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Visualization of inorganic element distribution in preservative treated wood by SEM-EDXA
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40208
SEM-EDXA was found to be an effective way of visualizing inorganic element distribution in wood as it was possible to examine some inorganic elements at the same time and map the concentration differences in color. Japanese cedar sapwoods were impregnated by vacuum treatment with CuAz or by pressure treatment with CCA preservatives and then distribution of Cu, Cr and As elements in wood were examined by SEM-EDXA. For sapwood treated by CuAz, Cu element was more distributed in latewood tracheids near growth ring boundary, axial parenchyma cells (resin cells) and ray parenchyma cells. Sapwood treated by CCA seemed to have the same distribution of Cu as sapwood treated by CuAz. In resin cells, a lot of crystalline deposits were fringed with CuAz and CCA preservatives. This may indicate predominant interactions between preservatives and chemical constituents of the parenchyma cells.
H Matsunaga, R Matsumura, K Oda

Anatomical Characteristics to the Distribution of Water-borne Copper Wood Preservatives in Wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40277
The objective of this study was to understand the micro-distribution of a copper-based preservative in wood in connection with anatomical morphology and to consider the fixation of copper in wood. Bulk specimens and semi-ultra thin sections (0.5µm) obtained from Japanese cedar were treated with a CuAz preservative solution. After fixation, SEM-EDXA was used to investigate the micro-distribution of copper. In sapwood, copper was more abundant in the compound middle lamellae than in the secondary wall in both earlywood and latewood, and also concentrated in the tori. Copper was most concentrated as crystalline deposits in longitudinal parenchyma cells. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed the copper amount to increase in this order: secondary wall in tracheid < middle lamellae < membrane of half-bordered pit < tori in tracheid < deposits in longitudinal parenchyma cell. These different concentrations may indicate significant interactions between the amine-copper complex in CuAz and chemical constituents of wood.
H Matsunaga, J Matsumura, K Oda

Tendency of the preservative use for impregnation industries in Japan
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-05
In Japan, since 1997, the acceptable limit of the arsenic in the waste water become to 0,1 mg/l and the additional regional severer restriction can be established. In this reason, Japanese wood preservation industries intend to use other than CCA, like DDAC, ACQ, Tanalith CuAz, copper-naphthate and zinc-naphthenate, as replacing from CCA. In Jan-June 1997, the share of CCA preservatives was less than 30% in contradiction to over 90% in Jan-June 1996.
K Suzuki

Wood decay fungi from New Zealand ‘leaky’ buildings: PCR identification and laboratory decay tests of wood preservative-treated Pinus radiata (Part 1)
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10620
Fungi colonising Pinus radiata D. Don framing timber of ‘leaky’ New Zealand buildings were isolated to produce pure cultures. Mycelia from these cultures on agar media were collected to extract DNA. To identify the fungi to the species level, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primer pairs ITS1-F and ITS4 were performed followed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Identification was by BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) search on sequences in GenBank. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus placenta and Antrodia sinuosa were identified with a 98-99% match. With identification, these three decay fungi and a standard decay fungus (Coniophora puteana) were used to determine the effectiveness of currently used wood framing preservatives under laboratory conditions before and after a standard leaching regime. Pinus radiata blocks were treated with water based Boron and Copper Azole and solvent based IPBC and Propiconazole/Tebuconazole (1:1) preservatives and exposed to these four basidiomycetes for 12 weeks under laboratory conditions. Weight loss of up to 55% for preservative-treated samples, up to 62% weight loss for leached samples and up to 58% weight loss for untreated samples was recorded. Additionally, well defined dose responses and approximate toxic thresholds were obtained for all preservatives tested. Results suggested that the minimum IPBC retention specified by Hazard Class 1.2 of NZS3640:2003 (0.025% m/m) is on the low side, and demonstrated complete loss of efficacy of boron at 0.4% m/m boric acid equivalent (BAE) after the 2 week leaching regime. Results further showed that PCR techniques comprise a very useful tool for fungal identification and are expected to provide a reasonably definitive list of causative decay fungi as the survey of ‘leaky’ buildings continues. This study gives a first overview of fungi occurring in New Zealand houses, demonstrating that the test fungus Antrodia sinuosa was more difficult to control with Propiconazole/Tebuconazole at retention 0.007% m/m than the known tolerant fungus Oligoporus placenta, that Boron at Hazard Class 1.2 retention of 0.4% m/m BAE was not toxic to all fungi and that Gloeophyllum sepiarium appeared likely to be important in New Zealand ‘leaky’ buildings and was susceptible to all wood preservatives.
D Stahlhut, R L Farrell, R Wakeling, M Hedley

Field trials results of preservative treated ground contact stake conducted in Korea
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30640
The field trials results from Korea preservative treated ground contact stake are reported. There was two site which was in southern area(Anmeon) and east area (Jungsun) of Korea. The CUAZ, CCA and CBHDO preservatives were use in this study. The sapwood of Japanese red pine stake was treated with these preservatives according to Korea standard method and then installed in 2003. Every year the inspection was conducted according to AWPA methods. The result shows different decay level of coast and mountain site. The minimum concentration of the each preservative could be known from the results. Soil component and the weather condition could affect the results.
Dong Won Son, Won Jung Hwang, Hyun-mi Lee, Dong-heub Lee, Sang-bum Park

Evaluation of Decay Resistance of Copper-based Preservatives Treated-Wood exposed to different field test sites in Korea
2022 - IRG/WP 22-20679
In Korea, preservative treated wood is required to have a stamp on the surface which contains information such as wood species, use categories, and the company that treated the wood. Such stamping is necessary to safely and appropriately use the treated wood. Since majority of treated wood is being used outdoor environment, the treated wood must have efficacy against wood decay fungi or termite. In order to obtain information regarding the life span of the treated wood (ie, how long does the treated wood can be used safely), resistance on decay and termite attack was evaluated by the indoor and outdoor field tests. In this paper, the outdoor field test results of ACQ-2, CuAZ-2, MCQ, and CuHDO-3 treated woods were reported, which were installed in 2012 and have been monitored for decay resistance. The tests were conducted at 6 different field test sites in Korea, Wood samples treated with various retention levels have been evaluated annually according to the AWPA standards. It was found that the wood treated with lower retentions than the Korean standard were decomposed. However, the wood with higher retentions were still sound to this day. Therefore, it was concluded that the preservative treated wood manufactured following the standard retentions can be used safely for a certain period of time. It is also expected that continuous evaluation and monitoring of the wood in the test sites would enable us to estimate the longevity of treated wood with various retentions.
W-J Hwang, S-M Yoon, Y Park, Y-S Choi, H-M Lee, J-W Kim