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Phytotoxic effects of preservative treated props for agricultural use
1989 - IRG/WP 3550
The phytotoxic effect due to the use of wood treated with organic preservatives for agricultural purposes was studied. The assays were carried out on plants tutored with props of Pinus sylvestris treated with three different organic wood preservatives. Pre-assays were carried out to observe the reaction on the plants, spreading directly the preservative on different parts of the plant and to the substrate.
D Franco, M V Baonza Merino


Use of vermiculite as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of treated wood
1989 - IRG/WP 3547
It is considered the possibility of using vermiculite instead of soil as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of wood treated with preservatives for agricultural use. Three organic preservatives were used. It had been tested the behaviour of both, vermiculite and soil in case of preservative leaking due to a leach. So that, assays of germination with cucurbitaceous were carried out, mixing a dose of preservatives with both substrates.
M V Baonza Merino, D Franco


Production of treated wood in Brazil in 1982 and 1983
1985 - IRG/WP 3327
The data of Brazilian production of treated sleepers, poles, crossarms, fence posts and other commodities are given for the years of 1982 and 1983. This report updates information given to the Group in Document No: IRG/WP/3321 Wood Preservation in Brazil, STU information no 445
M S Cavalcante


Health and safety aspects of the use of wood preservatives. Preliminary evaluation of the answers to the IRG-Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation
1974 - IRG/WP 56
This preliminary evaluation of the answers to the IRG/WP-Questionnaire only gives a general survey on those questionnaires, which the author received until June 13, 1974. Details, such as correlations between importance of wood preservation and pollution control, could not be considered due to lack of time. For the same reason it was not possible so far, to evaluate the additional remarks given in seperate letters. In the case, where several questionnaires have been returned for one country, the respective answers were compared. If answers differed within one country, those were considered, which seemed to be most applicable. Obvious errors were omitted.
H Willeitner


Assessment of contamination of soil and water at a CCA treatment plant: A demonstration project
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50067
Soil, sludge, dust and water samples were collected at a copper/chromium/arsenic wood preservation plant. Contamination of soil, sludge, dust and surface water with copper, chromium and arsenic was detected. Levels of contamination were sufficiently high to require remediation. Contamination originated from preservative solution dripping from recently treated wood. Migration of contaminants was via surface water run-off; poor housekeeping and operational procedures; forklift movements and wind-blown dust.
P N Durrant, D C R Sinclair, G M Smith


Assessment of wood preservation facilities in Canada
1989 - IRG/WP 3557
This document sets out an assessment procedure for the current status of the wood preservation industry in Canada in relation to the Technical Recommendations (TR) documents for the Design and Operation of Wood Preservation Facilities published by the Government of Canada in April 1988. A questionnaire has been prepared in consultation with industry and the Canadian Institute of Treated Wood. An assessment report (state-of-the-art) will be prepared on the basis of the information provided in these questionnaires and discussions.
G Das, V N P Mathur


Wood preservation in Spain
1983 - IRG/WP 3266
This report includes some statistical data on the potential of Spanish forests and the country's timber consumption as well as detailing the extent of development of the wood products industries, and will help to give a better understanding of the use of this raw material in Spain. The main biological deteriorating organisms which damage wood are given and the capacity of the industrial treatments for preventing their damage is described, including an inventory of the vacuum/pressure and double/vacuum plants, together with the consumption of the different types of preservative used. Also the extent of wood treatment undertaken by the various industries has been analysed together with the conditions which characterize these. The homologation system that permits the manufacture of wood preservatives, their import, trade and marketing is also explained and, finally, a current list of existing standards and specifications that are used in Spain is appended. From studying this paper it can be concluded that wood preservation in Spain is characterized by: 1) under-utilization of the industrial treatment capacity available; 2) a low level of treatment, except for poles and sleepers, and consequently there is a scanty consumption of preservatives; 3) a lack of standardization; and 4) there is, in many instances, a lack of adequate laws and regulations. But looking forward, the future can be viewed with optimism and with good expectations in the coming years for an increasing development of the wood preservation industry which could result in a potential saving of timber of about 10% of the apparent yearly consumption.
A Lopez de Roma, R Cockcroft


Diffusion treatment plants (Latin America - Africa)
1974 - IRG/WP 333
B N Prasad


Wood preservation in Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 3216
The report reviews the forestry potential of Turkey and also the historical background of wood preservation in the country. The wood preservation industry in Turkey is mainly concentrated on the treatment of poles and railway sleepers. There is no official body responsible for wood preservation activities, and therefore its promotion depends mainly on the voluntary research efforts carried out by the universities and the Forest Research Institute. Present standards are inadequate to meet contemporary standards of wood protection used in other countries. These should be completely revised and updated. Its forest products potential and geographical location combine to give Turkey a great advantage for exportation of its timber to the Middle East countries. But first of all Turkey has to solve its own problems of promoting a productive industry and efficient wood preservation.
R Ilhan, R Cockcroft


Wood preservation in Thailand
1983 - IRG/WP 3265
The report gives a background to Thailand and its timber resources, production and consumption. The history of wood preservation in the country and its modern industrial development are described. Its 19 preservation plants are listed and the production figures of the two major ones given. The wood preservatives in use are noted and the costs of treating a railway sleeper in three different ways compared. The main hazards to Thai timbers, fungal damage, insect damage, and marine borers are detailed and 151 Thai timbers are listed with information on their natural durability and treatability. The organizations in Thailand concerned with the subject are outlined and the report ends by indicating that the future of wood preservation in the country is one of potential.
A Rananand, R Cockcroft


Generic code of good practices for wood protection facilities. Part 1: Wood protection (antisapstain) facilities
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50003
In general, the potential of high toxicity (aquatic and human) of wood protection (antisapstain) chemicals dictates the need to protect the environment and humans from its harmful effects. This document is a compendium of recommendations for the design and operating practices of wood protection facilities. The suggested recommendations focus on achieving the objectives of protecting the environment and workers in a wood protection facility from harmful exposure to wood protection chemicals.
G Das, V N P Mathur


Health hazards and environmental aspects when using Cu-HDO-containing wood preservatives in vacuum pressure plants
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-11
Apart from the biological efficacy of wood preservatives, the health and environmental aspects concerning the utilisation of wood preservatives, the use of treated timber and the disposal of impregnated wood are of high significance today. Therefore, information on a possible aerial concentration of wood preservatives, on the mobility of active substances in soil leached from treated timber in service and on the composition and toxicity of thermal decomposition gases releasing on combustion of impregnated wood, are of absolutely fundamental interest. Measuring procedures relevant for the practical application will be presented, and the results concerning the utilisation of Cu-HDO-containing wood preservatives will be described. With the proper use of Cu-HDO-containing wood preservatives, the aerial concentration at workplace falls distinctly below the maximum permissible limit. If vacuum pressure treated timber is used properly, no active substances will seep into the ground water as a result of the leaching process of impregnated wood in service. The composition measured and the acute toxicity of the thermal decomposition gases released on combustion of impregnated wood may axtually be compared to those of untreated timber.
W Hettler, S Breyne, M Maier


2nd IRGWP - Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation (Introductory letter)
1981 - IRG/WP 3184
H Willeitner


2nd IRGWP - Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation
1981 - IRG/WP 3185
H Willeitner


Production of treated wood in Brazil in 1984
1986 - IRG/WP 3357
The data of the Brazilian production of sleepers, poles, crossarms, fence posts and other commodities are given for the year of 1984.
M S Cavalcante


An environmental assessment of timber treatment plants in Australia
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50124
Australian Standard AS 2843 Timber Preservation Plant Safety Code, sets the specifications for the design and operation of timber treatment plants in Australia. The Timber Preservers' Association of Australia has carried out an environmental survey of timber treatment plants throughout Australia using the operational checklist provided in Appendix C of Part 2 of the Standard. Third party auditors carried out assessments on 121 plants throughout the country. Data was collected and then collated on a State and National basis. As a number of the questions in the survey deal with other than environmental issues, and because some specifications are 'more environmentally important' than others, collected data was also weighted according to potential impact on the environment and the level of 'compliance' was calculated accordingly. The gathered information is being used to develop strategies concerned with improving the environmental credentials of timber treating operations in Australia. The aim is to minimise the risk of chemical contamination of the environment by preservative treatment solution, as opposed to the risk from treated wood is not considered to be a hazard. The paper presents a summary of the responses and indicates that there is a range of compliance with the Standard. The relevance of various specifications is also discussed.
J Norton, K Riley


The environmental chemistry of chromium: Science vs. U.S. law
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50014
The cooperation which existed among chromium chemical producers, industrial health laboratories, and governmet agencies was destroyed after 1970 by the advent of environmental activism and regulatory legislation. As prewar plants had been found to pose a serious cancer risk, this fact was the basis of EPA regulations, especially during the term of Joe Califano in HEW under Jimmy Carter. However, as health problems were identified by industry, the legal implications soon became apparent, and corporate scientists could release information only after clearance. This destroyed the free exchange of information necessary to the solution of scientific problems. Within the past few years, the closure of allied plants, the resolution of some superfund litigation, plus the release of records to the historical files at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, has clarified the scientific record. The following will be discussed: (1) The tendency of the present legal system to exaggerate risk. (2) Actual risks involved from inhalation, skin contact, and effluents. (3) the application of these principles to production, use and disposal of CCA and CCA-treated wood.
W H Hartford


Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40190
Focussing an Wood Preservation in Kenya, the Report discusses and elaborates on Education and Training, Research, Wood deteriorating organisms, Treatment Plants and Processes, Preserving Chemicals, Specifications, Markets, Health and Safety and Environmental issues. Education and Research is limited to one Institution only, other Institutions involved with the properties and utilization of wood hardly touches Preservation. Publications and results of Research Projects over the years have emanated from that Institution. Conferences have not been held for a long time in the country. Fungi, insects, including termites, and Marine borers, are all present in the country. The amount of untreated or poorly treated wood lost through the activities of these organisms is substantial. Treatment is usually of a general nature, assuming that Schedules used will protect timber against all agents of decay. The Kenyan Wood Preservation Industry, now 50 years old and with some 27 Plants around the country, has not explored other Wood Preserving Chemicals or Treatment methods. The four Preservatives used are still CCA, Creosote, BFCA and PCP. The Bethel Process is used by all pressure Plants (CCA and Creosote), with only one immersion Plant (BFCA and PCP). Eucalyptus, Acacia,Cypress and some are the species commonly treated, mainly for the local market with some exports. Schedules have not been properly worked out for different end uses. Transmission, Telegraph poles and Fencing posts comprise the bulk of timber treated, with smaller amounts of Construction timber and Horticultural poles. The four Chemicals used are of foreign origin, imported by Treatment Plants. Apart from a few Standards formulated by the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KBS), there are no other Standards or Codes of Practice to guide the Industry and Users of treated timbers. Specifications have not been fully worked out. The KBS is the only Authority responsible for Quality Control and Certification. Health and Safety of Plant operatives is not of major concern. Problems associated with Toxic Preserving Chemicals in the environment has not been fully addressed yet.
R Venkatasamy


Studies on the mobility of arsenic, copper and chromium in CCA-contaminated soil
1990 - IRG/WP 3571
CCA contaminated soils from six Swedish preservation plants were investigated primarily to study the mobility of arsenic but also that of copper and chromium in the soils. The soil samples represented average types with different amounts of clay, organic matter, arsenic, copper, chromium and different pH. The total soluble amounts of the elements were measured. The pH dependent solubility and the water-soluble fraction were investigated. The fixation capacity of arsenic by treatment with iron and aluminium salts and the toxicity of CCA contaminated soils to ryegrass were also investigated. There is strong evidence that when the soils are contaminated by CCA solution or leachate, a fraction of the arsenic, copper and chromium is precipitated as copper and chromium arsenates or as other salts in the soils. The solubility of arsenic, copper and chromium is pH dependent and the release of these elements increases both with decreasing and increasing pH, with the lowest release at between pH 6 to 7. The elements are released at a constant rate in equilibrium and in proportion to the precipitated arsenates. The water-soluble fraction of the elements are higher in sandy than in clay rich soils. The mobility decreases in the order As>>Cu>Cr. It is possible to fix the arsenic in sandy soils with Fe(II) salts and this is most effective at about pH 5. The growth of ryegrass decreases when the arsenic content in the soil solution exceeds 0.25 mg/L and its growth is totally inhibited when the arsenic content exceeds 1 mg/L.
J Bergholm


Selective chromate elimination from the storage-drainage-water of a wood impregnation plant
1980 - IRG/WP 3153
With the Enviro-Chrom-Ex process it is possible to eliminate ecologically and economically hexavalent chromium (chromate) from water selectively. The process which is based on the principle of selective ion exchange works with different chromate concentrations and under the presence of other ions, irrespective of the water hardness. The values of water-offtake reach 0.1 mg CrVI at maximum, causing neither pH alteration nor concentration of the salt-content of the water. The plant which has been installed in the Holzimprägnierwerk AG, Waldkirch, Switzerland, for treating chromium-containing drainage-water permits the chromium-containing regenerates to be recycled into the impregnation process. Using this chromate-recycling-process the harmful substance can be eliminated optimally.
O Wälchli, R Ott, R Hugener, E Graf, B Lieberherr


Wood preservation in Portugal
1985 - IRG/WP 3325
This report deals with the forest potential of Portugal and its timber industry and outlines the evolution of wood preservation in the country. The main hazards to timber in service are noted and the timbers used classified according to their natural durability and treatability. The wood preservatives used are detailed with estimates of the total consumption of the different types. Addresses are listed, of the known manufacturers and importing agencies, of the firms that treat by vacuum/pressure and those that employ the double-vacuum process, and of the organizations concerned with wood preservation research and wood preservation in general. Only two firms specialize in remedial treatments and there are two institutions which are responsible for restoring cultural properties. Information is given on requirements and approvals. The relevant standards are listed and the main Portuguese papers on wood preservation.
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, R Cockcroft


Wood preservation in Australia
1984 - IRG/WP 3316
Wood preservation in Australia is presented as an integral part of the forest products industry. The history of its development, as well as its current status and activities are described. Preservation operations in Australia are broadly based, and the industry diversified to combat a wide range of hazards, and to utilise many wood species, for differing end-uses. The Timber Preservers’ Association of Australia is the industry’s affiliating body, listing 99 members, made up of treaters, suppliers and associates. In all, some 208 treatment plants provide about 0.9-1.0 million m3 of treated commodities per annum, utilising about 5000 t of CCA, boron and fluoride compounds and light organic solvent preservatives, together with 8 million litres of creosote and oil-based preservatives. The annual retail value of the industry is estimated at $94 million*). The details of standards, legislation and registration requirements which affect the industry’s operations are presented, together with a comment on the impact of environmental restrictions and union attitudes. Research and development spending is about $1.5 million per annum, 78% of which is accounted for by government bodies, with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation committing approximately $1 million of this. The industry spends about $150.000 per annum in direct funding for R & D work. The main projects being carried out in Australia have been listed. It is concluded that wood preservation has a sound future in Australia. However, all concerned must come to terms with health and safety aspects associated with the industry. In addition, standards and legislation requirements must move closer together, there should be much better promotion of wood preservation, and, finally, the industry must strive towards a more integrated structure. *) All dollars mentioned in the text refer to the Australian dollar.
H Greaves


Wood Preservation in the United Kingdom
1979 - IRG/WP 385
This is only the first of several reports in English currently being prepared about wood preservation in Europe. The report deals with the extent of industrial impregnation and the number of impregnation plants in use today in Great Britain. Timbers which are treated for various end uses and their life expectancies are discussed. The market for wood preservatives, the size of the motorway fencing market in particular, and the extent of remedial treatments and 'do-it-yourself' operations are briefly indicated and an analysis of the types of wood preservative available on the United Kingdom market given. Information is also given regarding a scheme to safeguard users of preservatives and purchasers of treated wood. The organizations concerned with wood preservation and wood preservation research in the United Kingdom are noted, with the topics of research currently being undertaken described and all the relevant standards and specifications listed. The report concludes with a list of 40 important references.
R Cockcroft


The use of preservative containing waste wood as substrate for growing greenhouse crops
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50011
In the Netherlands a large amount of waste wood and wood waste is produced every year. An important part of this amount comes from the pallet and packaging industries. One of the possibilities to re-use this relatively clean material is to convert it into substrates for growing crops in glass houses instead of the commonly used materials such as rock wool and glass wool. In this research, the influence of several material parameters such as wood species, texture, density, height, water holding capacity on the growth of cucumbers has been studied and this has been compared with the growth on rock wool, which is applied in approximately 95% of the glasshouses in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the influence has been investigated of anti blue stain preservatives on the growth of the cucumber plants, this kind of preservatives is often used in the dutch industry for protection of pallets. In general it can be concluded that when waste wood is to be used as substrate a few preservatives can be accepted and some others can not. The wood species teture, density, height and water holding capacity of the substrate showed to have only a slight effect on the growth of cucumbers.
W J Homan,H Militz


Wood preservation in Yugoslavia
1984 - IRG/WP 3319
This report, which is one in a series written by some of the most eminent experts in wood preservation in the world, is meant to serve as a practical guide to all those, both in Yugoslavia and in other countries, who wish to collaborate in the field of wood preservation production, wood preservation treatments and in the development and research work necessary in this subject. The report offers the essential data concerning the timber resources in Yugoslavia, the country's most dangerous wood-destroying organisms, the wood preservatives available and their manufacturers, as well as giving information about the facilities that exist in the country for wood preservation, and the universities, research institutes and other institutions that are concerned with protecting wood. The publication also gives information on the current regulations, standards and other specifications relevant to the subject in Yugoslavia. The report concludes with a bibliography which should be of help to those who are interested in the wood preservation projects and publications of Yugoslavia.
N Vidovic, D Murko, R Cockcroft


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