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Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi had a greater ability to reduce the diffusion of copper ions than ECMM which had been subject to dialysis to remove soluble, low molecular weight components. The ‘insoluble’ fraction of ECMM for both species was more effective than the ‘soluble’ fraction at reducing the diffusion of copper ions. It is concluded that ECMM confers some protection to hyphae against the toxic effects of copper ions on growth in vivo and that this due to the binding of copper ions to both the polysaccharide and to low molecular weight components of the ECMM
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy

The decay resistance of chemically modified aspen composites to the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quelet
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40122
Chemical modification of Aspen wood (Populus tremula L.) in the form of solid wood, veneers and sawdust was undertaken by a two step procedure consisting of esterification with maleic anhydride (MA) and subsequent oligoesterification with MA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) or allyl glycidyl ether (AGE). Modified wood was thermoplastic and was thermally formed by hot-pressing to produce veneer or solid wood samples with smooth glossy surfaces, while plastic-like wafers were obtained by hotpressing modified sawdust. Chemical modification alone was shown to enhance the biological resistance of Aspen to decay by Coriolus versicolor. In addition, hot-pressing enhanced decay resistance of both unmodified wood and esterified wood veneer samples, although no improvement was found by hot pressing oligoesterified wood. The most effective treatment for the improvement of decay resistance was chemical modification of the sawdust in conjunction with hot-pressing. A microscopic examination of chemically modified and control samples following exposure to the fungus showed more extensive colonisation and decay in untreated, unpressed samples.
M C Timar, A J Pitman, M D Mihai

CCA modifications and their effect on soft rot in hardwoods
1982 - IRG/WP 3201
Decay tests were carried out on wood samples treated with three waterborne compounds all identical in composition but applied in different forms. There were significant differences in the effectiveness of the treatments particularly as regards the control of soft rot.
S M Gray, D J Dickinson

Contribution to the testing of wood based board material
1982 - IRG/WP 2176
R G Lea

Fungicidal and termiticidal effectiveness of alkylammonium compounds
1983 - IRG/WP 3232
This paper is related to effectiveness of several AAC's against wood decay fungi and termites by Japanese standardized test methods.
K Tsunoda, K Nishimoto

Interspecific variability of European oak durability against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor): Comparison between sessile oak and peduncle oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10393
The knowledge of wood natural durability against biologic predators enable its external use. The resistance of European oak wood was reported like durable according to the EN 350-2. However, some individuals may contain high durable wood. Our research was focused to understand this variability in oak population that represent the first french species (4.1 millions of ha). Natural durability of European oak heartwood (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor) was tested according to european standard EN 113. The experimental material consists in 23 oaks robur and 26 petraea oaks sampled from 9 French regions. For each tree, 3 twin samples were taken off from heartwood situated at 1.30 m from the bottom of the tree. Different effects were tested by hierarchic variance analysis: "species", "forest within species" and "tree within forest". The tree effect is very significant for biologic natural resistance. Variability between species was also demonstrated. Although the species effect is significant, it's relatively weak compared with tree differences (it was declared significant 5%). Durability classification was determined according European standard EN 350-1. 69.2% of petraea oak trees are classified as high durable, 19.2% durable, 7.7% moderately durable and 3.8% slightly durable. In the case of robur oak 91.3% of trees are classified as high durable and 8.7% durable.
N Ayadi, B Charrier, M Irmouli, J P Charpentier, C J Allemand, F Feuillat, R Keller

Successive collections of Basidiospores from wood decay fungi (in vitro) show variation in germination levels on common media
1978 - IRG/WP 191
In the course of various preliminary experiments in which spore germination levels of 6 decay fungi on malt and water agar were recorded as controls, it was noted that one could not reliably obtain an expected level of spore germination for any particular fungus. Inconsistent 'control' spore germination levels of a fungus greatly complicates large scale experiments in which comparisons of data based on germination levels are attempted upon replication of the study over time. This study was done to determine if, in fact, spores collected at different times from specific hymenial areas of wood decay fungi sporulating in vitro differed significantly in germination level on common media under standardized conditions.
E L Schmidt, D W French

The biostatic effect of copper on decay of fire retardant-treated mining timber
1991 - IRG/WP 1507
Blocks of Eucalyptus grandis were treated with 20kg/m³ ammonium sulphate as fire retardant and challenged with Coriolus versicolor. Replicates were soil buried. A second set of blocks was treated with retardant and copper at 6.6 kg/m³ (ie 1% w/w), and challenged similarly. After 8 weeks weight losses produced by Coriolus versicolor in untreated, retardant treated and copper supplemented blocks were 45, 25, and 0% respectively, and corresponding weight losses in soil were 27, 25 and 10%. These results, and electronmicroscopical observations, showed conclusively that Eucalyptus grandis treated with fire retardant was rapidly decayed, and that copper inhibited such decay.
G D Shelver, E A Shelver, A A W Baecker

Chemical compounds from Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora heartwood and their biological activities against wood destroying fungus (Coriolus versicolor)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30373
The chemistry analysis of the compounds present in dichloromethane and ethanolic fraction as well as bioassays enables to understand the durability differences of Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora. The principal distinction between these two species is the acidic subfraction of diterpenoic extract, which is antifungic in Eperua falcata when tested in in-vitro conditions. This study also enables to show that ethanolic fraction plays an important role in the mechanism of natural durability. It also reports the first isolation of cativic acid in Eperua falcata wood.
N Amusant, C Moretti, B Richard, E Prost, J M Nuzillard, M-F Thévenon

Decay in external joinery in the United Kingdom
1978 - IRG/WP 3116
no abstract available
J G Savory, J K Carey

Virulence testing of cultures of different origins of the test fungus Coriolus versicolor strain CTB 863 A
1986 - IRG/WP 2267
The virulence of cultures of different origins of Coriolus versicolor CTB 863 A - a strain which is mentioned in EN 113 - was tested. Standard blocks of beech wood were used at temperatures of 20-22°C and 26-28°C and particleboard was tested at 26-28°C. The decay capacity of the different inoculations varied widely, as could be expected it was greatest at the higher temperature level.
W Kerner

Report on the monographic card on Coriolus versicolor
1972 - IRG/WP 111
C Jacquiot

About the relations between the natural durability of some tropical species and their extractives content
1983 - IRG/WP 1208
G R Y Déon

Rapport sur la fiche monographique concernant le Coriolus versicolor
1972 - IRG/WP 109
C Jacquiot

The evaluation of synergistic effects of chemicals on fungicidal efficacy in crossed-paper tests
1991 - IRG/WP 2383
The mixing effects of wood preservatives were evaluated using the crossed-paper technique. Two filter paper strips (0.7 x 8 cm²) were treated by soaking with different chemicals [fungicides, a termiticide (chlorpyrifos or phoxim), a surface-active agent, a synergistic agent, and a stabilizer], and placed at right angles to each other on a fully grown mycelial mat of a test fungus in a Petri dish. When the four organoiodine fungicides were incorporated with chlorpyrifos or surface active agent, only 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) showed the desirable synergistic effect against every wood-decaying fungus tested. Other fungicides did not always tend to produce the synergistic effect with the addition of a surface active agent. 4-Chlorophenyl-3-iodopropargyl formal (IF-1000) appeared to indicate an undesirable antagonistic effect when mixed with either chlorpyrifos or a surface active agent. 3-Bromo-2, 3 diiodo-2-propenylethyl carbamate (EBIP) did not show any synergistic action by mixing with chlorpyrifos and/or a surface active agent, although the fungicidal enhancement was induced satisfactorily by mixing the fungicide with chlorpyrifos, a stabilizer and/or a synergistic agent, especially against Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor. Similarity of the results obtained in the present investigation and in the previous laboratory decay tests leads to the conclusion that the crossed-paper technique is suitable for the evaluation of the mixing effect of chemicals on fungicidal efficacy.
Dong-heub Lee, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi

The effect of treatment method on CCA efficacy in Corsican pine
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3723
As part of a study into the influence of application method on preservative efficacy Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) samples (50 x 50 x 400 mm³) were treated with a CCA formulation using Bethel, Steam/Bethel or Lowry processes. Full penetration of the preservative at a gross level was confirmed using a copper disclosing reagent. The preservative was allowed to fix and then samples were converted into mini-blocks (30 x 10 x 5 mm³) to produce decay test samples from various locations within the larger samples. After leaching, sets of replicate mini-blocks were exposed to the decay fungi Coniophora puteana FPRL 11E, Coriolus versicolor FPRL 28A, and Chaetomium globosum FPRL S70K. Equivalent sets of leached blocks, were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine preservative concentration and balance. The results of this study have been used to assess the effect of preservative application method on CCA efficacy. They also indicate how treatment method affects the distribution of the active elements of the preservative throughout the treated wood.
P R Newman, R J Murphy

Some wood-destroying Basidiomycetes. Volume 1 of a collection of monographs
1981 - IRG/WP 1121
One of the first tasks of the International Research Group on Wood Preservation, when it began its work in 1969, was to compile a series of reports on the common decay fungi which can attack wood. This volume, which contains the first of these reports, has been compiled with the help of mycologists and wood preservation specialists in France, Ghana, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. It gives up-to-date information on fifteen common Basidiomycete fungi and indicates the gaps in the world's present knowledge that exist about these.
R Cockcroft

Synergistic effects between 2-HPNO, Irganox 1076 and EDTA on the inhibition of wood degradation by Coriolus versicolor
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30331
The efficiency of 2-hydroxypyridine-N-oxide (2-HPNO) as wood preservative has been investigated. As shown using classical experiments as well as using response surface methodology, the efficiency of 2-HPNO as wood preservative is strongly improved in presence a chelator like EDTA and/or of Irganox 1076 an industrial antioxidant. In these conditions, wood preservative efficiency of the mixture the three previous compounds is quite similar to that of tebuconazole used alone. 2-HPNO exhibits an hydroxamic acid function and is a susbtrate of fungal peroxidase. These properties could explain the observed synergy. The implications of these data for the design of new wood preservation strategies are also discussed.
A Mabicka, S Dumarçay, N Rouhier, M Linder, J P Jacquot, P Gérardin, E Gelhaye

The leachability, biological resistance, and mechanical properties of wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) treated with CCA and CCB preservatives
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30207
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens treated with CCA and CCB preservative solutions (1.0%) were subjected to several fixation processes and leached elements from the specimens were determined. In addition, the specimens exposed to different fixation temperatures were subjected to soil-block test using two brown-rot fungi and one white-rot fungus in order to investigate the effects of fixation temperature on the biological performance of treated wood. The effects of preservative treatment and subsequent redrying at temperatures of 20°C and 70°C on the bending strength, MOE (modulus of elasticity), and impact bending strength of small, clear specimens treated with CCA. At 20°C and high moisture contents and also with steaming, leaching rate of the components decreased. In addition, the specimens treated with CCB and conditioned at 20°C/32-100% RH (relative humidity) conditions, the percent elements leached were less than those in the specimens treated with CCA and also the rate of fixation increased significantly in the CCB-treated specimens. In the CCA treatments, the weight losses by Gloeophyllum trabeum and Postia placenta fungi were more than 5% with the fixation methods such as ovendrying at 120°C, and steaming at 80°C for 60 and 90 minutes while with the other fixation methods, the weight losses obtained were less than 5%. At redrying temperatures of 20 and 70°C, CCA had no significant negative effect on the bending strength, MOE, and impact bending strength properties of the specimens.
S N Kartal

Étude in vitro de la colonisation et de la dégradation structural du bois de hêtre par Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quélet
1976 - IRG/WP 158
L'attaque du bois de Hêtre par Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quélet, agent de pourriture fibreuse blanche est étudiée après des périodes d'exposition à ce champignon variant de 15 jours à trois mois. L'observation des premiers stades, c'est à dire de la colonisation du bois par les filaments de champignon est faite en microscopie optique, puis au fur et à mesure que le champignon tire profit des éléments du bois aprês des périodes d'exposition plus longues, les observations sont faites à la fois en microscopie optique et électronique à balayage. Une étude comparée de la degradation des parois est faite, à la fin de ce travail, en lumiêre polarisée.
D Dirol

Studies on the preservation of structrual plywood - Part 1: Decay resistance of structural plywood
1974 - IRG/WP 238
The weight loss and the decreases in the compression strength and in the modulus of elasticity were measured to determine the decay resistance of structural plywood (lauan). Test pieces (50x25xA mm³) were exposed to the wood destroying fungi (Coriolus versicolor and Coriolellus palustris) for 2-3 or 2-4 months. After exposure, the measurement of the compression strength was carried out on the pieces of different thickness (A = 6,12 and 18 mm) and different fibre direction of the face veneer (0°, 45° and 90° to the long side of the test piece). The results obtained were as follows: 1.: The weight loss was small. The greatest weight loss was 9.4% on decaying by Coriolellus palustris for 4 months. 2.: The decreases in the compression strength and in the modulus of elasticity were greater than the weight loss. On decaying by Coriolellus palustris for 4 months, the ratio of decrease of the compression strength was 75% (6 mm - 0°). 3.: For differences of the thickness and of the fibre direction, the weight loss and the decreases the modulus of elasticity in the compression strength and in the modulus of elasticity showed tendencies in order 0° > 45° > 90° and 6 > 12 > 18 mm. 4.: According to the experiment, the face veneer is liable to be easily attacked by the wood destroying fungi, but the decrease in the compression strength was great. So, the face veneer and the cross section should be protected with preservatives for structural use.
K Minami, Y Kenjo, S Sugiyama

Lignin-copper, a new wood preservative without arsenic and chromium
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3702
A more environmentally sound treatment for wood with preservatives containing no arsenic or chromium, has been developed and studied on a laboratory scale. The method involves a first step impregnation with an aqueous solution containing modified, water-soluble kraft lignin followed by a second step involving impregnation with a copper salt solution to give fixation of the lignin into a water-insoluble form and to achieve complementary protection. The two steps can be performed without intermediate drying of the wood in a conventional reactor for vacuum-pressure impregnation. The treatment has been shown to give good protection against degrading fungi, tunnelling bacteria and termites, and a lower growth of mould on the wood surface. Field tests (NTR test) indicate, after 4 years of exposure, very good protection gained by this new treatment. Fibre and particle boards made from wood fibres and wood particles, treated with this method show increased dimensional stability and rot resistance.
B Ohlsson, R Simonson

Assessment of the natural durability of four Ghanaian hardwoods against the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor and soft-rot using laboratory tests
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10498
The natural durability of two lesser-utilized species (LUS) (Corynanthe pachyceras Welw. (pamprana) and Glyphaea brevis (Sprengel) Monachino) (foto) from three forest districts, and two related primary species (Nauclea diderrichii (de Wild.) Merr. (opepe) and Nesogodornia papaverifera (A. Chev.) R. Capuron.) (danta) from one district in Ghana is assessed against Coriolus versicolor Linnaeus Quelet and soft rot. Durability of wood from different radial and axial positions in each stem is assessed using modified EN113 and EN(V)807 tests. Mean percentage weight losses (%MWL) are compared to determine the influence of position in the stem and growth site (for the LUS) on durability. Natural durability classes are also determined. Radial and axial variations in durability exist within the stems of all four hardwoods against C. versicolor and soft rot. At the same axial position, radial durability normally increases progressively from the outer sapwood towards the inner heartwood, whereas at the same radial positions, durability normally decreases from the base to the crown of the stem. Occasionally, the middle and crown are more durable. Growth site also influences durability of the LUS. For the primary species, the natural durability classes determined in this study differ from those assigned to them in literature. Durability ranking for the hardwoods against white rot is: N. diderrichii> C. pachyceras> N. papaverifera> G. brevis; with that against soft rot being: C. pachyceras >N. diderrichii >N. papaverifera >G. brevis.
C Antwi-Boasiako, A J Pitman, J R Barnett

Some observations on miniaturised soil/block tests
1988 - IRG/WP 2317
Results are presented for miniaturised soil/block tests carried out in 120 ml capacity glass jars. The four test fungi (Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria placenta) reacted differently to different moisture regimes established by varying the soil moisture content. Acceptable levels of decay were achieved by the three brown rot fungi with soil at 110% whc; however, soil at 150% whc failed to provide a high enough moisture content in the test blocks for decay by the white rot Coriolus versicolor. Overlaying test blocks exposed to Coriolus versicolor with moist sterile vermiculite increased both moisture contents and decay.
J K Carey

Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in wood decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi
1985 - IRG/WP 1256
To gain further understanding of the role of H2O2 in wood degradation by brown- and white-rot fungi, we studied the following: (a) extracellular H2O2 production, (b) effect of various hydroxyl radical (·OH) and singlet O2 (1O2) quenching agents on wood and cellulose degradation, (c) intracellular H2O2 production and catalase activity, and (d) cytochemical localization of H2O2 with diaminobenzidine (DAB) during wood degradation. Extracellular H2O2 detection varied with the growth media and chromogen. The chromogen 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) was more sensitive than o-dianisidine. Extracellular H2O2 was not detected in half of the brown-rot fungi. One white-rot fungus did not produce detectable amounts of H2O2. ·OH and 1O2 quenching agents generally did not inhibit decay of wood or decomposition of cellulose by either brown- or white-rot fungi. DAB did not detect the presence of H2O2 within or outside cells of the brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. Nor was H2O2 -generating activity detected in sonicated extracts of this fungus. With the white-rot fungus, Coriolus versicolor, H2O2 occurred predominantly in the periplasmic space, but also in the cytoplasm and hyphal sheath. Sonicates of Coriolus versicolor contained H2O2 -generating activity. These observations provide further support for H2O2 involvement in degradation of wood by white-rot fungi, but raise doubts concerning its participation in wood degradation by brown-rot fungi.
T L Highley, L L Murmanis

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