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The use of chlorothalonil for protection against mold and sapstain fungi. Part 1: Laboratory evaluation
1989 - IRG/WP 3515
Laboratory screening of chlorothalonil alone and in combination with other fungicides was conducted against six mold and sapstain fungi. The most promising treatments appear to be chlorothalonil supplemented with CCA or copper-8-quinolinolate. Field tests have been implemented....
J A Micales, T L Highley, A L Richter


Life cycle analysis of utility poles. A Swiss case study
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-05
Use of preservative-treated wood products faces increasing public and political pressure because of environmental concerns regarding the chemicals used to protect the wood. However, critics usually focus only on one single aspect of the whole life cycle of treated wood products, disregarding other environmental effects of timber utilization. To evaluate the ecological consequences of wooden utilit...
T Künniger, K Richter


Natural durability of Iranian saxual wood (Haloxylon persicum) against the fungal decay
1991 - IRG/WP 1515
Haloxylon persicum is vidly planted in the deserfic region of Iran. At the present time, in the age of 30, these small trees are ready for cutting for the different uses, specially for rural buildings. But there's any knowledge about its durability. In this study the laboratory tests were carried out in accordance to European Standard. 5 fungi were used as: Trametes versicolor, Coniophora...
D Parsapajouh, F H Schweingruber, K Richter


Comparative life cycle assessment of Swiss railroad sleepers
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50117
The results of an environmental LCA carried out on railway sleepers made of prestressed concrete, sectional steel and creosote impregnated beech as used on main lines of Switzerland's railways are presented. All extractions from and insertions into the environment which were connected with the manufacture, use and disposal of the different types of sleeper were inventoried and assessed, i...
T Künniger, K Richter


Evaluation of chlorothalonil for stain and mould control on lumber
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3713
Chlorothalonil is a commercially important fungicide with many industrial and agricultural applications. It has a very low mammalian toxicity and is considered to be an environmentally benign material. This paper describes the laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil as a wood antisapstain treatment. Chlorothalonil was tested as three formulation types - an emulsifiable concentrate (EC), a water-ba...
P E Laks, T L Woods, D L Richter


Extracellular carbohydrate production by isolates of Postia (=Poria) placenta
1989 - IRG/WP 1388
A monokaryotic strain of Postia (=Poria) placenta, ME20, which is unable to degrade wood, also failed to produce extracellular polysaccharide when grown in liquid culture, regardless of carbon source or concentration. Other isolates of Postia placenta, including another monokaryon and a hybrid of this monokaryon with ME20, produced large quantities of this material. The polysaccharide consisted pr...
J A Micales, A L Richter, T L Highley


Inducing and Stimulating Spalting in Sugar Maple
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10652
Spalted wood has gained popularity in recent years as consumer preference has shifted towards unique and custom products. The process by which spalting is induced in clear lumber has evolved over time, and now involves much more than beer drinking and outdoor burial. Our work on the process of reliably producing spalted wood began in 2004 and involved testing a wide variety of white rot fungi on...
S C Robinson, D L Richter, P E Laks


Biological Performance of micronized copper wood preservative formulations in field and laboratory tests
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30488
Micronized Copper wood preservative formulations with different co-biocides were exposed to brown rot fungi in an 8-week AWPA E10 soil block decay test and two AWPA E7 ground-contact decay tests in Hawaii. The micronized copper formulations performed well against decay at or above the AWPA UC3 and UC4 retentions stipulated by the ICC-ES. Micronized copper preservatives performed comparably to a ...
G M Larkin, J Zhang, D L Richter, R J Ziobro, P E Laks


Weathering of Wood Modified with the N-Methylol Compound 1,3‑dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40467
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood boards were treated with a methylated 1,3‑dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (mDMDHEU) causing weight gains of approx. 25% and exposed to weathering for 18 months. Compared to untreated boards, treatment with mDMDHEU reduced surface discoloration mainly caused by staining fungi. Boards treated with mDMDHEU exhibited clearly lower moisture content th...
C Mai, Yanjun Xie, A Krause, K Urban, P D Evans, K Richter, H Militz


Application of a model for the prediction of fungal degradation of thermally modified beech timber by Trametes versicolor
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40622
Colour measurement technology is found to be feasible for characterization of the property changes of thermally modified timber (TMT). In opposite to time-consuming and expensive laboratory tests a non-destructive test represents an improvement for the manufacturer of TMT. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop a method which allows sorting the different treatment intensities after the man...
Clauder, L., Richter S., Unger, W., Pfriem, A


Postia placenta cellulase gene expression in modified wood during incipient decay
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40626
In optimization of modified wood, it is important to understand the mode of action of the wood modification and how the fungi response to it. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cellulases during the first two weeks of Postia placenta exposure in acetylated, DMDHEU-treated and thermally modified as well as in untreated wood. Using real-time PCR, the gene expression patterns ...
R Ringman, A Pilgård, K Richter


Protein extraction from wood decay fungus Postia placenta
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10827
Wood decay fungi (often distinguished as white rot and brown rot) belonging to the basidiomycetes, are common inhabitants of forest litter, where they play an important role in carbon cycling. Brown rot fungi are perhaps the most important organism involved in the degradation of wood products, and of considerable economic importance. Brown rotted wood loses strength very early because of the rapid...
A Pilgård, P Arnold, K Richter


Possible targets of wood modification in brown rot degradation
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40676
Wood modification protects wood from fungal degradation in a non-toxic manner. However, the mechanisms behind the decay resistance in modified wood are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to discuss the i) colonisation, ii) nutrient recognition, iii) transcription, iv) depolymerisation and v) hydrolysis steps in the brown rot degradation progress and explore whether they are inhibited by ...
R Ringman, A Pilgård, G Alfredsen, B Goodell, K Richter


High-frequency monitoring of mass loss due to brown rot degradation of modified wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10862
Fungi growing in liquid culture undergoes three separate phases in which they i) adapt to the new environment, ii) grow unrestrictedly and exponentially, and iii) are inhibited to increase in number/mass due to lack of nutrients etc. Filamentous fungi have been shown to exhibit similar growth phases in a solid food substrate and have been modelled to grow in this way also in solid wood. In modifie...
R Ringman, A Pilgård, K Richter