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Wood preservation in Lithuania
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30363
This article is intended to give basic information on wood preservation activities in Lithuania and the main actors in wood preservations practice and research. Currently the main actors in practical Lithuanian wood preservation activity are enterprises of wood preservation industry united by the Lithuanian Wood Preservation Association. The most intensive activity in wood preservation practice and research started after 2001. The only active institution in wood preservation research currently is Lithuanian Forest Research Institute with 2 running projects. Lithuanian University of Agriculture and Kaunas University of Technology are active in standardization and have potential to start research. Main obstacles for future development of wood preservation research are: insufficient interest of industry in research and lack of skilled scientists.
J Saladis


Coding scheme for samples for IRG world-wide co-operative field experiment
1975 - IRG/WP 360
Each sample has been given a number containing six digits (eg 16 23 05). The first 2 digits indicate the country and person supplying the timber, the second 2 digits indicate the species of timber, and the last two digits indicate the treating concentration. All samples which end with the numbers 26 to 50 are to be placed in one site in the United Kingdom, probably at the Imperial College site at Silwood. All the other samples will be returned to the persons in the following list according to the code number indicated.
R Cockcroft


Termite standards questionnaire survey. Second Report
1989 - IRG/WP 1395
Information contained in replies received from IRG members responding to the survey continue to be summarised. Again, highlighted in this second report are the major termite species in the various zoogeographical regions, their damage ranking to timber-in-service, the chemicals used in control methods, and the status of the termite standards in the respondent countries.
J R J French, J P La Fage


Radical changes in the requirements for more safe pressure impregnation in the Nordic countries in 1988
1990 - IRG/WP 3581
After introduction of quality control schemes and standards in the Nordic countries during the seventies, the first radical change of the standards and practice of work took place after pressure from the labor unions and authorities in 1988 and 1989 in Denmark and in Sweden. A new class of preservation with less retention for out of ground contact use was introduced, fixation times were prolonged to 6 and 14 days, and branding became a requirement. At the same time, treating companies replaced CCA with arsenic-free preservatives, and started using processes for accelerated fixation. Drying of treated wood was started to be used widely.
B Moldrup


Above ground testing of wood preservatives - some experiences from Sweden
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20079
Field stake tests for the evaluation of wood preservatives have been used for more than 50 years in Sweden. In the Nordic countries a system for approval of wood preservatives, which includes field test, has also been in operation for more than 25 years. This system has been described in an IRG Document by Henningson & Jermer (1988). The Nordic system is now in a process of harmonization with the European system based on CEN's hazard classes (Henningsson & Jermer, 1994). Strangely enough, field testing for approval purposes in Sweden and the Nordic countries has only been done with stakes in soil contact. In earlier days approval requirements for a preservative for above ground situations was determined on the basis of results obtained in stake tests. Subsequently the Nordic approval system accepted laboratory decay tests as an approval basis for above ground preservatives. The European Standard EN 113 or comparable methods were allowed. This means that wood preservatives for above ground use could be approved after only laboratory tests, which - as a matter of fact - was against the generally accepted testing philosophy in these countries. The absence of standardised methods for field testing of above ground preservatives, however, does not necessarily mean that such tests have not been performed in Sweden. In the following some examples of above ground testing will be given. Although these tests may not particularly have been designed for testing the efficacy of wood preservatives, they may be of interest in discussing methodology and they may be imptortant in special cases. The examples are: Test with plank pieces; Window-frame corners; Organotin degradation test; tests with piled samples; tests about the natural durability of wood panels.
B Henningsson, Ö Bergman


Protocols for assessment and approval of wood preservatives in the Nordic countries
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20046
This paper reviews the protocols presently in use in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) for assessment and approval of wood preservatives with respect to their biocidal efficacy.
J Jermer, B Henningsson


Wood preservation in East European countries
1989 - IRG/WP 3527
The paper discusses the main problems of wood preservation in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German DR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and the USSR. The main types of wood preservatives produced have been presented, as well as the state of standarization to test their properties. There have been considered methods of wood treatment in use and application range of treated wood.
J Wazny


Evaluation and approval of wood preservatives in the Nordic countries
1988 - IRG/WP 2311
This paper reviews the system for evaluating and approving the efficacy of wood preservatives for industrial use currently in force in the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.
B Henningsson, J Jermer


The most important wood-destroying insects in various countries (Results of questionnaire)
1981 - IRG/WP 1136
M-M Serment


Questionnaire on the most important wood-destroying insects in your country and/or state
1980 - IRG/WP 1125
S Cymorek


Production of preservative-treated wood in some countries
1990 - IRG/WP 3598
This report presents figures of the production of preservative-treated wood and wood treated with anti-stain chemicals in 26 and 20 countries respectively from all over the world.
J Jermer


Wood protection processes in the Asean countries
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40034
This paper presents the wood processing practices in the Asean countries composing Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand except Brunei. The development of wood preservation industry in these countries started as early as 1922 to 1960. As in other industrial countries, treatment pressure with creosote of utility poles, railway sleepers, and marine pilings are the prime commodities that require long term protection. The introduction of water-borne preservatives covered the treatment of sawn timber and other lignocellulosic materials. It covers the historical background and development of the industry in each country, treatment processes both pressure and non-pressure of commodities e.g. power poles, railway sleepers, marine pilings, housing components, furniture, and other lignocellulosic materials requiring protection against biological deterioration. Technical problems are common and varied due to different treatment standard specifications and preservatives specially water-borne types. The pollution aspect of preservating plants and the prohibition and control of some wood preservatives is a growing concern of the environmentalists. Wood preservation in the Asean countries will stay on and geared towards the treatment of industrial tree plantations, rubberwood, palms and bamboos.
F R Siriban


Fungi used in standard tests on the toxicity value of wood preservatives in various European countries
1975 - IRG/WP 255
The aim of the present paper is to make the comparative analysis of test fungi used in various European countries in order to define the toxicity value of wood preservatives against fungi of the Basidiomycetes class. Only the methods with national standard rank, present on the currently binding standards list are taken for consideration. The analysis of similarities and differences in the choice of test fungi used in these methods should be a further step in the investigation on the unification of the test methods
J Wazny


Final proposals for a field experiment to determine the performance of preservative treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot
1976 - IRG/WP 367
A series of hardwood stakes have been prepared and treated in the UK from samples (mainly sapwood) supplied from participants around the world. The stakes include 4 reference species common to each site and, in most cases, at least 2 local species of importance. The treated stakes will be despatched to the co-operating scientists and installed under local conditions. It is hoped that with periodic assessment it will be possible to build up a picture of the performance of a range of economically important species throughout the world.
D J Dickinson


Efficacy of deltamethrin associated with TCMTB and MBT for the temporary protection of timbers immediately following their sawing, in tropical countries
1987 - IRG/WP 1321
K-Othrine bois 2.5 "sciage"Ò containing 2.5 g/l of deltamethrin, 50 g/l of TCMTB and 50 g/l of MBT used at a 6% dilution controls effectively during the drying process of the freshly sawn wood, the insects attacking wet wood, the staining fungi and the rots. The protection lasts 4 months. The efficacy trials carried in 1985 and 1986 in the CTFT ("Centre Technique Forestier Tropical") of Abidjan, Ivory Coast, confirms the dilution rate of 6%. The fungicidal efficacy can be strengthened when necessary and according to climatic or storage conditions by adding to K-Othrine bois 2.5 "sciage"Ò the adequate quantity of a ready mixed formulation of TCMTB and MBT.
J S Duguet, V Dartigues


The environment and the timber preservation in the Benelux countries
1990 - IRG/WP 3580
The environment has become a major issue in all industries. To focus on the timber preservation industry an analysis is made of the production chain. Suggestions are made for diminishing or excluding emissions of agents of pollution. After a review of the legislation in Holland, some important statements are made on the production process, the products involved and the waste materials. Finally raw materials and energy requirements are discussed. All stages of the product chain should take place in professional business units and under controlled circumstances. The innovations in timber preservation shall be based on existing products, which are very well known, such as CCA and creosote. A controlled and accelerated fixation process should be executed systematically. The preservatives have to be examined on their fixation properties. The industry has to take the initiative for guarantee systems on quality and certification.
C De Mey, R Leegwater


Harmonisation of technical requirements of treated wood in Europe. What can we learn from the experience in the Nordic countries?
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-20
In the Nordic countries the Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC) has since 1972 harmonised the technical requirements for pressure treated timber in a Nordic standard. These requirements were used by the control schemes that exist in every country. In 1976 the first Nordic standard for pressure treated wood was accepted and in 1978 NWPC changed from recommendations to approvals for the preservatives used in preservation-plants who were members in the control schemes. This harmonisation made it easy for the preservation-plants to choose preservatives and the users knew in what commodity to use the treated timber. It was also easy to export and import treated timber within the Nordic countries. In the 1980's, however, the environmental authorities in the Nordic countries went different ways to reduce the amount of preservatives, especially those containing arsenic and chromium. Even if we have the same technical requirements in the Nordic countries, we can no longer export and import of treated timber because the requirements to the use the timber are different.
F G Evans


Determination of Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) of wood in the neighboring Countries of Iran
2011 - IRG/WP 10-40540
The mean value of annual temperature and relative humidity of 33 cities in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Iraq and Turkey were determined using climatic data of the past 11 years. The EMC values were calculated using the Hailwood-Horrobin sorption model and its annual fluctuation, together with Temperature and relative humidity, were determined. The results indicated that EMC Values in the cities were ranged from 5.6% to 15.6%. Comparing annual temperature, relative humidity and EMC curves of these cities and conducting statistical analyses, the cities were classified into five groups with mean EMC values of 6.6, 8.6, 10.6, 12.6 and 14.6 percent. Thus, the results showed that EMC of the cities were below or equal to the allowable moisture content of wood and, wood products and the other hygroscopic materials(leather, textile and related products) in service except Bakoo in Azarbajan (EMC=15.6%). Therefore, if wood and wood products and related hygroscopic materials are processed within the range of the respective moisture content and exported to the neighboring countries of Iran, their quality and durability could be guarantied.
A A Enayati, H Z Hosseinabadi


Shells of Coconut and their Durability against Termite Attack
2015 - IRG 15-10853
All tropical and subtropical areas of the Earth are inhabited by termites. In climates with moderate temperatures, they occur less frequently. Especially wood and non-wood materials that grows in tropical areas and used there in timber constructions and woodworking, wood durability and protection against termites should be researched. This paper reports findings from an experimental “AW011” laboratory force- and choice- termite tests on the durability of shells of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) against termite attack by Reticulitermes santonensis de Feytaud to see if there could be any new use for them. Two reference tropical hardwoods were compared: Teak heartwood (Tectona grandis L.f.) as naturally durable and Jelutong sapwood (Dyera costulata Hook. f. (Miq.)) as non-durable wood. Furthermore, we compared with Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) was the control for the tests. Overall from test varieties, termite mortality, visual rating and mass loss data, coconut shells and teak heartwood were comparably termite resistant. Jelutong and beech were rated moderately resistant while Pine was clearly susceptible among these non-durable woods.
M Dass, A H H Wong, W Unger


Durability Testing of a Cattail (Typha spp.) based Insulation Material against Termite Attack
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10879
The use of insulating materials is particularly important in the construction industries, especially with regard to the use of wood and naturally occurring substances. The use and durability of natural materials as insulating materials is of keen interest to many construction experts, and continues to be a topic of intense investigation. It is generally agreed that the use of natural substances as insulation is possible if certain harmful influences are prevented or controlled. We investigated plant material of the cattail plant (Typha spp.) which consists of long, tear-resistant fibers and a compressible sponge-like tissue. The test material has a low specific density of 0.65 kg/m³. Test specimens consisted of sections of insulating panels which would typically be used in walls and roofing areas, as well as inside living areas. It is especially desirable that cattail-based insulating material is suitable for use in tropical environments where the insect and decay hazard is more severe than in temperate climates. In our research, we examined the resistance of a cattail-based insulation material against destruction by termites. Objectives were to determine resistance against termites and to assign a durability class to the test material. The experiments are in accordance with the European standard EN 117 and EN 118. The termite species Reticulitermes santonensis de Feytaud is the test organism. The test specimens have dimensions of 50 x 25 x 15 mm, and the test duration is 56 days. The test arrangement includes three different variations: the Force Test is a test with only one specimen in a vessel; the Choice Test includes two specimens; and the Control Test demonstrates the behavior of termites under optimal conditions. The test results are discussed with emphasis on the possible use of cattail-based insulation material in tropical countries where termite resistance is of particular importance.
M Dass, W Unger, T L Woods


Review on protection of timber bridges in Norway and other countries
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40809
Wood plays a major role in design and construction of modern bridges in Norway. Typical elements of those bridges are double impregnated glued laminated members, stress laminated timber decks, slotted-in steel plates, metal cladding of the surfaces of loadbearing members, and cross girders made of steel. Selected examples of timber bridges in Norway are presented. This review paper gives an overview of the importance of timber bridges in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Switzerland and the USA. The literature in the fields of protection by design, preservative treatment, monitoring and inspection of timber bridges is summarized. In the light of the potential ban of creosote as wood preservative, protection by design is crucial for modern timber bridges in Europe. The basic principles of protection by design are outlined, and an overview of approaches to find alternatives for creosote and the application of modified wood as material for timber bridges is given. Monitoring and inspection are essential to investigate the performance of a timber bridge and to gather data for life cycle estimation. The importance of monitoring the moisture content in bridge structures is pointed out, and an overview of techniques and tools for destructive and non-destructive inspection of timber bridges is presented.
K-C Mahnert, U Hundhausen