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Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi had a greater ability to reduce the diffusion of copper ions than ECMM which had been subject to dialysis to remove soluble, low molecular weight components. The ‘insoluble’ fraction of ECMM for both species was more effective than the ‘soluble’ fraction at reducing the diffusion of copper ions. It is concluded that ECMM confers some protection to hyphae against the toxic effects of copper ions on growth in vivo and that this due to the binding of copper ions to both the polysaccharide and to low molecular weight components of the ECMM
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy

Laboratory Studies on Copper Availability in Wood Treated with Soluble Amine Copper and Micronized Copper Systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30489
A laboratory method has been employed to investigate the level of soluble copper in wood treated with various copper-based preservative systems, such as micronized copper (particulate copper) and amine copper solutions. This report describes the methodology and preliminary results on determination of the soluble copper in the treating solutions and the treated wood by these systems, as well as the potential impact on performance of such systems against wood decay fungi.
L Jin, P Walcheski, A Preston

Micronized Copper Preservative Systems: Observations on the Release of Cupric ion (Cu2+) from Treated Wood and Performance against Wood Decay Fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30519
In an attempt to address the mechanism of action of micronized copper preservatives, a 20-week continuous water leaching study was conducted. The leaching results indicated that, once impregnated in wood, micronized copper preservatives continuously release cupric ion, and the levels of cupric ion released from micronized copper treated wood are higher than those released from CCA treated wood, and similar to those from ACQ-D treated wood with the exception of the first few leaching cycles. A 30-month soil bed fungal cellar test was also conducted, and the results revealed that micronized copper quat performed at least as well as ACQ-D against soft rot, confirming the presence of mobile cupric ion in the S2 layer of wood cell wall. In addition, two field stake studies of micronized copper preservatives were also conducted, and the results indicate that micronized preservative systems provide excellent long-term protection against wood destroying fungi and insects, and perform at least as well as ACQ-D.
J Zhang, R Ziobro

Studies on Effect of pH on Copper Availability in Copper-Based Preservatives
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30549
Laboratory methods have been employed to investigate the pH effect on the copper solubility of basic copper carbonate. The pH was controlled using two different approaches. One was with the adjustment of pH of the solutions by acid or base using sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide until the solution equilibriums were obtained for each defined pH. A second approach was to control pH with buffer solutions to provide the designated pH range. Differences in copper solubility at the same pH with these two approaches were observed. The results generated from this study are compared with previously presented data and are discussed in terms of the influence of methodology, potential interactions of component(s) and the effect of the pH control agents.
L Jin, P Walcheski, A F Preston