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Biological control of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1971 - IRG/WP 100
M Tamashiro, J K Fujii, P Lai, T E Richardson

Studies on the infesting behaviour of the Formosan termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and its physical control
1983 - IRG/WP 1174
An outline of termite damage to buildings in Japanese National Railways, wood-infesting behavior, attacked traces in PVC-sheathed cables by termites, detection method of termites and the physical control method of the Formosan termite are given in the present paper.
K Yamano

Differences in feeding activity among colonies of Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1983 - IRG/WP 1202
Feeding activities of 7 colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined. Wood-consumption rates among colonies differed significantly, ranging from 23.80-78.48 mg/g/day. This large intraspecific variation raised a question of whether differences in feeding activity reported for other termite species were due to interspecific differences. When rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by one g termite per day (mg/g/day), termites of larger body weight appeared to consume less wood. This negative correlation, however, was not significant when rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by an individual per day (mg/worker/day).
N-Y Su, J P La Fage

Methane emission by termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10099
Association of methanogenic bacteria only with the smallest-sized symbiotic protozoa Spirotrichonympha leidyi Koidzumi was evidenced by epifluorescence microscopic observations. Workers, which were collected from a laboratory colony and placed in a test container with water supply emitted methane at a relatively constant rate with a peak of 0.76 nmol/termite/hr within the first 72 hrs after the initiation of measurement. Soldiers, as expected, produced less methane with a maximum rate of 0.019 nmol/termite/hr. Although methane formation is considered important to termites in order to keep physiological balance, that undesirably contributes to global warming.
K Tsunoda, W Ohmura, M Tokoro, T Yoshimura

A method to evaluate the effeetiveness of bait application using a transferred nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20161
Although a survey of monitoring stations can tell us the decline of termite activity after application of baits, it seems questionable to conclude an eradication of a Whole colony of subterranean termites if the termites move out their foraging territory. Only reliable method to ensure the success of bait application is to determine the absence of living termites in their nest in accordance with a survey of monitoring stations. A nest of Coptotermes formosanus was first collected from the field and buried back into the soil with some wooden blocks in a test site. Monitoring stations were installed around the nest to examine termite activity. After termites settled down well, mark-release-recapture was applied to estimate foraging population and then bait application was initiated. When foraging activity ceased, the nest was dug out to find any live termites present. This technique allowed us to draw out a conclusion that baiting eliminated a whole colony of C. formosanus.
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura, H Matsuoka, Y Hikawa

A novel defaunation method of the protozoa to investigate cellulose metabolism in Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10050
The largest protozoa in the hindgut of workers of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was selectively eliminated by forced-feeding on low-molecular weight cellulose (LC) with a mean DP of 17. Although one week's feeding on LC caused perfect disappearance of Pseudotrichonympha grassii Koidzumi, the selective defaunation method itself had no detrimental effect on the health conditions of termite on the basis of survival rates and weight changes of workers in the latter feeding. In addition, the fact that the defaunated workers repidly recovered their wood-attacking activity by being mixed with normally faunated workers could well support this assumption. By the results of changes of protozoan fauna when selectively defaunated workers were forced to feed on various cellulose substrates, it was suggested that each protozoan species had its inherent role in cellulose metabolism.
T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi

Inhibition of termite damage by N'N-napthaloylhydroxyamine (NHA): Reticulotermes flavipes (Kollar) vs. Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10354
The calcium precipitating agent NHA has been shown to protect southern yellow pine (SYP) from wood decay and termite damage comparable to CCA in field tests (Gulfport, MS) for two years (Crawford and Green, 1999). In a collaborative study, SYP wood blocks were vacuum treated with three concentrations of aqueous NHA and exposed in a no-choice test to Eastern subterranean termites (FPL, USA) and Formosan subterranean termites (WRI, Japan) to determine protection against termite damage. Individual blocks (leached and unleached) were exposed to R. flavipes (AWPA) or C. formosanus (JWPA) for 3-4 weeks. Mean weight loss of wood blocks after termite exposure ranged from 0.0 to 18.0% for R. flavipes and 6.0 to 20% for C. formosanus. Wood blocks exposed to R. flavipes were completely protected by 0.5 and 1.0% NHA, but weight loss in similar blocks challenged by C. formosanus were 6.0% and 6.2% respectively at the same concentrations. NHA acted as an effective termiticide for R. flavipes with 100% mortality after 3 weeks, but only soldiers were preferentially killed in C. formosanus. Formosan subterranean termite workers showed enhanced resistance to NHA treatment when compared to Eastern subterranean termites.
F Green III, S T Lebow, T Yoshimura

A laboratory evaluation of the fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride (VikaneR), against the Formosan termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1982 - IRG/WP 1164
A series of laboratory experiments showed that the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (VikaneR) was effective against small groups of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki exposed to the gas directly at temperatures from 20-40°C. At 10°C fumigations failed regardless of initial gas concentration. Very high or total mortality was observed at concentrations of 0.79 cc/L or higher. A second series of experiments was designed to evaluate Vikane's ability to penetrate the carton nest matrix. At 30°C penetration was sufficient to produce high mortality with gas concentrations > 1.06 cc/L. The results suggest that current dosage recommendations for the control of Coptotermes formosanus infestations in structures (4 lbs/1000 cubic feet) are too high and should be reevaluated.
J P La Fage, M Jones, T Lawrence

Variance in feeding on equivalent wood blocks by the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki)
1987 - IRG/WP 1325
We tested whether laboratory groups of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki forage randomly when they are given 4 equivalent wood blocks, and whether group size affects variance of feeding on equivalent blocks. In all cases, foraging was not random, but, rather, the termites concentrated on a few preferred blocks. Group size did not affect this pattern of non-randomness. These data are useful for designing choice tests, and recommended sample sizes for a simulated experiment are given.
J P La Fage, K S Delaplane

Distribution of the three symbiotic protozoa in Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10010
Six colonies (three each from laboratory and field) of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were served for investigating the abundance and distribution of three symbiotic protozoa in the hindgut of workers. The total protozoan number amounted to 6,000-10,000 per a worker, and the order of the abundance of the three protozoa and the proportional distribution of each species in the hindgut were common among the colonies. Pseudotrichonympha grassii Koidzumi was the smallest in number (800-2,200 per a worker) and was preferentially distributed in the anterior part of the hindgut. Holomastigotoides hartmanni Koidzumi was medial in number (1,200-3,000), and the distribution was relatively uniform all through the hindgut. Spirotrichonympha leidyi Koidzumi was the most abundant in number (2,800-5,000) and was found mainly in the posterior part. These results appeared to support that the prominent localization of each protozoan species in the worker´s hindgut could be related to the nutritional metabolism in Coptotermes formosanus.
T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi

Acceleration of boric acid uptake into the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki using steamed larch wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10353
Laboratory tests were done to measure the efficacy of addition of steamed larch (Larix leptolepis (Sieb. et Zucc.) Gord.) heartwood extracts for the uptake of boric acid against the termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Paper discs were treated with the water-soluble fraction obtained from hot-water extracts of steamed larch wood (S-Water) with or without 0.01-2.0% boric acid, followed by exposure to this of termites, C. formosanus. The consumptions of the discs, termite mortalities, and boron contents in the termite bodies were measured. The S-Water significantly accelerated the consumptions of the discs at the retentions of boric acid below 0.1% (w/w) (p<0.01). However, regardless of the addition of the S-Water, the termite mortalities were almost the same at all the retentions of boric acid examined after 21 days of exposure. When the paper discs treated with the S-Water and 2.0% boric acid were given to workers and soldiers, boron contents in workers were lower than those of the same experiment without soldiers (p<0.01). This is because ingested boron was incorporated into soldier bodies from workers by trophallaxis. In the experiment using only workers, boron contents of termites fed with 2.0% boric acid plus the S-Water were larger than those of the termites fed without the S-Water. From the result, it was supposed that the S-Water inhibited the excretion of boron from the termite bodies or increased the accumulation of it in the termite bodies.
W Ohmura, S Doi, S Ohara

Field testing of nootkatone and tetrahydronootkatone wood treatments against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30308
A component of Alaskan yellow cedar, citrus oil, and vetiver oil, nootkatone, and its derivative, tetrahydronootkatone, were tested for their potential as wood treatments against Coptotermes formosanus. Wood treatments dipped in 1% and 5% nootkatone and tetrahydronootkatone in ethanol or vacuum impregnated (5% only) were tested in a natural setting using termite infested bald cypress trees along the Calcasieu River in Westlake, Louisiana. Results showed no significant difference in the consumption of the control wood and wood treated with 1% nootkatone or tetrahydronootkatone solutions. Both trials testing the 5% dip method and one trial testing the 5% impregnated wood, for both nootkatone and tetrahydronootkatone, were significantly different from control wood and show good potential as a wood preservative.
K E Nix, G Henderson, R Laine

Antifeedant activities of flavonoids and their related compounds against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10305
Antifeedant activities of some flavonoids and their related compounds against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were examined with no-choice and two-choice tests. The activities of these compounds were considered in relation to their chemical structures. All flavonoids tested showed antifeedant activities whereas catechinic acid without A-ring and pyran ring in the molecule showed attractant activity. As to the chemical structure-activity relationships, it was found that compounds containing two hydroxyl groups at C-5 and C-7 in A-rings showed the significant antifeedant activities. The presence of carbonyl group at C-4 in pyran rings was necessary for the occurrence of extreme activities. Flavonols and flavanonols with 3&apos;, 4&apos;-dihydroxylated B-rings exhibited activities higher than those with 4&apos;-hydroxylated or with 3&apos;,4&apos;,5&apos;-trihydroxylated B-rings.
W Ohmura, S Doi, M Aoyama, S Ohara

Relationship between the bending strength and the degree of termite attacks on western hemlock by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1990 - IRG/WP 1434
For the examination of the relationship between the bending strength and the degree of termite attacks, Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla Sarg.) was used. Sixty specimens (4.5 x 4.5 x 82 cm³) were attacked by termites at the culture room of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. The termites were introduced on the central parts (10 cm) of specimens. In the case of the 2 points loading, the bending moment is maximum at these parts. According to the results obtained from this experiment, both the modulus of rupture (MOR) and the modulus of elasticity (MOE) were showed significant against the weight loss (WL) of central parts of the specimens. MOR = 713 - 19.9 WL (n=60, r=-0.73**) MOE = 127800 - 1910 WL (n=60, r=-0.58**)
K Suzuki, T Tanaka

An anti-termite formulation for soil treatment with natural products and its efficacy against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30319
An anti-termite formulation of an environmental conservation type for soil treatment was developed. The formulation was composed of decanoic acid (n-capric acid, an fatty acid derived from coconut oil with ten carbons) as an active ingredient and other natural products. Experiments to examine the efficacy of the formulation against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were conducted at the termite field test site in Kagosihima Japan and in our laboratory. The smallest concentration of decanoic acid in soil required for complete prevention of termite attack was estimated. Further the rate of disappearance of decanoic acid in the soil treated with the formulation under various conditions was measured. The formulation with natural products have been still keeping an complete performance after five years of the field test.
S Yoshida, T Nakagaki, A Igarashi, A Enoki

Efficacy of hexaflumuron as a bait-toxicant in the field using a transferred nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10379
A natural nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was transferred into the field test site, and monitoring stations were installed around the nest buried back in the ground in January, 1995. Following estimation of foraging populations [271,200o}49,600 (July - October, 1996); 142,600o}19,600 (April - July, 1998)], bait applications were conducted twice. Termites came back to the stations in spring, 1998 , although termites were not present at any monitoring station at the end of the first application (November, 1996 - December, 1997). Second baitings started from October, 1998 and ended in July, 1999 when no termites were found at the stations. The nest was then recovered, and careful examination clearly demonstrated that the colony was completely eradicated after 419 mg of hexaflumuron was consumed by colony members.
K Tsunoda, Y Hikawa, T Yoshimura

Detrimental effects of boric acid on symbiotic protozoa in Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10366
In laboratory choice bioassays, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were offered a tunneling soil consisting of boric acid (BA) mixed with sterilized soil at concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, or 4.00 percent AI (wt:wt). Termites could choose to remain in their main nest that contained non-treated artificial substrate and adequate food, or tunnel through BA-treated soil in an attached foraging tube to reach a satellite nest that also contained non-treated artificial substrate and additional food. Gut protozoa populations were determined after 12 weeks. Termite tunneling through BA -treated soil resulted in moderate reduction to complete loss of symbiotic gut protozoa in both termite species as BA increased to the greatest concentration. Reductions in protozoa were most noticeable in the 2.00 and 4.00 percent BA concentrations. Boric acid was not repellent and termites removed BA-treated soil from foraging tubes and deposited it in main and satellite nests. Generally, at BA concentrations of 1.00-2.00% or less in soil, termite gut protozoa populations did not appear to be dose dependent. The four primary protozoa genera in R. flavipes and the three primary protozoa genera in C. formosanus were all detrimentally affected by exposure to BA. Overall, BA mixed in soil caused significant loss of protozoa that was very detrimental to both termite species.
B M Kard

The response of the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) to different boron compounds
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10609
Although boric acid and other boron compounds have been used since the 1800s as insecticides, their mode of action is not well understood. Borate salts, in particular sodium and zinc formulations, are effective wood preservatives and are used extensively in Hawai’i to protect building materials from both drywood (Kalotermitidae) and subterranean (Rhinotermitidae) termites. The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is the most important insect pest in the state, causing over $100 million in prevention and repair costs. In order to determine whether different borate salts elicit different responses in C. formosanus, termite workers (undifferentiated individuals) were collected from field colonies maintained in Honolulu, Hawai’i, and exposed to composite board samples of different borate salt formulations in the laboratory. The treatments included zinc borate (ZB) (0.88% and 0.18%), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) (ZB and DOT in a 60/40 and 80/20 ratio), anhydrous boric acid (B2O3) (60/40 and 80/20 ZB/B2O3), and an untreated composite board control. Activity and mortality data were recorded over a 4-week period; results suggest the concentration of boron in the wood sample, rather than the associated salt, has a greater impact on termite feeding, and that anhydrous boric acid reduces termite feeding more rapidly than the other formulations tested. Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine boron ingestion after five days of exposure to high-concentration (ZB 0.88%, 60/40 ZB/DOT or 60/40 ZB/B2O3) boron treated timber. DOT consumption resulted in slightly higher boron concentrations than B2O3 (324.2 and 306.3 mean ?g/g boron, respectively), and ZB 0.88% (170.0 ?g/g) was intermediate between those two treatments and the control (30.2 ?g/g). The DOT and B2O3 treatments were an order of magnitude greater than the composite board control.
M C Gentz, J K Grace

Determination of the lethal dose of fipronil for workers of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10616
This document is a combination of two articles previously submitted to the journal, Sociobiology. Lethal dose of fipronil was determined in two experiments: topical application and contact with treated sandy loam. In the topical application the toxicity of fipronil was evaluated against workers of a laboratory colony of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Fipronil was applied by the microsyringe to the dorsum of the abdormen at a rate of 0.1µl acetone solution to afford a worker individual with a desired dose of fipronil (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 5.0 ng/worker). Three replicates, each consisting of 30 workers, were prepared for each dose (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 ng/worker). Thirty topically treated workers of the same dose group were kept in a glass Petri dish (9 cmø) with a water-moistened cotton pad adhered inside the lid to determine LT100s and LT50s based on the change in termite mortality with time, and this assay was conducted again. LT100s/LT50s were 81/69, 37/23, 26/8, 8/5 h for 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 ng/worker, respectively in the first bioassay. In the second bioassay, those were 80/62, 35/25, 27/10 and 10/6 h. The results clearly supported the dose dependence of fipronil on the termite mortality. The estimated LD100s/LD50s after 12 h that were calculated from the data on LT100s and LT50s were 4.11/0.87 and 4.53/0.93 ng/worker in the first and the second bioassays, respectively. In the second experiment (soil contact test), the amount of fipronil recovered from dead termite workers of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was chemically determined. Termite workers were kept in contact with the fipronil-treated sandy loam for 24hours. The mean amount of fipronil recovered from the body exterior of a worker was 3.10 ng, ranging from 0.32 to 8.36 ng. The mean amount recovered from the body interior was 3.17 ng, with a range of 1.39-6.49 ng. Accordingly, the total amount of fipronil recovered from a single worker ranged from 2.52 to 12.64 ng, with a mean of 6.27 ng. Since the mean value was higher than the previously estimated LD100 (4.11-4.53ng) at 12 hours when fipronil was topically applied, most of the tested termites were dead during the exposure to treated sandy loam.1
K Tsunoda, R Yamaoka

Comparative response of Reticulitermes flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus to borate soil treatments
1991 - IRG/WP 1486
Eastern (Reticulitermes flavipes [Kollarl]) and Formosan (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) subterranean termite workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to borate-treated sand in an indirect exposure tunneling assay in the laboratory. In the ten day assay period, both termite species readily penetrated sand containing 5000, 10000, or 15000 ppm (wt. of compound / wt. of sand) disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Tim-BorÒ) or zinc borate (Firebrake ZB-FineÒ). With Reticulitermes flavipes, significant mortality (85-93%) resulted from workers tunneling through sand treated with 5000 ppm disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (higher concentrations were also effective), or 15000 ppm zinc borate. Responses of Coptotermes formosanus workers were lesser and more variable, with only concentrations of 10000 and 15000 ppm zinc borate resulting in mortality 70-89%) significantly different from that in the control groups. These results suggest that differences between these two species in tunneling behavior may reduce exposure of Coptotermes formosanus to the borate-treated sand.
J K Grace

International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in Australia, France, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Unites States of America. Solutions of these two wood preservatives were prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loading of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments were carried out at the Division of Forestry and Forest Products in Melbourne. The treated specimens were dispatched to the participating researchers who subjected these specimens to attack by their test termite species, and have now returned the specimens to Melbourne. This paper reports the amount of wood consumed and the mean mass loss (%) on both treated and untreated wood blocks by the termites in the various laboratory bioassays.
J R J French

Detection of feeding behaviour of termites using AE monitoring
1991 - IRG/WP 1514
Using acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, the feeding activity of the termite inhabiting a wood specimen was investigated. The amplitude and the rate of AE from the specimen of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was larger than that of Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. The AE event rate was higher in the specimen with soldiers than without soldiers. The AE event rate decreased according to the resistance of wood specimens against termite attack.
Y Imamura, M Tokoro, M Owada, Y Fujii, M Noguchi

Trials on the field control of the Formosan subterranean termite with Amdro® bait
1982 - IRG/WP 1163
Amdro® - treated paper towels were introduced into two field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite in Hawaii. At the concentration of 180 ppm, the toxicant bait was ineffective one month after the introduction. At higher concentrations (> 6,400 ppm), the baits were eaten initially; however, one week after introduction, termites avoided or covered the baits. The 15,000 ppm baits supressed the activity of one colony but did not affect the other.
N-Y Su, M Tamashiro, J R Yates III

Laboratory evaluation of chemicals as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1293
Laboratory procedures are described for screening chemicals against subterranean termites. Fast-acting compounds with persistent termiticidal activity are identified in tests using a soil substrate, and slower-acting bait toxicants are evaluated in a series of tests using cellulose substrates.
S C Jones

Fungicidal and termiticidal effectiveness of alkylammonium compounds
1983 - IRG/WP 3232
This paper is related to effectiveness of several AAC&apos;s against wood decay fungi and termites by Japanese standardized test methods.
K Tsunoda, K Nishimoto

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