Your search resulted in 1016 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigati...
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr
Decay patterns observed in butylene oxide modified ponderosa pine attacked by Fomitopsis pinicola
1983 - IRG/WP 1183
Small blocks of ponderosa pine chemically modified by butylene oxide to three different weight percent gains (WPG) were decayed for 2 months with the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola. Wood substance loss and the type of decay pattern recognised were fairly similar both for control and blocks treated to 8 and 15 WPG. No difference in attack was observed between radial or tangential walls in lat...
T Nilsson, R M Rowell
Decay patterns observed in butylene oxide modified ponderosa pine after exposure in unsterile soil
1982 - IRG/WP 3211
Small blocks of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) chemically modified with butylene oxide to three different weight gains were exposed for 6 weeks in unsterile soil. Severe surface decay caused by soft rot fungi and tunnelling bacteria was observed in blocks with 8 weight percent gain. The soft rot attack was restricted to the outer parts of the radial walls in the latewood tracheids. Bacteria...
T Nilsson, R M Rowell
Patterns of bacterial attack in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1984 - IRG/WP 1223
Patterns of bacterial decay have been examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Two morphologically distinct patterns have been recognised in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles. Bacterial Decay I (BDI) involves the removal of the secondary wall layers initiating with erosion of the S3 layer from the cell lumen. As decay progresses the S2 layer and S1 layer are degr...
G A Willoughby, L E Leightley
Reaction of osmium tetroxide with a diphenolic compound as a model substance for demethylated lignin
1986 - IRG/WP 1303
By using caffeic acid as a model substance for diphenolic moieties of demethylated lignin it was found that electron dense particles called by the authors "osmiophilic particles" in former papers are reaction products of OsO4 with the model substance. By these products it is possible to indicate the enzymatic demethylation of lignin taking place during wood decay. The appearance of the electron de...
K Messner, E Srebotnik
A new method for the study of microbiological decay of wood in a strictly anaerobic environment
1988 - IRG/WP 2319
Recent work has suggested that strictly anaerobic bacteria may play a role in the biodeterioration of wood, particularly in aqueous environments. However, no suitable test methods exist for the investigation of this hypothesis. An aqueous minimal medium in specifically adapted conical flasks was sterilised, gassed using a 5.5% H2; 31.8% C02; 62.7% N2 gas mixture to remove oxygen and transferred to...
G M Rogers, A A W Baecker
Patterns of decay in CCA-treated horticultural post populations - A fungus cellar simulation
1986 - IRG/WP 1286
The distribution of decayed posts in 10-, 14-, and 18-year-old vineyards supported a hypothesis to explain variability in intensity of decay found among posts in New Zealand horticultural properties. The development of decay patterns between samples in a simulated vineyard plot established in the Forest Research Institute fungus cellar gave additional support to the hypothesis that decay within la...
M E Hedley
Evidence for actinomycete degradation of wood cell walls
1990 - IRG/WP 1444
Several unique patterns of degradation occurring in wood cell walls have been observed in wooden stakes inserted in unsterile soil in the laboratory. Some of the patterns have also been observed in coniferous wood taken from forest floors. All the observed attack types occur within wood cell walls, mainly within the S2 layer. Attack is characterised by channels of varying diameter or small fusifor...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel, S L Bardage
Field study: Wood degradation pattern in buildings and utility poles in tropical climates of Nigeria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1521
The paper is the result of five years field study of wood degradation patterns in three ecological forest zones (Guinea Savannah, Tropical rain forest and mangrove forest zones, respectively). It involved 800 residential buildings and 700 electric overhead transmission poles. The methodology used was a modified Eslyn (6) test. A high rate of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes attack especially on the ...
E O Onuorah
A biochemical explanation for the observed patterns of fungal decay in timber
1980 - IRG/WP 1111
Experiments designed to compare the degree of localization of the cellulase enzymes of some white, brown and soft rot organisms are described. The site and nature of binding of the enzymes is discussed. The technique is ellution of mycelium grown in liquid culture with a variety: of agents including acetate buffer, carboxymethyl cellulose solution, borate/glycerol buffer and urea. The mycelium was...
N B Green, D J Dickinson, J F Levy
Comparing microbial colonisation and Decay Rates of Wood from Sound and Aphid-Killed Kenyan-Grown Mexican Cypress (Cupressus lusitanica)
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10599
Samples of wood from 10, 15, and 30-year old trees attacked and killed by the cypress aphid (Cinara cupressi) and sound Kenyan-grown Cupressus lusitanica trees were investigated for variations in moisture content, density and susceptibility to microbial decay. MC varied with tree age, a normal trend, and between samples from aphid-killed and sound trees. In samples from 10, 15 and 20-year old so...
Characterization of protein patterns from decayed wood of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) by proteomic analysis
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10654
The primary biotic decomposers of wood belong to the basidiomycetes. The members of this group can attack and biodegrade both wood in the forest and in service. By the time wood decay is visible, there has already been a significant loss of strength. The identification of basidiomycetes and other organisms on wood only tell us what is present, not what is actively decaying the wood. When organisms...
Young-Min Kang, L Prewitt, S Diehl
Fungal Attack on Lignin and Cellulose: Elucidation of Brown- and White-Rot Mechanisms Comparing Biomimetic and In-Vivo Degradation Patterns
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10714
This paper examines research and hypotheses that have been developed over several years on wood degradation mechanisms. This information is combined with new data and analyses to explain why wood decay patterns caused by brown-rot fungi and specific types of white-rot fungi are different. New data, including work with both biomimetic studies on low molecular weight compounds, degradative enzymes, ...
V Arantes, B Goodell, A M F Milagres, Yuhui Qian, T Filley, J Jellison, S Kelley
Microscopy evaluation of microbial decay patterns in wood stakes after 6 years in soil contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10715
Most studies on wood modification have so far been concerned with service life predictions rather than investigating the decay protection mechanism. Very little is known about the mode of action of these new treatments and about the strategies used by wood degraders in order to utilize the wood material despite a treatment. Access to such knowledge would allow further modification and improvement ...
A Pilgård, C G Björdal
Estimation of wood degradation determined by visual inspection, mechanical testing and DNA characterisation – report after 3 years of exposure
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30700
The influence of two separate treatments, thermal modification and alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ, Silvanolin©) treatment, on fungal decay, visual disfigurement, deterioration in mechanical properties and fungal community structure was assessed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and compared with the performance of two naturally more resistant tree species native to North America: Douglas fir (Pseud...
N Thaler, T Martinović, M Bajc, D Finžgar, H Kraigher, A Sinha, J J Morrell, M Humar
Monitoring Diversity and Colonization Patterns of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi Using Field Stake Tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20614
Advances in molecular identification of microbial communities enabling rapid microorganism determination have allowed ecological data to be increasingly incorporated into standardized wood performance tests. Combining standard field tests with molecular methods to study wood-associated microflora can help to better understand fungal colonization and decay processes of wood in service. The potentia...
P Torres-Andrade, J Cappellazzi, J J Morrell
Decay capacity and degradation patterns of Xylaria hypoxylon on different wood species
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10985
A host of physical and environmental factors may influence fungal decay including the wood substrate, temperature, moisture, oxygen, light, pH, and nitrogen. Understanding the effects of these factors on fungal decay is important for the effective utilization of wood decay fungi in biotechnological processes and for understanding the role of these organisms in global carbon cycling. The ascomycete...
E Bari, G Daniel, A Singh, J J Morrell
Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi
Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy...
Questionnaire - Fungal decay types
1985 - IRG/WP 1265
JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated....
Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi...
Co-operative studies on determining toxic values against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes: Progress report to May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 2339
This document reports progress on the co-operative study between nine laboratories set up following the proposals contained in Document IRG/WP/2316. Results have been received from two laboratories. Toxic values data have been established successfully using the test fungus Coniophora puteana but problems have been encountered with the other test fungi....
A F Bravery, J K Carey
Monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi. [Fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores]
1970 - IRG/WP I 5B