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Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50214
In this study, the main objective was to asses the distribution of Cu, Cr, and As in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Blacksea Region of Turkey (Trabzon, Rize and Artvin ) and determine the influence of soil composition. Surface (0-5cm), subsurface soil samples (30-40cm) were collected near CCA-treated utility poles and control soil samples away from CCA-treated utility poles were also collected. Water holding capacity, pH, mechanical properties of soil samples were determined for both depth levels. Results showed that Cu, Cr and As concentration in soil samples taken from all three cities in 0-5cm depth was higher than soil samples taken from 30-40cm depth. Cu, Cr and As concentrations were much higher in soil samples taken from city of Rize.
E D Gezer, Ü C Yildiz, A Temiz, S Yildiz, E Dizman


Migration of active ingredients from treated timber into fresh water
1991 - IRG/WP 3669
Spruce roundwoods and segments were treated with three different wood preservatives. Two of them containing copper and chromium the other one free of chromium. After fixation (3 weeks, 20°C) the specimens were leached by using artifical rain or by shaking the segments for one hour in contact with demineralized water. The water was analysed for the relevant elements of the preservative tested. Leachability of the components from the copper-chromate treated wood decreases. After 4-8 leaching cycles an almost constant migration of wood-preservatives, depending on the leaching method and the pH-value of water applied, was determined for the chromate containing preservatives. In the course of leaching cycles a constant rate of migrated copper from the preservative free of chromium was determined after 4 - about 17 leaching cycles. After 16 leachings of the segments the leached copper as calculated on the copper retention was determined to 1.6 - 5% for the chromium containing preservatives and about 22% for the tested variation of the new type of preservative.
H Klipp, H Willeitner, K Brandt, A Müller-Grimm


EPR investigations of interactions between ammoniacal Cu(II) octanoate and wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30110
Ammoniacal solutions of copper(II) octanoate [ C u . h l f . 2 . r h l f.(O2CC7H15)4], interactions of these solutions with wood and wood components, and leaching of copper(II) octanoate from impregnated wood samples, have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method. It is still not clear if in the Cu(II) octanoate - water - ammonia system, Cu(II) remains in a (copper(II) octanoate - ammonia) complex. The majority of leached Cu(II) with distilled water and a solution simulating acid precipitations was washed out in the first five hours of leaching procedure (up to 35% of initial Cu(II)). Time dependence studies of interactions of ammoniacal Cu(II) octanoate with wood, cellulose and brown rotted lignin showed, that the fastest and most significant was the reaction with lignin. Cu(II) is immobilised also on cellulose. A significant contribution of ammonia evaporation to the fixation mechanism of the preservative was observed as well.
F Dagarin, M Petric, F Pohleven, M Sentjurc


Kinetics and mechanism of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives. Part 5: Effect of wood species and preservative composition on the leaching during storage
1975 - IRG/WP 354
Conversion reactions during storage of CCA treated wood take place even at and below the fiber saturation point as long as ion transport is possible. Increase in drying temperature increases the final pH of the treated wood and the leachability of Cu and decreases slightly the leachability of Cr, while the leachability of As is not affected. This temperature effect is considered to be of no technical importance, but may be of importance when preparing material for biological testing. The length of the wet fixation period before the drying does not influence the results. The presence of alkali sulfates in some preservatives affects the pH of the unleached wood but not the leachability of the active elements. The natural pH of the wood determines to a considerable extent the final pH and the leachability. A correlation was established between the leachability of Cu and As versus the final pH in wood. When treated with 2-2.5% preservative solutions some wood species: Douglas fir, Ponderosa pine and to a lesser degree Southern yellow pine, showed unexpectedly high As leachability, while on doubling the concentration normal leachability data were obtained. The study included three commercial CCA preservatives: Boliden K33, Celcure AP and Tanalith C, and one experimental variety of Celcure AP without sodium sulfate.
S-E Dahlgren


Microwave treatment to Accelerated fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40271
This study evaluated the use of microwave post-treatment to accelerate fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated 19 mm southern yellow pine sapwood cubes. Cubes were pressure treated at 3.2 and 6.4 kg/m3 Cu retention target, after which they were microwave post treated during different duration periods. An accelerated AWPA leaching test was conducted during 300 hours to determine the amount of copper leached after the microwave treatment. The amount of copper leached was reduced 40 % after 5-min microwave treatment. The moisture content and the temperature of the cubes were monitored during the microwave treatment. This study clearly demonstrated that post-microwave treatment could be used effectively to reduce the amount of copper leached after 300 hours accelerated leaching test. Further work is needed to determine the effect of the sample size, the power and duration of the microwave treatment on copper leachability.
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem


Kinetics of the dissociation of Cr, Cu, and As in fixed CCA-treated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50168
The results of an experiment showing the kinetics of the dissociation of CCA compo-nents in water within treated wood samples are presented. Dry red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) samples were simultaneously vacuum-treated with water, then expressed to re-move the water at successive time intervals. The expressate was then analyzed for Cr, Cu, and As concentration by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Dissolved ion concen-trations increased for approximately 24 hours then reached relatively high equilibrium values which did not seem to depend on CCA loading in the wood. This detailed kinetic information is essential to understanding and predicting the leaching of fixed CCA.
L Waldron, P A Cooper


Inorganic preservative levels in soil under treated wood decks after 8 years natural exposure in Borås, Sweden
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50233
Inorganic preservative components (Cu, Cr and As) were measured to a depth of 150 mm under deck structures made with Scots pine lumber treated with several different wood preservatives and installed in Borås Sweden 8 years ago. Higher contaminant levels were observed mainly under the drip lines and in the top 50 mm of soil. Under CCA treated decks, soil arsenic concentrations increased from background levels of about 3.5 mg/kg to 6-15 mg/kg in this zone. Copper and chromium levels were only slightly elevated above backgrounds of about 10 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg respectively. Copper levels were also only slightly elevated under decks treated with Tanalith E, Impralit KDS and Wolmanit CX-S. The Wolmanit CX-8 treated wood had concentrations averaging about 45 mg/kg in the top soil layer under the drip line while the Kemwood ACQ treated deck had concentrations above 100 mg/g in this zone.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, M-L Edlund, J Jermer


A comparison of shower test results from CCF, CCZF, CCB and Cu-quat treated timber
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50054
The shower test quantifies the amount of specific preservative components which leach from treated timber under simulated open storage conditions. The test method measures leaching from both organic and inorganic salt treated timber. Shower tests of CCF, CCZF, CCB and Cu-quat treated timber which have been performed over the last 5 years by TNO are reviewed and compared. Leached components are quantified in relation to their retention in the treated product and described by use of a leaching factor. The leaching of components as a function of time and temperature (i.e. fixation) and the influence of several material and process variables is further considered.
M J Boonstra, A J Pendlebury, P Esser


Effect of steam on fixation of Cu-amine preservative treated wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50251
The rates of copper fixation in copper amine preservative treated wood were investigated with different fixation conditions (20° with drying and 50° without drying) and post-steaming. We also measured the degree of leaching for other biocide components (azoles, quatz, and Cu-HDO). Treatments conditioned at 20° with drying required 50 days or more to fix in woods. While copper was stabilized in a single day at 50° without drying, the steam treatment finished fixation process less than 30 min. The steaming treatment did not increased cuprous oxide, reduction product of cupric oxide. Little amount of other biocide components were quantified even in samples held in the condition at 20° with drying except benzyl-dimethyl-dodecyl-ammoniumchloride (DBAC).
Sung-Mo Kang, In-Yong Hwang, Suk-Kuwon Kim


Copper leaching from copper-ethanolamine treated wood during exposure to terrestrial microorganisms
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30621
Copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives are still the most important solutions for protection of wood in ground applications in Europe. Wood in ground is exposed to variety of organisms, which can act synergistically. In order to simulate these conditions in laboratory, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) specimens impregnated with copper-ethanolamine preservative of three different concentrations (cCu = 0.125%; 0.25% and 0.5%) were exposed to three different soils according to the ENV 807 procedure for periods between 12 weeks and 32 weeks. After respective periods of exposure, samples were isolated and their mass loss, bending strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. In the final step remaining copper in the samples was determined. The results showed that in spite of the prominent copper leaching, tested copper-ethanolamine treated wood exhibited good performance in ground applications. Furthermore, it is evident, that there is a good correlation between mechanical properties and mass loss determined, regardless of the chemical treatment applied.
M Humar, N Thaler, B Lesar


How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market and fulfil the formal requirements. In the European Union countries, the EN 599-1 is the standard that needs to be complied when approving a new product for the market, but it only focuses on the toxic limit against representative decay fungi according to EN 113. However, decay test, above ground and other forms of field tests are optional, this is not in line with the traditional test philosophy in the Scandinavian countries. The open question is to which extent treatment to the level of the toxic threshold value also ensures a long service life and expected performance of the treated commodity. Superwood™ is evaluated using a strategy, in which basic laboratory tests are done to get the toxic value (according to EN 599-1) and in addition a number of field tests are done including accelerated testing in the tropics. These tests are focussed on the evaluation of the performance criteria such as durability and service life and maintenance requirements. These questions must be answered by the producer without having a full record of performance test for their new products. A short status on the test performed on super-critical treated wood (Superwood™) is presented. Based on a comparison between field test in Scandinavia and in the tropical Malaysia a service life of more than 25 years for a specific supercritical treated product is estimated. It is stated that the existing European standardisation system is insufficient when it comes to service life prediction. A number of important questions need to be addressed by the European standardisation system as soon as possible because the market and the public opinion change quickly due to environmental concern.
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


IRG Working Group II. Co-operative leaching test (letter to collaborators)
1974 - IRG/WP 240
J W W Morgan


Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Performance of Preservatives in the BAM Fungus Cellar Test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20149
The fungus cellar test is a common means to get reliable data on the long term performance of treated wood in soil contact. A constantly high humidity and a suitable of water holding capacity for a range of micro-organisms provide high decay rates in untreated wood and produce intensive microbial pressures on wood treated with biocides. Presently a range of biocides are under test in the BAM fungus cellar and the results will be presented for the following types of biocides: Tebuconazole in combination with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar), quats with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar) and Cu-organic compound combined with copper and boron (3 years fungus cellar). Figures will be shown on the development of the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) over the years and on an assessment of the stakes according to EN 252.
I Stephan, M Grinda, D Rudolph


Collaborative soft rot tests: PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1973 - IRG/WP 223
These tests were undertaken as a preliminary to the next series of collaborative soft rot tests. An interim report has already been presented at Berlin in 1972 as Document No: IRG/WP/211
J K Carey, J G Savory


Leaching of the new boron based biocide from coated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30267
We investigated leachability of the new boron based biocide - a complex of an amine and boric acid - from vacuum impregnated spruce wood samples. It was determined by the standard ENV 1250-2 procedure that the new biocide is susceptible to leaching so from the water borne as well as from the ethanol borne boron containing preservative treated wood. Leaching may be retarded by application of surface coatings. The ability of a surface finish to prevent leaching is correlated to its water vapour permeability.
M Petric, M Pavlic, F Cadez


Effect of water repellents on leaching from CCA treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50044
CCA treated fence boards brushed with a water repellent finish had consistently lower leaching losses of all CCA components compared to the rate for matched samples without the water repellent. These results are after 12 cycles of simulated rainfall in the laboratory (1800 mm rainfall total) and four months of natural rain exposure in Toronto.
P A Cooper, R MacVicar


IRG Working Group II. Co-operative leaching tests
1973 - IRG/WP 230
J W W Morgan


Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50% of the chromium and copper content of the individual blocks was leached independent of the time of storage, whereas simultaneously treated pinewood samples showed complete fixation after 4 weeks of storage.
H Willeitner, K Brandt


Studies on accelerated ageing procedures with TBTO-treated wood
1985 - IRG/WP 2244
The efficacy of various procedures for accelerated ageing of organotin based wood preservatives in treated wood has been investigated. It was found that leaching of the treated wood samples in water according to the European Standard EN 84 was not satisfactory for organotin based preservatives and is probably also unsuitable even for other types of organic solvent preservatives. Keeping tributyltin oxide (TBTO) treated samples in a heating cabinet at 70°C for five weeks, however, had a considerable effect on the breakdown of TBTO and the subsequent decay test. Therefore, an ageing procedure involving a heating period should be considered for all organic solvent wood preservatives. The investigation also confirmed that elevated temperatures accelerate the degradation of TBTO and that there is a strong correlation between the percentage of TBTO in the wood and its resistance against decay.
J Jermer, M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, W Hintze


Leaching of components from water-borne paints and fungitoxic effects
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20062
Water-borne model paints, acrylics and alkyd emulsion paints, of known composition were leached according to a procedure modified in accordance with ASTM 6271.1. The effectiveness of fungicidal compounds in the painted specimens before and after leaching was evaluated with a biotest in which Penicillium brevicompactum was used as a test fungus. The leaching of the fungicide Troysan Polyphase according to the biotest varied to a high extent depending on differences in paint composition. Fungicide efficiency in relation to paint formulation and fungicide mobility in a paint film is briefly discussed.
J Bjurman


Use of vermiculite as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of treated wood
1989 - IRG/WP 3547
It is considered the possibility of using vermiculite instead of soil as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of wood treated with preservatives for agricultural use. Three organic preservatives were used. It had been tested the behaviour of both, vermiculite and soil in case of preservative leaking due to a leach. So that, assays of germination with cucurbitaceous were carried out, mixing a dose of preservatives with both substrates.
M V Baonza Merino, D Franco


Collaborative soft rot tests: Programme and test method
1973 - IRG/WP 229
J G Savory, J K Carey


The leaching of copper, chrome and arsenate from CCA-impregnated poles stored for ten years in running water
1978 - IRG/WP 3122
There is no evidence to indicate that the chromium and copper components are leached from the outermost 5 mm of sapwood in poles impregnated with Boliden K33 and Tanalith C and stored in running water for ten years. The arsenic component, however, seems to be leached out during the first few months to an extent of about 20% of the initial amount. The leaching time is dependent on the preservative used.
F G Evans


A discussion of current theories concerning CCA fixation
1983 - IRG/WP 3238
The understanding of the fixation mechanism of CCA and related preservatives in wood has been greatly improved by a significant series of recent scientific papers. In view of recent concerns in New Zealand regarding the long-term efficacy of CCA in high decay-hazard situations, it was considered appropriate to review this recent work and to contrast it with theories presented by previous workers.
D V Plackett


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