Your search resulted in 535 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Improved PEC preservatives with added biocides
1985 - IRG/WP 3322
Biocidal chemicals have been incorporated into formulations within the broad framework of pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) to provide novel potential multi-purpose preservatives. Preparations of PEC plus TCMTB, Boracol 40, copper ethanolamine nonanoate, Quatramine 80, arsenic trioxide, Troysan Polyphase, and CCA have been formulated and assessed for preserving ability in soil-jar and Accelerated ...
H Greaves, C-W Chin, J B Watkins
Determination of ethanolamine in impregnated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20198
Leaching of copper based preservatives from wood is usually prevented by adding chromium compounds to copper containing formulations. It seems that suitable substitutes for chromium fixation agents may be amines. In this paper, we report our results on interactions between copper(II) octanoate and ethanolamine (C2H7NO, 2-aminoethanole) with wood or its components. A part of ethanolamine from a woo...
M Humar, M Petric
Influence of carboxylic acids on LEACHING of copper amine based preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30365
The importance of chromium free preservatives is increasing. Leaching of copper from wood preserved with such solutions is still higher compared to leaching from wood impregnated with copper chromium ones. In order to decrease leaching, different carboxylic acids (octanoic, 2-etilheksanoic, decanoic) were added to copper/amine/boron aqueous solutions. Experiment of leaching of copper from Norway s...
M Humar, P Kalan, F Pohleven
Weathering of copper-amine treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40155
Copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated southern pine (SP) were artificially weathered with a QUV Weathering Tester. The weathering regime was composed of a continuous UV-light irradiation for 2 hours followed by a water spray for 18 minutes for a total time of 1200 hours. The changes on the surface of the weathered samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis,...
J Zhang, D P Kamdem
Microwave treatment to Accelerated fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40271
This study evaluated the use of microwave post-treatment to accelerate fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated 19 mm southern yellow pine sapwood cubes. Cubes were pressure treated at 3.2 and 6.4 kg/m3 Cu retention target, after which they were microwave post treated during different duration periods. An accelerated AWPA leaching test was conducted during 300 hours to determine the amount...
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem
Microdistribution of Copper in Copper-Ethanolamine (Cu-EA) Treated Southern Yellow Pine (Pinus spp.) related to density distribution
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40270
The relationship between copper absorption and density distribution in wood cell walls was investigated in this study. The density distribution on layer level was obtained from two approaches: (1) calculation by using data obtained from literature; (2) microdistribution of carbon and oxygen atoms in the wood cell. The microdistribution of carbon and oxygen in untreated southern yellow pine (Pinus ...
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem, E Pasek
A comparison of the leaching resistance of copper 2-ethanolamine and copper ethylenediamine treated Scots pine
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30233
The depletion of copper from copper 2-ethanolamine and copper ethylenediamine treated Scots pine blocks was investigated. A greater leaching resistance was found for copper 2-ethanolamine, which retained ca. 86% and ca. 50% copper after water and buffer leaching, respectively. Leached amine treated blocks also contained significant residual amine. This was consistent with other observations linked...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick
FTIR characterization of copper ethanolamine - wood interaction
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20154
The interaction of copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) and wood components was studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In Cu-EA treated wood, significant reduction was noticed on the band attributed to carbonyl vibration from carboxylic groups at 1735±5 cm-1 and an increase in band intensity was obtained from carbonyl in carboxylate at 1595±5 cm-1. The same observation was made ...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem
Addition of boron compounds and octanoic acid for improvement of biocidal properties and copper fixation at copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30408
Copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives became important active substance (formulation) for wood protection, novelty. As copper itself can not ensure sufficient protection against wood destroying organisms and fixation in wood we combine it with other biocides like ethanolamine, boron and octanoic acid. This investigates were performance on spruce wood impregnated with different combination o...
F Pohleven, M Humar
Influence of ethanolamine on lignin depolymerization and copper leaching from treated Norway spruce and beech wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30423
Copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives are replacing several classical copper-chromium based solutions, due to foreseen ban of chromium. Fixation of copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives is not as good as fixation of copper-chromium ones. The main object of this manuscript was to prove, that ethanolamine is the prime reason for insufficient fixation of copper-ethanolamine formulations...
M Humar, B Bucar, M Zupancic, D Žlindra, F Pohleven
Toward an assessment of copper bioavailability in treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20445
Many modern wood preservative systems rely on copper (Cu). Some oxalate-producing fungi detoxify Cu by immobilizing it in crystals, and this may decrease its physiological availability (bioavailability). Cu bioavailability may also decrease during wood treatment. Cu retention in wood, however, is typically measured as a weight-to-volume concentration without an estimate of its bioavailability and ...
J S Schilling, J J Inda
Adsorption of ACQ components in wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30522
To investigate the chemical adsorption capacity of copper-monoethanolamine (Cu-Mea) components on wood, the Na+ cation exchange capacity (CEC) of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) was determined and compared to the adsorption capacity of free Mea and Cu-Mea complexes. The CEC increased with increasing pH. Free Mea adsorption as a function of pH followed the sodium adsorption curve except at pH over 9...
Myung Jae Lee, P Cooper
Influence of wood swelling agents on penetration and copper leaching of copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30556
Copper ethanolamine based preservatives are currently the most important solutions for impregnation of wood in ground contact in Europe. One of the issues related to those and similar water based solutions is insufficient penetration to refractory wood species like Norway spruce. In order to elucidate this issue, commercial copper ethanolamine based solution was supplemented with five different wo...
M Humar, N Thaler, B Lesar
Copper leaching from copper-ethanolamine treated wood during exposure to terrestrial microorganisms
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30621
Copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives are still the most important solutions for protection of wood in ground applications in Europe. Wood in ground is exposed to variety of organisms, which can act synergistically. In order to simulate these conditions in laboratory, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) specimens impregnated with copper-ethanolamine preservative of three different concentrations ...
M Humar, N Thaler, B Lesar
Performance of untreated wood and wood impregnated with copper-ethanolamine based preservative solutions in Northern Adriatic Sea
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30623
Sea water applications of wood are among the most challenging ones. Impregnated wood is exposed to leaching and to variety of marine borers, Limnoria sp. and Teredo sp. being the most important. In the present research, durability of pine wood impregnated with copper-amine based preservative solution (Silvanolin) of different concentrations, exposed to the sea water, was investigated according to ...
M Humar, M Petrič, J Adamek, B Lesar
Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher
Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi ha...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of com...
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner
International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterran...
J R J French
Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed....
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley
An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative....
C R Coggins
Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones ...
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen
Fungicidal activity of some organic solvents, copper carboxylates and their complexes with 2-aminoethanol
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30136
We evaluated the activity of eight organic solvents against wood - rotting fungus Trametes versicolor in order to choose the most appropriate one for rapid screening tests of some copper(II) carboxylates and their adducts with 2-aminoethanol. Their activity against the selected fungus was classified in the following order: chloroform > N,N-dimethylformamide > acetonitrile > methanol > ...
M Petric, F Pohleven
Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6....
J K Grace
Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50...
H Willeitner, K Brandt