Your search resulted in 464 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Analysis of degradation observed on ancient wooden objects buried underground
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10403
Ancient wooden objects were sometimes excavated from the moat of mounded tombs in Japan. Such wooden objects were in the shape of a sunshade, bird, shield, pole, yugi(a bag that holds arrows) among others. Archaeologists discussed the usage of such shaped objects, but no one could clearly explain their use. Some objects were observed using an ordinary microscope. Deterioration by bacteria was foun...
Termite and decay resistance of particleboard composed of white cypress pine and radiata pine
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10200
Phenol-formaldehyde bonded particleboard was manufactured from blends of non-durable radiate pine (P. radiate) and heartwood of the naturally durable species, white cypress pine (C. glaucophylla). Board specimens were subjected to bioassays using two termite species, M. darwiniensis and C. acinaciformis, and the basidiomycete fungi, C. puteana and P. ostreatus, and the durability of specimens was ...
P D Evans, J W Creffield, J S G Conroy, S C Barry
MDF manufactured from blends of cypress pine and radiata pine shows enhanced resistance to subterranean termite attack
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40214
Medium density fibreboards consisting of blends of the naturally durable wood species white cypress pine (Callitris glaucophylla) and non-durable wood species were manufactured in a commercial plant and subjected to a bioassay using the subterranean termite species, Coptotermes lacteus. A board composed of 30% cypress pine, 30% slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and 40% of the naturally durable hardwood...
P D Evans, S Dimitriades, C Donnelly, R B Cunningham
Utilizing Cypress to improve the decay and termite resistance of OSB panels
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10658
OSB panels were manufactured with mixture of pine and cypress heartwood and lignin and tannin based resins in order to propose an eco-friendly wood composite. The resistance of OSB panels was tested against Reticulitermes santonensis according to the EN 118 and EN 117 standards and field tests methods. OSB made from cypress showed more resistance against the tested termite, the resistance decrease...
N Amusant, O Arnould, A Depres, R H Mansouris, T Pizzi, C Baudassé
Wart Morphology can Distinguish White Cypress Pine from the Less Durable Species, Black Cypress Pine
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20406
White cypress pine (Callitris glaucophylla) wood is durable enough to be used outdoors, but occasionally there are reports of its premature failure in ground contact, which may be due to its substitution by the less durable species, black cypress pine (C. endlicheri). It has been difficult to prove this, however, because the woods of both species are very similar in structure and cannot be separat...
R Heady, R Cunningham, P Evans
Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh
Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy...
Screening potential preservatives against stain and mould fungi on pine timber in Zimbabwe
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30063
The search for environmentally and toxicologically safer chemicals for use in the timber preservative industry against stain and mould fungi has been intensified during the past few years. Results of field tests with two chemicals previously evaluated in the laboratory are presented. The conventional sodium pentachlorophenate was the more efficacious chemical against stain and mould fungi, providi...
A J Masuka
Dimensional stability and decay resistance of hot-melt self-bonded particleboard by surface benzylated pine chips
1991 - IRG/WP 3652
Akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc: Japanese red pine) particles were pretreated with 40% NaOH solution and benzylated with benzyl chloride, and the surface of particle was converted into meltable materials. Hot-melt self bonded particleboard having smooth and high glossiness surface was prepared by hot pressing at 150°C and 1.96 MPa without using any conventional adhesives. Dimensional sta...
M Kiguchi, K Yamamoto
Strength loss associated with steam conditioning and boron treatment of radiata pine framing
1987 - IRG/WP 3438
The combined effect of included defects and wood moisture content on the strength loss of second rotation radiata pine framing following conventional steam conditioning is investigated. The green Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) is reduced by approximately 13% after steaming. When dried after steaming, however, neither the MOE nor MOR is significantly different from unsteamed dried controls....
M J Collins, P Vinden
Soil virulence tests using Scots pine sapwood
1973 - IRG/WP 222
Following the tests reported in Document No: IRG/WP/210, in which soils from different laboratories were investigated for virulence, supplementary tests have been carried out using Scots pine sapwood and an extended incubation period....
J K Carey, J G Savory
Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed....
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley
Light organic solvent preservative treatment schedules for New Zealand-grown radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3379
The influence of pressure differential and treatment time on preservative uptake and distribution in radiata pine heartwood and sapwood is investigated. Treatment schedules are defined which minimise solvent usage but ensure complete sapwood penetration and optimise heartwood penetration....
Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 3: Full penetration of the refractory sapwood of white cypress
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40167
The heartwood of white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla, is renowned for its termite resistance and durability against decay. The sapwood, which can represent up to 30% of log volume, is non-durable and refractory to conventional preservative treatment. Previous work ascribes the lack of permeability to oily deposits within tracheids and ray cells. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was use...
M J Kennedy, L M Stephens, M A Powell
Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6....
J K Grace
Durability of pine modified by 9 different methods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40288
The decay resistance was studied for pine modified by nine methods of wood modification: 1) Acetylation, 2) Treatment with methylated melamine resin (MMF), 3) Acetylation followed by post-treatment with MMF-resin, 4) Thermal modification, 5) Furfurylation, 6) Maleoylation (using water solution of MG or ethanol solution of maleic anhydride), 7) Succinylation, 8) NMA-modification and 9) modification...
M Westin, A O Rapp, T Nilsson
Performance of Tebbacop in laboratory, fungus cellar and field tests
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30222
A novel organo-copper wood preservative ("Tebbacop") has been exposed to 12 years fungus cellar testing and 6 years above ground field testing. In the fungus cellar, Tebbacop at a retention of 0.053% Cu m/m oven dry wood out-performed CCA at a retention of 0.55% m/m oven dry wood. In above ground tests, L-joints treated to a Tebbacop retention of 0.012% Cu are performing as well as joints treated ...
M E Hedley, D R Page, B E Patterson
Creosoted radiata pine by non-pressure methods
1988 - IRG/WP 3486
Posts of Pinus radiata have been impregnated with creosote by immersion for 1, 3, and 7 days, and by hot-and-cold open tank with hot bath temperatures at 40°C and 60°C. On the basis of the retention rates obtained, suitable procedures are described for wood elements that are going to be in ground contact, and an analysis is made of the way in which the variables tested affect the results....
M V Baonza Merino, C De Arana Moncada
Light organic solvent preservative treatment of glue-laminated radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3380
The high permeability of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) is associated with ray-tissue and in particular the cross-field pits linking ray-tissue to tracheids. This pathway is absent in the tangential grain direction, leading to poor preservative penetration when treatment is restricted to the radial face - for example, timber fabricated into glue-laminated beams....
Dimensional stabilization of wood with dimethylol compounds
1987 - IRG/WP 3412
This study showed that a substantial degree of dimensional stability can be imparted to wood by crosslinking with low concentrations of dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. It was demonstrated that by selecting the right catalyst system the cure temperature can be reduced to the point that strength loss of the treated wood is minimized....
D D Nicholas, A D Williams
Steam conditioning of partially dried radiata and Corsican pine roundwood
1988 - IRG/WP 3499
The effect of partial air drying prior to steam conditioning and its effect on subsequent preservative treatment by the Bethell treatment process was investigated. A high standard of preservative treatment was obtained in both radiata and Corsican pine, irrespective of whether a period of partial drying was imposed before or after steam conditioning....
P Vinden, D R Page, K Nasheri
Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated Scots pine exposed in sea water
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50149
A laboratory leaching trial combining a static and a flowing seawater system was carried out to measure the leaching rates of copper, chromium and arsenic from the surface of Scots pine panels vacuum-pressure treated to 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 kgm-3 CCA. Untreated and treated panels were exposed in flowing seawater for up to 8 weeks followed by 2 weeks submersion in static seawater which was taken fo...
C J Brown, R A Eaton
The effect of treatment method on CCA efficacy in Corsican pine
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3723
As part of a study into the influence of application method on preservative efficacy Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) samples (50 x 50 x 400 mm³) were treated with a CCA formulation using Bethel, Steam/Bethel or Lowry processes. Full penetration of the preservative at a gross level was confirmed using a copper disclosing reagent. The preservative was allowed to fix and then samples were converted into...
P R Newman, R J Murphy
Methodology challenges in developing a transfer of natural durability from sawmill residues, illustrated by experiences with white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20203
The transfer of durability-conferring extractives from durable to non-durable wood has been accomplished often, but usually as an educational exercise rather than as a commercially oriented process. In the latter environment, many factors previously overlooked become vitally important. How to study them, in the absence of well-developed methodology and given the shorter timeframes being demanded b...
M J Kennedy, M A Powell
Movement of boron from fused boron rods implanted in Southern pine, Douglas fir, red oak, and white oak timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30061
This paper reports the distribution of boron from fused boron rods installed into six-inch (15.2 cm) square timbers of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, red oak and white oak exposed aboveground. The composition and size of rods was: sodium borate and sodium borate-copper oxide (8.5 x 100 mm²); sodium borate-copper, sodium borate and boric oxide-copper oxide (12 x 76 mm²). The boric acid equivalent wa...
T L Highley, L Ferge