Your search resulted in 53 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Life cycle approached environmental information to promote treated timber
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-13
This paper exemplifies the possibilities to compare products and product systems with help of life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool for environmental assessment. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute has developed a concept for evaluation of environmental impacts based on normalisation, based on so called environmental quality objectives (EQO). This concept makes it possible to compare a pr...
Comparative response of Reticulitermes flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus to borate soil treatments
1991 - IRG/WP 1486
Eastern (Reticulitermes flavipes [Kollarl]) and Formosan (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) subterranean termite workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to borate-treated sand in an indirect exposure tunneling assay in the laboratory. In the ten day assay period, both termite species readily penetrated sand containing 5000, 10000, or 15000 ppm (wt. of compound / wt. of sand) disodium octabo...
J K Grace
International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterran...
J R J French
Comparative investigations on the influence of wood seasoning, wood properties and temperature on the toxic values of wood preservatives against Hylotrupes egg larvae
1970 - IRG/WP 28
Comparative tests carried out at three institutes indicated the influence of kiln temperature, position of wood specimens in the cross sectional area and test temperature on the toxic values determined in accordance with DIN 52165 with egg larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus L.). The preservatives applied were boric acid in distilled water and g-benzene-hexachloride dissolved i...
G Becker, T Hof, O Wälchli
Preventive action against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on the effects of natural and artificial infection of wood by Basidiomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 2160
Comparative studies on the distribution of lignin and CCA elements in birch using electron microscopic X-ray microanalysis
1987 - IRG/WP 1328
The microdistribution of metal preservatives in treated wood has received considerable research over the last two decades. Despite this, little effort seems to have been made to try and correlate the distribution of CCA elements with respect to naturally occurring wood cell wall components in wood. In the present preliminary study an attempt is made to relate the distribution of lignin in-situ wit...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson
Comparative performance of pentachlorophenol and copper naphthenate in a long term field stake test
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30243
In this study the performance of copper naphthenate (Cu-Nap) and pentachlorophenol (Penta) treated pine stakes against decay and termite attack were compared at two test sites in Mississippi. Four different petroleum oils meeting AWPA Standard P9-A were used as carriers for these wood preservatives. After ten years exposure, the efficacy of Cu-Nap at a retention level of 0.05 pcf Cu was equivalent...
D D Nicholas, M H Freeman
Comparative evaluation of the barrier effect against Hylotrupes bajulus L. of different types of wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 1307
This paper settles the difference of contact action against females of Hylotrupes bajulus the likelihood of egg-laying, the ovicide effect and the hazards of development of newly hatched larvae between some preservatives belonging to three differents types: mineral waterborne products, organic products and emulsions. The results show that against females, the action is fast with organic products, ...
A comparative field test of the effectiveness of anti-sapstain treatments on radiata pine roundwood
1986 - IRG/WP 3376
Peeled radiata pine posts were sprayed with one of six antisapstain formulations, with and without a wax water-repellent additive, to evaluate the protection given by each treatment. After 3 months' outside storage the best treatments tested were 4% product Busan 30, 2% product Busan 1009, and 2% active sodium pentachlorophenoxide (NaPCP) with 1.5% borax. After 6 months' storage ...
J A Drysdale, R M Keirle
Comparative study of termite diversity in moist evergreen forest and dry evergreen forest, Chanthaburi province, Thailand
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10480
Sixty out of one hundred plots of two forest types (moist evergreen forest (MEF) and dry evergreen forest (DEF)) in Chanthaburi Province, eastern Thailand, were randomly surveyed for the presence of termites from all possible habitats. Three hundred and forty-five samples were collected from December 1999 – April 2000. Morphological identification of the 345 samples gave results for 3 families, ...
Comparative environmental impact analysis of telecommunication utility poles: Treated wood and fibreglass
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50136
This study is aimed at providing the information necessary to assess the main environmental implications of different materials utilised in construction of utility poles. The study was performed on fibreglass and CCA treated poles timber. The work has been carried out by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wasted released during the entire life of the pole. The interactions w...
A Cugliandolo, M Onofrio, A Quaglino
Long-term protection of stored lumber against mould, stain, and specifically decay: A comparative field test of fungicidal formulations
1984 - IRG/WP 3281
The problem of decay in packaged, unseasoned lumber stored for many months has become of major importance in recent years. Large financial claims have resulted from decay in Canadian lumber stored at length in seaports and storage yards of distributors. For decades acceptable protection from moulds and sapstain was readily achieved with chlorinated phenols applied at appropriate treating levels. H...
A J Cserjesi, A Byrne, E L Johnson
A comparative study of CCA type C and B treated poles in service
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-05
CCA K33 type B and C treated utility poles, 9 pieces of each treatment type, were analyzed for preservative retention after 11 years in use. Borings were taking 1 m above and 0.3 m below the ground line. Also total amount of copper, chromium and arsenic was determined in soil surrounding the poles. The solubility of these active components in soil was monitored by using different leaching procedur...
A J Nurmi
Comparative moisture uptake of Douglas fir and radiata pine structural lumber when exposed to rain wetting as an indicator of relative decay resistance
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20285
Trials were undertaken to determine the relative resistance of radiata pine and Douglas-fir to wetting when exposed to the weather. Douglas-fir samples were obtained from one Central North Island and three South Island sources and had a heartwood/sapwood mix typical for each resource. Radiata pine sapwood and heartwood samples were obtained from a Central North Island source. Material was exposed...
M E Hedley, G Durbin, L Wichmann-Hansen, L Knowles
Comparative study on physical properties of four fast growing timber species of Bangladesh
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10570
Ghoraneem (Melia azedarach), Rain tree (Albizia saman), Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) and Akashmoni (Acacia auriculiformis) plantations are started as a fast growing timber specie from a few years back in Bangladesh. Initian objectives were to get fuel wood only from those trees, but a very positive response was found for Ghoraneem, Rain Tree, Sissoo and Akashmoni timber in the users market by c...
M M Islam, B K Dey, M O Hannan, G N M Ilias
Comparative life cycle assessment of Swiss railroad sleepers
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50117
The results of an environmental LCA carried out on railway sleepers made of prestressed concrete, sectional steel and creosote impregnated beech as used on main lines of Switzerland's railways are presented. All extractions from and insertions into the environment which were connected with the manufacture, use and disposal of the different types of sleeper were inventoried and assessed, i...
T Künniger, K Richter
Comparative performance of several ammoniacal copper preservative systems
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30151
The efficacy of several ammoniacal copper-based wood preservative systems was evaluated in this study. The selection of potential co-biocides was based on the results of an agar plate test. Following this, the most promising systems were evaluated in a standard field stake test. Good correlation was found between the agar plate and field stake test results. Of the preservative systems tested, copp...
D D Nicholas, T Schultz
Comparative study on leaching of CCA from treated timber: Modelling of emission data
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50027
Results of a comparative study on leaching of CCA from treated timber are reported. The study aims at investigating the applicability of prestandard leaching test methods for modelling purposes. Prestandards used are the European standard proposed by CEN/TC38/WG11 and NEN 7345 (Dutch prestandard for building materials). Parameters of study are type of fixation, wood species (pine - spruce), specim...
G M F Van Eetvelde, M Stevens, L Van der Mijnsbrugge
Comparative study of lignocellulolytic activities of Pleurotus spp. and white rot and brown-rot fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10210
In this work, the in vitro species of Pleurotus (P.eringii, P. cornucopiae and P. ostreatus), from structures of degraded wood have been studied. This degradative activity was compared to those presented by Trametes versicolor (fungus characteristic of white rot) and Gloeophyllum trabeum (fungus representative of brown rot). The activities studied were the following: cellulase, xylanase, pectinase...
D Muñoz-Mingarro, F Llinares, M T De Troya, F Rubio, M Yuste, C Rodríguez-Borrajo, J E Garcia de los Rios, F Alvarez, P Jiménez, A Rojas, A Navarrete, P Reche
Comparative studies on the species effects of wood preservatives
1989 - IRG/WP 3521
For the examination of the resistance against fungal attack, wood blocks of 3 softwood species were treated with CCA (type 3), CFK, AAC and IF-1000 independently. The wood blocks were exposed to the fungal decay with Tyromyces palustris. The degradation of the wood blocks treated with these preservatives was quite widely different among wood species examined in this study. Hem-fir treated with CCA...
K Yamamoto, S Matsuoka
International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Update
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20032
It was agreed by members at the termite workshop at the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 to initiate an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives (CCA and Cu-naphthenate) against t...
J R J French
The metabolism and comparative elimination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in termites
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10038
Termites may serve as a potential supplementary food source for fish, poultry and pigs. Waste paper may be used as a source of food in mass rearing the termites. However, paper products and printing inks contain trace levels of toxic xenobiotics e.g. polychlorinatecl biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins. This study examined the ability of Mastotermes darwinensis and Coptotermes acinaciformis to metabolise...
V S Haritos, J R J French, J T Ahokas
The comparative resistance to fungi of the wood munika (Pinus heldreichii Christ.), fir (Abies alba Mill.) and spruce (Picea excelsa Poir.) compared with Pinus sylvestris L. and some physical and mechanical characteristics of munika
1981 - IRG/WP 1129
The munika (Pinus heldreichii Christ.) is situated primarily in the Balkans, and partially in the south of the Apenine peninsula. As an endemic species, with a very little annual increment, it has not been used enough as a timber for mechanical conversion up till now, although the oldest trees can grow to 27 m in height, with a diameter at breast height of about 60 cm. According to data of many Ba...
M Petrovic, M Miric
Comparative study of the degradative ability of autochthonous and standardized strains of wood decay fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10178
This study is intended to assess the biomass, the extracellular protein production, and the carbohydrate degradating ability of three standarized (Chaetomium globosum, Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum) and six autochthonous wood decay fungi strains, with unknown degradating effects. The carbohydrate sources used were those that are usually found in wood cells (glucose, galactose, manos...
F Llinares, D Muñoz-Mingarro, J E Garcia de los Rios, M T De Troya, M Yuste, F Rubio, F Alvarez, P Jiménez, C Rodríguez-Borrajo, A M Navarrete
Comparative natural resistance of eighty-two timber species to damage by marine borers at Goa (India)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10139
Natural bioresistance of eighty-two species of Indian timbers to attack by marine wood-borers has been presented based on data collected from test panels exposed in Goa waters (west coast of India) for periods ranging from five to thirteen months. All the timber species, except Artocarpus gomeziana and Pterocarpus santalinus, were completely destroyed within a short period of three to six months. ...
L N Santhakumaran