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Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi...
M-L Edlund


Detection of defects in standing poles by X-ray techniques
1980 - IRG/WP 2132
The application of X-ray techniques to wood pole inspection procedures has been evaluated. Internal defects were accurately identified using X-ray inspection methods. These methods and their possible influence on the safety and economic aspects of wood pale utilization are discussed....
W D Gardner, R S Johnstone, W Pitt


Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigati...
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr


Detection of trace organics by ion mobility spectrometry
1990 - IRG/WP 3635
Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is a time of flight analytical technique that is suited to detect chemicals in the low parts per billion range. Some of the advantages of IMS are: operation at atmospheric pressure, fast response time (0.1-10 sec), and the ability to characterize individual chemical species in complex matrices without any prior sample preparation. In this paper, the utility of IMS i...
A H Lawrence


The use of image analysis to quantify soft rot decay
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2410
Image analysis techniques can provide quantitative information from visual images. As part of a wider interest in decay assessment methods we have investigated the application of image analysis techniques for quantifying soft rot decay by Chaetomium globosum in transverse sections of birch wood and bamboo. A method for reducing contamination of the section (and image) by the fungal hyphae and of s...
P J Wickens, R J Murphy


Occurrence of manganese deposits in test stakes exposed in groung contact situations
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10182
Dark spots and flecks were frequently recognized on the surface and within non-preservative treated hard- and softwood test stakes placed in soil contact. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in conjunction with electron microscopy showed the flecks to be composed primarily of manganese dioxide. Detailed transmission electron microscopy observations indicated intrusion of manganese into the wood ...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson, J Volc


Mapping soft rot decay distribution using image analysis
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20011
Image analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for the assessment of soft rot decay caused by Chaetomium globosum in birch and bamboo (Wickens and Murphy, 1992). The technique can permit assessment of decay in individual or small groups of cells and this has been used to undertake soft rot decay mapping in thin sections of bamboo. Assessments were made of the extent of soft rot decay with ...
P J Wickens, R J Murphy, G F M Watts


Summarized comparison of four techniques for detecting defects in poles
1979 - IRG/WP 2126
Since our discussions in open session of Working Group II at Peebles, a number of workers in Australia have collaborated in comparing the efficacy of X-ray, sonic testing, or resistivity measurements for detecting internal defects in poles. The purpose of this circular is to draw to your attention some of the results, in summary form. No attempt has been made to compare techniques. More detailed a...
H Greaves


Effect of wood species on decomposition efficiency of metham sodium
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3699
The effect of wood species and temperature on efficiency of metham sodium (32.1% sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate) decomposition to methylisothiocyanate (MITC) was investigated on 10 hardwoods and 9 conifers over a 144 hour period. Gas chromatographic analyses of headspace samples and ethyl acetate extracts of the wood revealed that decomposition never approached the theoretical decomposition effici...
J J Morrell


Analysis of D-glucose metabolism of wood decay fungi using 13C-NMR and 13C-labeled substrates
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10475
D-Glucose metabolism is thought to be important during wood decay by fungi, not only for anabolic and catabolic purposes of central metabolism, but also as a potential source of peroxide required by extracellular peroxidases. There has been some confusion in the literature as to whether this peroxide-generating activity is of the glucose 1-oxidase or pyranose 2-oxidase (glucose 2-oxidase) type wi...
T H de Koker, M D Mozuch, P J Kersten


Statistical evaluation of 'micro-bending' samples for classification of wood attacking fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1544
Micro-specimens from both hardwood and softwood were exposed to selected species of field isolated fungi. The strength reduction and weight loss caused by these fungi were determined. A statistical procedure was then developed to classify the fungi into brown-, white-rot, or non-decay fungal categories based on these data. The procedure reveals the extent of hazard a fungus poses to wood members. ...
B Goodell, Jing Liu, A Homola, J Jellison, J Shottafer


Quantification of wood decay effects by HPLC analysis
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1576
The present work quantified the effects of the white rot basidiomycetes Coriolus versicolor and Phanaerochaete chrysosporium, and also those of the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana and Lentinus lepideus, on Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis. Wood colonisation was quantified by Kjeldahl nitrogen determinations converted to biomass assays, and degradation was quantified by weight losses produced...
V Singh, M Tarin, G D Shelver, A A W Baecker


Non-destructive stress wave measurement of decay and termite attack in experimental wood units
1986 - IRG/WP 2256
The purpose of this study was to determine if stress wave analysis could be used to monitor the degradation of wood specimens exposed to the brown-rot decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and of wood specimens subjected to attack by subterranean termites. One hundred fifty 3/4 by 3/4 by 12 in. Southern pine specimens were used for exposure to brown-rot decay fungi and two hundred twenty-five 3/4 by ...
R F Pellerin, R C De Groot, G R Esenther


Fungal colonisation of the keelson and associated structures of a nineteenth century wooden frigate: Concepts of community structure and development
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10072
The early stages of microbial colonization and succession of wooden surfaces exposed to the sea have been extensively studied as have the community structures of archaeological timbers subjected to submergence and then retrieval from the sea. The frigate UNICORN, a largely intact 19th century wooden ship based in Dundee, Scotland, provides the microbial ecologist with a unique opportunity to study...
N A White, J W Palfreyman, G M Smith


Detection of wood decay fungi in wood using a PCR-based analysis
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10279
We have developed a DNA-based assay to reliably detect brown rot and white rot fungi in wood at different stages of decay. DNA, isolated by a series of CTAB and organic extractions, was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using published universal primers and basidiomycete-specific primers derived from ribosomal DNA sequences. We have surveyed 7 species of brown rot fungi, 7 species of whit...
C Jasalavich, A Ostrofsky, J Jellison


Microscopic analysis of southern pine utility pole core segments
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1542
Fifteen macroscopic core descriptive categories were evaluated by microscopic analysis for accuracy in detecting decay and judging decay severity. Five categories were good indicators of decay as decay was detected in 28 of 48 samples. Five categories were possible indicators of early decay as decay was detected in 6 of 40 core segments and an additional 18 contained hyphae. The remaining five cat...
S E Anagnost, C J K Wang, M Wright


Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from Trichoderma spp.: effect of media composition on VOC production and level of inhibition of wood decay fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10207
Production of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) by two Trichoderma isolates grown on either malt extract or minimal media was examined and statistically assessed to identify which VOC's were predominantly produced on each of the two media types. The VOC's were captured onto chromatographic absorbent from above the cultures of the fungi before being analysed by integrate...
A Bruce, R E Wheatley, C Hackett, A Kundzewicz


A comparative analysis of Coniophora olivacea (Fr. ex Pers.) Karst. and Coniophora puteana (Schum. ex Fr.) Karst. test strains
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20004
Investigations were carried out to compare pure cultures of Coniophora olivacea (Fr. ex Pers.) Karst. used as a test fungus in Australia and other Pacific countries, and Coniophora puteana (Shum. ex Fr.) Karst. which is used in Europe. Comparisons included morphology, growth rate and dry mass of mycelium, decay capacity, influence of temperature, toxic value of CCA and quaternary ammonium compound...
J Wazny, L J Cookson


Use of immunoblotting for the analysis of wood decay basidiomycetes
1988 - IRG/WP 2307
Immunoblotting methods, in particular dot and Western blotting have been used to investigate features of a variety of wood decay organisms, in particular Coriolus versicolor, Lentinus lepideus and Serpula lacrymans. Antisera to each of these decay organisms has been produced by immunisation of rabbits with liquid culture grown hyphae. These antisera, after appropriate preabsorption with sawdust ha...
J W Palfreyman, H Glancy, D Button, A Vigrow, A J Score, B King


An analysis of the effects of some factors on the natural durability of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies Karst.)
1986 - IRG/WP 1279
The effects of some factors on the natural resistance of pine and spruce sapwood against fungal decay and against attack of house-longhorn beetle larvae have been studied in laboratory tests and the results are evaluated by analysis of variance and regression analysis. Following conclusions were reached: Wood from summer-felled trees did not have a lower inherent natural durability against fungal ...
J B Boutelje, T Nilsson, S Rasmussen


A comparison analysis of eight strains of Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray
1991 - IRG/WP 2362
Investigations were previously carried out to compare eight strains of Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray (some used in various countries as standard test strains): FPRL 12C (England), FPRL 12E (Germany), Warsaw III (Poland), HFP 7802 (Japan), DFP 16508, 16509, 16521 and 16522 (Australia). Studies included growth rate and dry mass of mycelium, decay capacity, reduction of compression stre...
J Wazny, J D Thornton


Interactions between soft rot fungi and CCA preservatives in Betula verrucosa
1988 - IRG/WP 1367
Ultrastructural investigations were carried out to obtain information on the cell wall distribution of CCA elements during soft rot decay of 4% K33 CCA preservative treated birch (Betula verrucosa) wood. TEM observations on fibres at various stages of S2 cavity formation by mutabilis showed a distinct pattern of electron dense materials to occur within the S2 cell wall region. These materials (gra...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson


Effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial communities involved in the deterioration of wood using T-RFLP I: Accelerated laboratory decay study
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20332
The effects of Chlorothalonil (CTN) and Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) on microbial species diversity in wood and the surrounding soil are being assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). CTN was selected as a trial organic wood preservative, and BHT is being evaluated for its synergistic effects with CTN. Results from an accelerated decay test will be presented. The...
G T Kirker, M L Prewitt, S V Diehl


Effects of chlorothalonil (CTN) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial communities involved in the deterioration of wood using T-RFLP II: Results from field studies
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30429
The effects of Chlorothalonil (CTN) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) on microbial species diversity in wood and the surrounding soil are being assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). CTN was selected as a trial organic wood preservative, and the non-biocidal BHT was evaluated for its synergistic effects with CTN. ACQ-C was a positive control and untreated SYP sta...
G T Kirker, M L Prewitt, S V Diehl


Characterization of protein patterns from decayed wood of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) by proteomic analysis
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10654
The primary biotic decomposers of wood belong to the basidiomycetes. The members of this group can attack and biodegrade both wood in the forest and in service. By the time wood decay is visible, there has already been a significant loss of strength. The identification of basidiomycetes and other organisms on wood only tell us what is present, not what is actively decaying the wood. When organisms...
Young-Min Kang, L Prewitt, S Diehl


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