E and O) were carried out for 35 days in a laboratory cell, with a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2. In Exp. E the contaminated soil was put in the cell as it was sampled, and in Exp. O, the soil was previously incubated with 0.1 M K4P2O7, for 51 h. The aim was to compare results of process efficiencies by maintaining either acid or basic pH conditions in the soil, both media known to keep solubilization of metals high. Results show that the remediation process was not more efficient in the soil submitted to the pre-treatment, for the considered time length, as total Cu, Cr and Zn soil concentrations were higher after Exp. O than after Exp. E. The K4P2O7 incubation did not succeed in maintaining a basic pH in the soil. However, the soil SE results show that Exp. O put more Cu, Cr and Zn in "soluble and exchangeable forms" than Exp. E. If the process had been run for a longer period, electromigration could have acted more efficiently and these elements are expected to be removed from the soil, increasing the overall efficiency of the process. Addition of extra alkali could have furthered the process.
A B Ribeiro, G Bech-Nielsen, A Villumsen, A Réfega, J Vieira e Silva

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