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Leaching of the new boron based biocide from coated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30267
We investigated leachability of the new boron based biocide - a complex of an amine and boric acid - from vacuum impregnated spruce wood samples. It was determined by the standard ENV 1250-2 procedure that the new biocide is susceptible to leaching so from the water borne as well as from the ethanol borne boron containing preservative treated wood. Leaching may be retarded by application of surface coatings. The ability of a surface finish to prevent leaching is correlated to its water vapour permeability.
M Petric, M Pavlic, F Cadez

The identification and preservative tolerance of species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from freshly felled timber
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1553
The surface disfigurement of antisapstain treated timber by preservative-tolerant fungi remains a major problem in stored timber. Identification of a range of isolates of Trichoderma based on microscopic morphological characteristics was found to be imprecise due to the variable nature of this organism. In addition, studies to compare visual (morphological) characteristics of these isolates with their tolerance to the antisapstain compound methylene-bis-thiocyanate (MBT) using minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) tests showed no clear correlations. Isoenzyme electrophoresis was used to investigate the taxonomic relationships between species aggregates of Trichoderma isolated from antisapstain field trials and to identify physiological differences between 30 isolates of Trichoderma which show tolerance to MBT at concentrations ranging from less than 4 ppm to 34 ppm. Results indicate that there is considerable variability in the preservative tolerance of different Trichoderma isolates from particular locality. This highlights the need for field testing of an antisapstain compound in the same locality and under the same conditions in which it will be used in practice.
R J Wallace, R A Eaton, M A Carter, G R Williams

Detoxification of preservatives: Tri-n-butyltin oxide as a biocide
1982 - IRG/WP 1156
T E Dudley-Brendell, D J Dickinson

A behavioral assay for measuring feeding deterrency of a slow-acting biocide, A-9248, against the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1988 - IRG/WP 1366
Concentration-dependent feeding deterrency of a slow-acting compound, A-9248 (diiodomethyl para-tolyl sulfone) was studied in a choice test against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. A-9248 was a feeding deterrent at concentrations ³8,000 ppm. Initially, Coptotermes formosanus fed on wood treated with 1,000-6,000 ppm A-9248 but learned to avoid the treatment as a result of ingesting sublethal doses of A-9248. Only those groups exposed to wood treated with <1,000 ppm continued feeding on the treated substrates, and ingestion of these concentrations resulted in 85-100% mortality at the end of the 4-week experiment.
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn

International standards and the biocide debate - Potential contribution
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20196
Downstream the European 98/8/EEC directive on biocides, a working party of O.E.C.D. has been developing a tremendous work to put together the background information necessary to assess wood preservative efficacy, environmental and human exposure. Standardization may contribute to those efforts, using traditional experience and methodology. Among them, the hazard classification system may be extended to human beings and their environment, in all situations of uses. While primary exposure to biocides seems to be a matter related to classes of processes, the situation differs with secondary exposure to treated wood, related to use categories: in principle, the doses are already restricted to targets in a given class. Additionally, those uses have been , until now, practically limited to construction products. The first need is to extend the hazard class system to all kinds of biocidal wood preservation and their related uses. A methodology is proposed to get access to biocide concentrations and flows in priority compartments, assessment of intake by non-targets and their ratio to no-effect values in order to quantify safety factors. This route could allow to select further priorities for risk reduction at the pre-marketing stage.
G Ozanne

Biocide Treatments for Wood Composites - A Review
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40323
This paper reviews the biocidal treatment of wood composites. Included are in-process and post-process treatments. Various biocides are covered as are methods of application. Novel treatments and technologies are also presented.
J W Kirkpatrick, H M Barnes

Effect of soil parameters on biocide depletion: laboratory and field studies of water- and emulsion-borne preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30234
Two field test sites with different soils were selected. Soil analysis showed that the soil at the two sites had considerable texture, base saturation, acidity, and cation exchange capacity differences. Five sets of field stakes were treated as follows: three with water-borne CCA to about 0.4 pcf (6.4 kgm-3) retention, one with 0.75% DDAC, and one with 0.75% DDAC:0.25% chlorothalonil. The last two sets were treated using oil-in-water emulsions. Samples from all five sets were installed at both field sites. In addition, wood samples which had been co-treated with the five sets of field stakes were installed in a lab environment in fungus cellar tubs using soils from the two sites. All wood samples were defect-free southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood, with the field stakes measuring 19 x 19 x 457 mm3 and the fungus cellar samples measuring 5 x 19 x 250 mm3. The field samples were exposed for two or three years and the fungus cellar samples for 36 weeks, after which depletion of the various biocides was measured. No consistent pattern in CCA depletions between the two soils were observed in either the fungus cellar or field exposure tests, despite the large chemical and physical differences between the two soils. The fungus cellar method may be useful to conduct relatively rapid depletion studies. The authors also discuss problems with depletion studies, including possible influences by soil, wood, and microorganisms present in the soil.
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, D E Pettry, M G Kim

Long-term efficacy of wood dip-treated with multicomponent biocides
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30379
Biocides designed for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials need to provide long-term protection under conditions of high humidity. Specimens of kiln-dried southern pine and unseasoned southern pine, aspen, and Douglas-fir were dip-treated with borate-dimethylcocoamine (DMCA) supplemented with voriconazole, thiabendazole, or thujaplicin and evaluated at 4-week intervals for inhibition of three mold fungi, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Trichoderma viride, using the ASTM D4445 mold test. After 8 weeks, all treatments of aspen and Douglas-fir inhibited growth of test fungi, while kiln-dried pine only inhibited A. niger and unseasoned pine only inhibited T. viride despite average chemical retentions in pine up to four-fold greater than those in aspen and Douglas-fir. After 12 weeks, aspen and Douglas-fir treated with the thiabendazole-containing biocide continued to provide protection against growth of the test fungi. The thujaplicin-containing biocide provided partial protection of aspen and Douglas-fir for 12 weeks but failed to protect pine samples beyond 4 weeks. A comparison of tebuconazole, propiconazole, voriconazole, and thiabendazole in the borate-DMCA biocide system showed that thiabendazole and voriconazole provided superior protection against the test fungi, particularly T. viride. We conclude that multicomponent biocides with thiabendazole protect aspen and Douglas-fir against growth of test fungi for at least 12 weeks under the conditions of the ASTM 4445 mold test.
C A Clausen, V W Yang

Wood preservation using furanones derived from marine algae
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10506
Halogenated furanones that are analogues of natural compounds extracted from the red seaweed Delisea pulchra were examined in the laboratory for activity against termites and decay fungi. The furanones were found to have broad spectrum activity, some with solution strengths of 0.01% controlling Coptotermes acinaciformis in a filter paper trial, while 2% solutions impregnated into Pinus radiata blocks also gave control. Some furanones prevented growth on filter papers by Perenniporia tephropora (white rot) and Coniophora olivacea (brown rot) at 1% solution concentration. In treated P. radiata specimens, one of the furanones prevented decay by P. tephropora and Trametes lilacino-gilva while there was some decay by C. olivacea. When blocks were artificially weathered and leached, fungi were not controlled. Furanones have potential as termiticides for the protection of house framing, while further research is required for protection against decay fungi in exposed leaching environments.
L J Cookson, R de Nys, P Steinberg, N Chew

Accelerated laboratory testing of preservatives on 13 North American wood species
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30201
The ability of selected water and solvent based biocides to protect wood against fungal attack was evaluated on 13 North American wood species using 7 decay fungi in a modified soil block test. Most preservatives were capable of providing protection at their recommended above ground and soil contact use levels. Many decay fungi caused substantial weight losses on blocks treated with chlorothalonil, copper citrate or copper dimethyldithiocarbamate. Most other preservatives performed well against a majority of fungi, but were susceptible to one or two of the test isolates. Aspen was the most difficult of the 13 species to protect against fungal attack. The results illustrate the need to confirm performance of new wood preservatives on the range of wood species to which they will be applied prior to field use.
J J Morrell, C M Freitag

Supercritical fluid impregnation of Douglas-fir heartwood with cyproconazole using temperature induced deposition
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40259
A limited understanding of the fundamental aspects of supercritical fluid (SCF) impregnation in wood remains an obstacle to the development of this technology. Developing a better understanding of the effects of various process parameters on treatment results would facilitate more rational development of SCF impregnation. In this project, the effect of treating period and specimen length on supercritical fluid impregnation of cyproconzaole was evaluated on Douglas-fir heartwood using temperature decrease to induce biocide deposition. The results showed that biocide movement was slower than expected, and suggested that diffusion was the primary phenomena accounting for biocide penetration into the interior of sample. Further trials will be required to better understand the mechanism of biocide movement.
Sung-Mo Kang, J J Morrell

Aboveground Microbial Decay Test of Biocide Treated and Untreated Wood Exposed to Danish and Humid Tropical Climates
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20306
A co-operative study was initiated to compare the aboveground field decay test of untreated and preservative-treated timbers under Nordic (Danish) and a representative humid tropical (Malaysian) environment according to CEN standard method. Matched specimens of untreated and both preservative-impregnated and surface-treated wood were simultaneously exposed at The Danish Technological Institute (DTI) and The Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) campuses. The aim was to demonstrate conclusively that accelerated decay of untreated wood in field tests according to CEN methods prevailed under such tropical environments. It could be of considerable use to the Scandinavian and European manufacturers of wood protecting biocides intending to challenge treated test specimens to this tropical condition. Of significance, by the ENV12037 lap-joint method, pine sapwood lap-joints were deteriorated to rating 3 (adopting a 5-point decay/stain rating scale) within 1.5 years at FRIM, while corresponding specimens exposed at DTI showed no signs of deterioration (rating 0). After 37 months (3 years), spruce was starting to decay at FRIM (rating 2) but not at DTI. Specimens vacuum pressure treated according to the Nordic Hazard Class of NTR Class AB were not deteriorated after 3 years’ exposure at either DTI or FRIM. Painted specimens exposed at DTI already showed signs of peeling after 6 months, while initial peelings of the matched coated specimens exposed at FRIM were observed only after 1.5 years. The uniform tropical climate with a constant high relative humidity did not affect the adhesion of the coatings to the wood in the same way as the Danish climate. Indeed, there is a strong indication that the rate of fungal degradation (preferably soft rot decay and basidiomycete attack) is appreciably increased in Malaysian (humid tropical) compared to Danish (Nordic temperate) environments. This accelerated field decay test in such a humid tropical climate is of considerable use for aboveground biological resistance field testing of biocides by European companies.
A H H Wong, N Morsing, K H Henriksen, S Ujang

Multicomponent biocide systems protect wood from decay fungi, mold fungi, and termites for interior applications
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30333
Concerns about indoor air quality due to mold growth have increased dramatically in the United States. In the absence of proper moisture management, fungicides need to be developed for indoor use to control mold establishment. An ideal fungicide for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials needs to specifically prevent spore germination and provide long-term protection under conditions of high humidity. Fungicides intended for indoor use must be nontoxic, nonvolatile, odorless, and hypoallergenic. Multicomponent systems were tested in AWPA soil block tests for inhibition of brown-rot and white-rot fungi, and ASTM standard tests for inhibition of mold fungi and termites. Multicomponent biocide systems combining a borate-base supplemented with voriconazole or thiabendazole, and either thujaplicin, or ethanolamine performed well against two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta, and Gloeophyllum trabeum, the white-rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor, three mold fungi, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Trichoderma viride, and the subterranean termite, Reticulotermes flavipes (Kollar). We conclude that a multicomponent biocide system containing Bor-A+ supplemented with azoles and either ethanolamine or thujaplicin can protect wood from decay fungi, mold fungi, and termites for interior applications.
C A Clausen,V W Yang

Field tests with Antiblue and Biocide TT for the prevention of sapstain and mould fungi on Pinus elliottii timber
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3682
Freshly cut and sawn Pinus elliottii timber was dipped in four concentrations of Antiblue (active ingredient sodium pentachlorophenate) and Biucide TT (local substitute), at four immersion times and stacked in the open at Chisengu sawmill. Five weeks later, the timber was assessed for the incidence and intensity of stain and mould. The results showed that Antiblue was the better chemical providing 91% and complete control at 2% and 3% concentrations respectively. Biocide TT provided 74% control at a concentration of 8% and almost complete control at 12% concentration. The incidence and intensity of stain and mould was not affected by the immersion period
A J Masuka

Experiences with the OECD guideline proposals for the estimation of emissions from preservative-treated wood in the environment
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50209
The practicability of 2 CEN proposals for OECD guidelines on the estimation of emissions from preservative treated wood by laboratory methods for either wood held in storage after treatment and for wooden commodities that are not covered, and are not in contact with ground (guideline 1) or wooden commodities that are not covered and are in contact with ground, fresh water or seawater (guideline 2) was tested during a research project in Germany. The influence of several test parameters was investigated for different types of preservatives, i.e. duration of the dipping time for guideline 1 experiments as well as size and surface structure of the specimens, comparability with EN 84 experiments and the influence of the ratio of the water volume per emitting surface area in guideline 2 experiments. Parallel tests in two laboratories allow the assessment of the repeatability of the laboratory tests. The results of the experiments with a solvent based preservative containing propiconazole are presented and compared with experiences from field experiments. The emissions were lower if less water was available per surface area and time. Different specimens yielded similar losses per surface area and the results from leaching experiments according to EN 84 were similar to the results from guideline 2 experiments. Emission rates and total losses can be estimated according to the calculation model of the OECD ESD for Wood Preservatives. Calculated data fit the experimental data. Emission rates of propiconazole estimated in guideline 2 experiments were generally higher than losses by natural rain. Minimum emission rates in these experiments were similar to the maximum values estimated in the field experiment. Losses by guideline 1 experi¬ments were in the range of the field data.
U Schoknecht, R Wegner, E Melcher

Evaluation of the biocide diffusion from treated wood in indoor air. Bibliographic study
1990 - IRG/WP 3584
Within the frame of the risk assessment of the wood preservation products for the Health, the treated wood risk particularly when it is installed in dwellings becomes most important. The European directive "Building materials" (89/106/CEE) mentions the basic requirements with the buildings must comply. Annexe l states in particular that "the building must be conceived and built in order not to become a threat to the Hygiene or the health of the inhabitants. Thus, the treated wood installed in dwellings is concerned. Due to the lack of the official standardized methods, it has appeared interesting to study through literature: -- the well-known methods concerning Formaldehyde diffusion from glue of particle boards, -- the existing works on biocides diffusion from treated wood, -- the parameter entering in the evaluation of quantities diffused in the air, -- the assessment of actual results. This study concludes that the evaluation of biocides diffusion in the indoor air is made by the following process: -- a definition of the experimental protocols adapted for the claims, -- an estimation of the concentrations in the indoor air, from the experimental results, -- an assessment of the human health risk. Some of the existing works already give a better understanding of the factors and parameters which must be taken account. They will make easier the approach of the various experts who will have to cooperate to set up the standard.
A Pichard

16S rRNA Analysis of the Bacteria Associated with Biocide Degradation
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10543
The bacterially mediated degradation of the new anti-fungal biocide, bethoxazin, was studied in vitro, by means of 16S rRNA PCR-amplification and cloning techniques. Woodblocks impregnated with a subtoxic concentration of bethoxazin were incubated in compost, and the micro-organisms associated with the wood after 6 and 12 weeks was studied. It was found that after 6 weeks the wood contained a large number of proteobacteria, including Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bordetella petrii, Asticcacaulis biprosthecium and Alcaligenes spp. These organisms appear to be the dominant organisms involved in bethoxazin detoxification. After 12 weeks, the population of bacteria was found to have altered considerably, with the dominant bacteria being identified as Afipia, Rhizobium and Verrucomicrobium. This population is thought to have developed after the biocide had been detoxified and represents a succession in the wood, outcompeting the previous detoxifying population.
D F Wallace, D J Dickinson

Environmentally benign wood preservatives based on organic biocide antioxidant combinations: A brief review of laboratory and field exposure results and discussion of a proposed mechanism
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30335
The combination of various organic biocides with commercial antioxidants generally increased the biocides’ efficacy 2-3 fold against wood-destroying fungi in short-term laboratory decay tests, and some positive results have been obtained after 2-4 years of outdoor exposure. The two antioxidants principally examined, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene, are low cost and, since both are food additives, benign. The biocides studied have either been examined as potential wood preservatives or are used in commercial wood preservative systems. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) briefly summarize our prior laboratory decay results; 2) briefly discuss results obtained so far from outdoor exposure tests, both above-ground and ground-contact exposure; 3) discuss differences in results between laboratory decay tests and the outdoor exposure data; and 4) propose a mechanism by which antioxidants could protect wood.
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, W Henry, C Pittman, D Wipf, B Goodell

A new type of biocide suitable for use in different fields of wood preservation
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30014
A new type of polymeric biocides was developed containing quaternary ammonium and boron ester groups as active structure elements, to overcome the disadvantages of AAC&apos;s in wood preservation use and to utilise their good performance due to a broad efficacy against fungi on the other hand. The new biocides called polymeric betains have been tested in laboratory and field tests and especially the didecyl substituted compound shows excellent efficacy against wood destroying and wood discolouring fungi (blue stain) and mould and against wood destroying insects including termites. The polymeric structure acts as a carrier for the quaternal ammonium salt causing excellent penetration properties and uniform dispersion in comparison with common AAC&apos;s. Fixation occurs by reaction in the pH-range of wood. For combination of polymeric betain with copper salts we found synergism against Basidiomycctes and Termites and good performance as ground contact treatment.
V Barth, H Härtner

The wood preservative performance of biocide mixtures containing chlorpyrifos
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30055
Chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl[3,5,6trichloro-2-pyridyl]phosphorothioate) was evaluated as a wood preservative insecticide in two long term field tests. In the first project, pine sapwood blocks treated with chlorpyrifos (CPF) were exposed to Coptotermes formosanus using an above-ground test format. CPF is effective in protecting wood from attack by this termite, but its activity appears to decrease with time, possibly because of fungal colonization which degrades or metabolizes the insecticide and leads to subsequent insect attack. In the second project with ground contact field stakes, stakes treated with CPF plus chlorothalonil or diiodomethyl-p-tolylsulfone showed good complementary performance between the two biocides. Long term decay and termite ratings with these formulations show clearly superior performance compared to the biocides by themselves. CPF had a negative effect on the preservative properties of didecyldimethylammonium bromide. Combination with this fungicide resulted in lower decay and termite ratings.
P E Laks

Protection of cellulose string with biocide/water repellent mixtures
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30148
Protecting cellulosic materials in soil contact poses a formidable challenge. Many soil inhabiting bacteria and fungi that cannot degrade wood can nevertheless rapidly depolymerize cellulose once its protective lignin matrix is removed. As a result, cellulose based materials are rarely used in direct contact with soil. One exception, however, is the use of cellulose string to support climbing vines in agricultural applications such as hop growing. In these instances, the ground contact portion of the string is treated with a fungicide, while the remainder is left untreated. In theory, the string retains adequate strength for the season, and decomposes once the crop is harvested. Typically, copper naphthenate and oxine copper have been used as fungicides. Recently, however, early failures of strings dipped in 3% copper naphthenate have been observed. In this report, we describe trials that evaluate the efficacy of selected fungicide/water repellent combinations on cellulosic string. Water repellents improved the efficacy of some biocides. Further trials are underway to evaluate combinations of biocides.
A B Chang, J J Morrell

Non agricultural biocide directive. Practical proposals of implementation in the case where biocides are wood preservatives
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-24
This project of non-agricultural biocide directive has currently an extremely wide scope of pre-marketing authorization of substances and preparations used in numerous applications, other than agricultural. Elaborated on the 86/414/EEC model of the phytopharmaceutical product directive, the "NAB" draft directive aims to cover situations as different as plant or wood protection: in the case of plants, there is a need of no residue on the support; in the case of wood, there is an aim of 100% active residue on the support to achieve a 10-50 year service life; for the wood preservation sector, where the regulatory and normative background is already strongly documented, there is an evident need of sectorial adaptation. If it seems widely agreed to homologate substances at the EC level, this is not the case for preparations which represent potentially infinite combinations of substances, to take into account the geographical, climatic and biological discrepancies. The proposals made herewith are to start from a european shopping list of sufficiently known substances, classified in terms of dangers, and move for wood preservatives to the new approach EC system requiring compliance with harmonized standards of risk assessment methodology showing a severity equivalent to that of homologation and checking compliance with health and environment quality criteria. In this model, marketing is initiated under the manufacturer&apos;s responsability by using the CE marking. The attestation of conformity for safety uses the same scheme as for quality; the non-conformity with the essential requirements proposed involves withdrawal from the market of the biocidal product involved.
G Ozanne

Preliminary Studies on ZiBOC- A Potential Eco-friendly Wood Preservative
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30372
Over the past decade, the wood processing industry has been increasingly involved in strategies to minimize the environmental impacts of treated wood. One sign of this is the dramatic increase in the use of preservatives based on inorganic metal oxides, which fix in wood. Among such preservatives the most common is chromated-copper-arsenate. In Ascu chromium and arsenic both are carcinogenic thus in the present study a new and fixed composition of three chemicals (Copper sulphate, Zinc chloride and Sodium borate) has been used to develop an environment friendly preservative. The formulation is amorphous and water insoluble and dissolved with the help of co-solvents. Fixation study of ZiBOC in Chir and Poplar exhibited only 23.6, 13.1 and 12.1 % leachability of Copper, Zinc and Boron in Chir and 53.5, 6.5 and 5 % leachability of respective metals in Poplar. Efficient fixation of Zinc, Boron in both the species and Copper in Chir was achieved. Efficacy against Polyporous versicolar (PV) and Poria monticola (PM) a white and brown rot fungus respectively showed that 0.50% concentration of salt (3.13 kg/m3) protected Poplar completely against both the fungus as compared to control whereas PV caused 18% and PM caused 52.1% weight loss in control samples. In Chir, 0.2%(1.39 kg/m3) and 0.1% (0.68 kg/m3) concentration of salt protected blocks completely against PM and PV respectively as compared to control (54 and 11.4% weight loss caused by PM and PV). Accelerated field test after three months of installation reveals full protection of both the species against termite & fungus. Scanning electron micrograph revealed the difference of parent individual salts with the derived product. Thus, study is directed to develop synergistic biocidal compositions that combine a copper salt and inorganic biocide, removing arsenic and chromium, giving fourth generation of preservatives.
S Tripathi, J K Bagga, V K Jain

The risk assessment process. Point of view of a biocide manufacturer [Évaluation du risque. Point de vue d'un fabricant de biocide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3568
Risk assessment is an inherent part of our everyday lives. The risk assessment equation combines Hazards and Exposure. For the Wood Preservation Industry, the hazards may be characterised by the toxicity a the ecotoxicity of chemicals and the exposure by the identification of exposed people, of the exposure routes and exposure frequency. To quantify the exposure, good co-operation is required between the manufacturer, the formulator and the end user. In the absence of exposure data, mathematical models can be used to estimate exposure using worse case scenarios. Having established the risk associated with a product or process, the manufacturer should work with the end-user to establish and communicate risk management practices.
D Baur

What is OECD doing to promote harmonization of biocide regulations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20182
OECD began work on biocides in 1997 to help Member countries co-operate in the assessment and registration of these products. The work is a part of OECD&apos;s Pesticide Programme, and is co-ordinated by the Biocides Steering Group. The goal is to harmonize regulatory approaches to allow countries to conduct evaluations of biocides more efficiently. More efficient evaluations can advance the protection of human health and the environment and result in more timely decisions for industry. The first activity done was the Survey of OECD Member Countries&apos; Approaches to the Regulation of Biocides performed in 1997-1998. The survey collected information on countries&apos; regulatory procedures covering the following aspects: · categorisation, regulation and responsibilities (which ministries are involved) · data requirements (detailed information for each use category) · regulatory procedures · efficacy · labelling requirements · human exposure assessments · environmental exposure assessments · risk assessment · other issues (minor uses, low risk products and biological biocides). It focused on the following seven broad biocide groups: (1) disinfectants/sanitizers; (2) preservatives/ microbiocides; (3) anti-fouling products; (4) wood preservatives and structural treatments; (5) microbiocides for waste disposal and strip mine sites; (6) products used in aquatic non-food sites (molluscides, lampricides, algicides..) and, (7) products used for vertebrate and invertebrate pest control. The new work programme Following completion of the survey, a work programme was agreed by the Pesticide Forum in November 1998. It includes activities in the following six areas: · harmonization of data requirements; · efficacy - testing and acceptability criteria; · development of test guidelines for human health and environmental fate and effects; · hazard/risk assessment - with an emphasis on exposure assessment; · co-operation between countries in biocide reviews; · risk reduction - focusing on information exchange. OECD Specific Activities on Wood Preservatives Activities specific to wood preservatives include: 1. Identification of data requirements for wood preservatives through descriptions of (a) use patterns (b) tasks involved in application, handling methods, etc, and (c) other exposure scenarios that underlie data requirements 2. Exposure assessment of wood preservatives. The objectives of the work on exposure assessment are to (a) exchange information on current approaches in Member countries, and (b) to develop, to the extent possible, a harmonized approach for future use. Two workshops will be held, one related to human exposure, the other to environmental exposure of wood preservatives. The workshops are scheduled to take place in the first half of 2000. 3. The development of a guidance document on efficacy testing and assessment for biocides including wood preservatives. 4. Test guidelines for leaching/migration from treated materials.
M Paneli, N Grandy

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