Your search resulted in 1040 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi. [Fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores]
1970 - IRG/WP I 5B
The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses. Part 2
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10001
Questionnaire for Volume 2 of the basidiomycete monographs
1985 - IRG/WP 1254
12 monographs of wood destroying basidiomycetes were published in volume 1. Volume 2 includes the following 17 basidiomycetes: Antrodia serialis, Chondrostereum purpureum, Climacocystic borealis, Fomitopsis pinicola, Hyphoderma tenue, Lentinus degener, Lentinus squarrulosus, Paxillus panuoides, Phellinus contiguus, Poria xantha, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Rigidoporus vitreus, Serpula himantoides, Sistotrema brinkmannii, Stereum sanguinolentum, Trametes corrugata
Comparison of the effect of different soil sources on the type and rate of decay of CCA-treated pine exposed in a soil-bed
1984 - IRG/WP 2213
The types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand can be reproduced using a soil-bed exposure. Radiata pine stakelets, untreated or treated to 1.4, 2.7, or 5.4 kg/m³ with Tanalith NCA, were exposed to six different soil sources. The local nursery soil used for all standard laboratory tests was found to represent the greatest decay hazard to untreated pine. Poverty Bay horticultural soils were more hazardous than the local field test site soil to CCA-treated pine. Soil collected from adjacent to a 'decaying' post could decay treated wood faster than soil collected from around a 'sound' post. Brownrot, softrot, and bacterial degrade was observed. All failures of untreated pine and early failures of CCA-treated pine were caused by brownrot.
J A Drysdale
Soft rot decay of Eucalyptus maculata Hook. in different soils from Queensland, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 1113
In the present work, different Queensland soils were chosen and their gross effects on the decay of treated and untreated Eucalyptus maculata examined. The soils were also amended with various levels of phosphate to study the response of the wood decay mycota to an increasing supply of this nutrient. Phosphate amendment was chosen because of the wide-scale use of superphosphate on Queensland soils and the importance of inorganic phosphate in the carbohydrate metabolism of microorganisms.
L E Leightley, I W Russell
A study of decay type variability in variously treated Fagus sylvatica and Pinus radiata field test stakes exposed at a vineyard for 30 - 45 months
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10271
Pinus radiata test stakes were treated with 10 kg/m3 of CCA plus 4 lower retentions in a geometric series of 1.5. Fagus sylvatica was treated with 15 kg/m3 and 2 lower retentions. Both timber species were also treated with equivalent retentions of various new generation preservatives (P. radiata was also treated with creosote). Whilst these stakes were exposed at 11 sites in New Zealand (NZ) and 2 in Queensland Australia, this paper reports only data from a single NZ site where preservative and timber species effects on decay type were particularly pronounced. Of particular interest was the finding that copper-azole and copper-quat. treated pine was less susceptible to soft rot attack but more susceptible to attack from tunnelling bacteria, compared to CCA treated wood. Beech was not attacked by tunnelling bacteria but was attacked by an unusual type of fungal cavitation/erosion. These, and other preservative and timber species effects on decay type are discussed.
R N Wakeling, A P Singh
A study of the decay type potential of seven soils
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1539
The aim of this experiment was to determine the significance of the fungal inoculum potential and physico-chemical properties of five field trial test site soils, a garden compost known to cause white rot in copper treated fence palings, and soil from a zone between 2 and 15 centimetres from a CCA treated post with brown rot, in causing differential decay type in Pinus radiata and Poplus deltoides sapwood blocks. Two blocks of each species were buried in non-sterile soil in jars with the upper transverse face level with the soil surface. A block of the same species was placed, with the transverse face upwards, on the top of each buried block. Six replicate jars per soil type were used. A second set of jars containing 90% sterile potting compost and 10% non-sterile soil, for each of the seven types, was set up as described above. Soil moisture content was adjusted to, and maintained at, 30% of the dry weight. Decay type and weight loss was determined for each block after twenty weeks incubation at 25°C. Considerable differences of decay type and weight loss edited between the 100% and 10% soil regimes, soil type, and timber species. These differences and their significance are discussed.
R N Wakeling
The effect of extent and location of decay on strength loss in constructional timber
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30039
Radiata pine heartwood billets, 50 x 100 x 1000 mm³ were end-sealed and treated with copper-chrome-arsenate preservative (NZ Type I) to a range of retentions and penetration patterns. Cross-sections, 10 mm thick, were cut from the centre of each billet and used for determination of preservative distribution, for preservative analysis and for decay tests. The decay test consisted of laying samples on the surface of soil beds in the FRI Fungus Cellar to induce decay of untreated and sub-threshold treated regions of samples. Location and extent of decayed areas in each sample were measured and their effect on residual strength properties were calculated using a computer programme orginally developed to determine the effect of cross-sectional defects on strength properties of laminated beams. Results showed that depending on the location of the decayed area, up to 14% of the cross-section could be lost through decay without significant loss of strength and over 30% could be lost while retaining 80% residual strength and stiffness. Relationships were also established between extent of decay, preservative retention and preservative distribution to demonstrate that compliance with local timber treatment specifications did not necessarily guarantee the timber's immunity from decay.
M E Hedley, H Bier
Effect of test site, preservative and wood species on decay type Glenbervie pastoral and radiata pine forest sites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30248
Pinus radiata stakes were treated with 0.8, 1.2, 1.8, 2.7 and 4.1 kg/m3 of CCA and Fagus sylvatica with 2.7, 4.1 and 6.1 kg/m3 of CCA. Both wood species were also treated with equivalent retentions of a copper plus triazole preservative (CT) (0.89, 1.3, 2 and 3 kg/m3 of copper for pine & 2.5 and 4 for beech) and chlorothalonil plus chlorpyriphos in oil (CC) (1.4, 2.1, 3.2 and 4.8 kg/m3 of chlorothalonil for pine and 3.2 and 7.2 for beech). Furthermore, P. radiata was treated with ammoniacal copper plus a quaternary ammmonium compound (ACQ) (0.8, 1.1, 1.7 and 2.6 kg/m3 copper) and a 60/40 mixture of high temperature creosote plus oil (C) (18, 27, 41 and 61 kg/m3). Treated and untreated stakes were exposed in the ground at 13 sites in New Zealand and Australia for between 4 and 6 years. This paper reports the significance of site, timber species, preservative and its concentration and time of exposure, on extent and type of decay, at two sites in Northland, New Zealand. The two sites were adjacent (200 metres), appeared to have essentially similar clay loam soil and climate but one was pastoral and the other was situated within a radiata pine forest. Most types of decay reported in the literature, were observed in this study but other undescribed or only partially characterised types were also found. The decay types found differed between test sites, preservative and timber species. The significance of tunnelling hyphae, which often caused severe decay of wood treated with the higher retentions of various preservatives, appears much greater than the prior literature would suggest. For pine the highest retentions of CC, CT and ACQ gave at least equivalent performance to the reference standards creosote and CCA, after approximately 5 years, at both test sites. For beech CC and CT both gave superior protection to CCA, at both sites. All the preservatives tested exhibited some weaknesses in terms of resistance to the various decay types observed.
R N Wakeling
Decay and termite resistance of wood treated with boron-containing quaternary ammonia compound, didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) incorporated with acryl-silicon type resin
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30334
This study evaluates the decay and termite resistance of surface-treated wood with didecyl dimethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DBF) incorporated with acryl-silicon type resin emulsion. DBF is a quaternary ammonia compound and contains boric tetrafluoride (BF4-) as a counter ion in its chemical structure. In the study, DBF was incorporated with an acryl-silicon type resin to increase water-resistant of the preservative solution, and, in turn, to increase decay and termite resistance of surface-treated wood after severe weathering processes. Laboratory decay resistance tests were performed using brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris and white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Treated wood specimens were also subjected a 3-week-termite resistance tests using subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. Wood specimens surface-treated with preservative solution including 2% DBF and the resin showed decay resistance against both F. palustris and T.versicolor even after severe weathering. Results suggested that treatment with DBF at 2% or greater concentrations containing acryl-silicon type resin emulsion would protect wood used outdoors against both fungal decay and termite attack.
S N Kartal, W J Hwang, K Shinoda, Y Imamura
Dimensional stability and decay resistance of wood upon modification with some new type chemical reactants
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40028
Solid wood of home grown species can be upgraded by chemical modification with environmentally acceptable chemicals. The best kwown example of modification reaction is acetylation with acetic anhydride. A continued search for reactive chemicals other than acetic anhydride is ongoing, aiming at the improvement of technical properties of wood. This contribution deals with the results of a screening experiment of different potential chemicals for modification reactions. The following reactive chemicals were selected for the treatment of small wood blocks: glutaric anhydride wether or not in combination with epichlorohydrin; cyclohexylisocyanate; glycidylmethacrylate; propyltrimethoxysilane and sodiumperiodate. The dimensional behaviour (ASE-values; water vapour sorption) and chemical stability (hydrolysis) of modified samples at different weight add-on levels were examined. Decay resistance was tested for all modified samples against Coniophora puteana (pine) and Coriolus versicolor (beech). Esterified wood at a WPG of 25% affords the highest level of improvement to both pine and beech, with ASE-values of 50 up to 70% and low weight losses on fungal exposure, particulary for treated pine.
P Goethals, M Stevens
Method of embedding and staining of wood after biological testing to support the identification of decay type
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20131
A method for preparing wood for microscopic analysis after decay testing is described, with special regard to a novel fast simultaneous staining, which helps to identify different types of decay. The novel staining process is explained as well as the embedding of heavily decayed samples in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and picking up of sections by transparent adhesive tape. Special feature of the introduced simultaneous staining is the utilisation of the basic methine stain Basacryl Brillant Rot BG (C.I. Basic Violet 16). It is mixed with Astrablue FM in an aqueous solution without precipitation that usually occurs when other basic stains e.g. Safranine are mixed with Astrablue. So it is possible to perform a simultaneous red-blue staining quickly and easily in a single pass. This allows, for instance, to stain hand sections of specimens in the field and to examine them with a field microscope on the spot. The method proved to be successful in microscopic examinations after biological testing in soil contact of Pinus sylvestris L. and Fagus sylvatica L. untreated and modified with melamine resins. With the aid of the staining, type and proportion of decay (brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria) were identified in ministakes.
A O Rapp
A Novel Type of Multiple Cavity Attack in Wood Cell Walls of Heat-treated Timber Exposed in Seawater – Preliminary Observations
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10523
Samples of untreated and heat-treated Norway spruce and Douglas fir were submerged in Langstone Harbour, Portsmouth for 4 years at a depth of ca. 0.3 metres. The heat-treated samples had been prepared using the Plato process. Samples were initially assessed for the severity of marine borer damage and were then examined microscopically for evidence of microbial decay. Longitudinal and transverse wood sections removed from the surface of undamaged regions of heat-treated samples revealed the presence of an unusual and novel form of decay in the cell walls of tracheids. The decay pattern produced was reminiscent of Type 1. fungal soft rot attack. However the characteristic chains of cavities in the S2 cell wall layer were absent. Instead, invasion of the cell wall by fine penetration hyphae emerging from wider lumen hyphae resulted in the fine hyphae growing into the S2 region of tracheid walls horizontal to the vertical axis. Thus the fine penetration hyphae grew around the cell wall rather than adopting the helical orientation of cellulose microfibrils in the S2 layer, typical of soft rot cavity formation. Horizontal penetration hyphae appeared to traverse a quarter to one half of the cell wall circumference, producing several lateral branches at right angles. These were orientated more or less parallel to the vertical tracheid axis. Up to 15 fine lateral hyphal branches were observed both above and below the horizontal penetration hypha giving the overall appearance of a double-sided ‘comb’. The fine tunnels in the wood cell wall formed by the lateral hyphae enlarged and became wider and eventually coalesced leading to cell wall collapse. There is no evidence so far that tunnels elongate further once they have formed, or that fine proboscis hyphae emerge at the tips. Marine fungi have been isolated from the heat-treated samples, but so far re-infection of sterile, unexposed, heat-treated wood with pure fungal cultures has not reproduced the decay pattern. The micromorphology of this novel form of decay is discussed in the context of wood cell wall architecture following heat-treatment of timber.
R A Eaton, C Björdal, T Nilsson
Is Field Test Data from 20 x 20mm Stakes Reliable? Effects of Decay Hazard, Decay Type and Preservative Depletion Hazard
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20327
Effects of decay hazard, decay type and preservative depletion hazard on the performance of variously preservative treated 20 x 20 x 500 mm Radiata pine and Fagus sylvatica test stakes across 13 field test sites in New Zealand and Queensland Australia were determined. Radiata pine treated with an ammoniacal copper quaternary preservative (ACQ) (1.56% m/m a.i.) and copper chrome arsenate (CCA) (0.72% m/m a.i.) was susceptible to sudden failure at some of the sites that had a high brown rot hazard whereas pine treated with copper-azole (CuAz) (0.59% m/m a.i.) was not affected, suggesting that CuAz was particularly effective against brown rots. At the most severe brown rot sites ACQ treated pine was more susceptible than CCA and its performance in service may be compromised as a result, as previously occurred for pine treated with acid copper chromate (ACC). Based on overall performance across all sites pine treated with chlorothalonil plus chlorpyriphos (1.07% m/m a.i.) (11% mean soundness reduction (MSR)), creosote/oil treated pine (37% m/m a.i.) (14% MSR) and CuAz (15%MSR) all gave significantly better protection (5% P) than pine treated with CCA (19% MSR) and ACQ (19% MSR). The decay hazards encountered, as determined by mean soundness reduction after 6.5 years, were more severe than encountered in previous studies at some of the same sites and this was linked to differences of intra-site decay type between test plots and associated decay hazard differences. Greater decay rates encountered in this study were, in part attributed to high preservative depletion. At very wet sites, particularly those likely to have a high soil organic acid content, 20 x 20 x 500 mm stakes are probably too small for accurate interpretation of long-term durability of preservative treated wood. Knowledge of the distribution of different decay types across sites tested, coupled with associated decay hazards and preservative depletion hazard, suggested that 4 test sites of clearly defined features would enable comprehensive field testing of preservative treated wood. Selection of sites is not straightforward and requires a rudimentary knowledge of soil type, geology, vegetation and climate, or comprehensive knowledge of the decay types present. In view of the cost of maintaining test facilities, adequate multi-site testing of new wood preservatives may be achievable through cooperation between research establishments. Possibly, current test site selection criteria fall short of ensuring adequate test site parameters are incorporated and maximum cost effectiveness of testing may not always be achieved through duplication of test site parameters between sites of similar but unrecognised properties. Scope for artificial creation of intra-site decay hazard differences is discussed.
A critical view on early indicators for above ground field performance of wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20509
Above ground field tests are quite often a balancing act between the provision of realistic test conditions, reliable statistics, and acceptable long test durations. Within this study we therefore reviewed 543 data sets from above ground field tests performed at 36 different test sites in 8 countries in Australia and Europe. The main objective was to investigate possible correlations between early stages of decay and the actual service life of the specimens. Therefore native soft- and hardwoods were considered as well as modified and preservative treated timber. It was shown that the average service life of test specimens can be predicted by using the median time till failure. By this the overall test duration can be significantly reduced. The use of ‘earlier’ predictors turned out to be problematic due to high variation of field test results, which are mainly related to the wide range of moisture regimes within above ground exposure. For in ground situations, rating 4, ‘failure’, is probably a relevant level for end of service, but in particular above ground exposures the decay acceptance level might be lower e.g. in decking. Therefore lower thresholds might be considerable and will allow for further time saving when testing wood above ground, but still providing realistic exposure conditions.
C Brischke, L Meyer, G Alfredsen, P-O Flæte, L Francis, M Hansson, P Larsson Brelid, J Jermer
Decay resistance of beech wood and plywood treated with different type of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40717
In this study treatment of beech and poplar wood veneers with (PF) resin industrial scale and screening tests of nine different phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins were made. Specifically, the effect of different phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin types on the resistance of beech wood against brown- and white-rot fungi was evaluated. Criteria for selection of optimal (PF) resin were based on minimum WPG requirements to achieve equal durability class (1st durability class according to the EN 350 standard) against fungi. Therefore European beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks (15x20x50 mm³) were vacuum impregnated to various weight percent gains (WPGs) with water-soluble PF resins. Different WPG levels were achieved by using aqueous resin solutions at concentrations of 9, 18 and 27 wt %. Treated wood blocks were exposed to brown-rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum (G.t); Coniophora puteana (C.p)) and white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor (T.v); Pleurotus ostreatus (P.o)) for 16 weeks. A WPG of approximately 8–14% was necessary for beech wood blocks for a treated with the resin C, D, I and E, but approximately 16% and 27% was necessary when using other resins as B, F, G, H, respectively. Irrespective from resin the required WPG for decay resistance against brown rot fungi was approximately 50-60% lower compared to decay resistance against white rot. No effect of resin on the resistance against (G.t) decay of wood blocks was observed, resulting in resin loadings of 7–8%, whereas the required WPG for (C.p) decay suppression slightly increased from 8 up to 11%, respectively. The results suggest that the magnitude of white fungal deterioration of treated wood is strongly affected by the resin used for treatment. Resin loadings from 7% to 17% against (T.v) and from 12% to 27% against (P.o) were required. This broad range in WPG may be due to varied fungal aggressiveness, filling of the cell wall micropores (bulking) and the stiffness (pliability) of the cell wall matrix. From aforementioned, two resins D and E were selected for treatment of beech and poplar veneers on industrial scale and resistance of treated plywood against white rot fungus (T.v) was evaluated according EN 12038 standard.
V Biziks, S Bicke, H Militz
Studies into the effect of soil type and soil layer on the in-ground decay of European beech
2022 - IRG/WP 22-20681
In this study, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) specimens were exposed to three different soil types; Podsol (Podzol), Braunerde (Cambisol), and Pararendzina (Regosol), in adapted terrestrial microcosm (TMC) tests according to CEN/TS 15083-2 (2005). Soils were sampled (250 mm deep) from field sites and separated into their constituent layers to deliver three TMC setups; mineral soil layer only (“M”), mineral and organic layers (“OM”), and mineral, organic and litter layers (“LOM”), to identify the effect of each respective soil layer on wood decay. Wood specimens (5 x 10 x 100 mm³) were measured for oven-dry mass loss (MLwood) after 16 weeks of exposure, and compared to MLwood predicted using a dose-response laboratory in-ground decay model developed by Marais et al. (2021) for European beech. To deliver predicted MLwood after 16 weeks of exposure, input variables included soil water-holding capacity (WHCsoil) and soil moisture content (MCsoil) of the sampled soils’ mineral layer, as well as soil temperature (Tsoil) and exposure time. The MCsoil of TMCs were set to 95 % of the mineral soil layers’ WHCsoil. The non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare medians between groups of measured and predicted MLwood. Simple modifying factors to account for the significant differences in MLwood groups were developed and the use of which subsequently illustrated. Overall, Podsol soils delivered the highest mean measured MLwood, while Braunerde soils the lowest. Braunerde in “M” was the only group to not register a significant difference between measured and predicted MLwood groups. Soil temperature and moisture conditions still played a dominant role in the resulting wood decay, however the need for a variable describing an additional soil property was shown. The study suggests further investigation into the development of modifying factors for different soil types, where the effect of moisture- and temperature-induced components alone cannot reliably predict wood decay in soils differing from a reference, like those used in laboratory-based TMC studies.
B N Marais, S Kovacs, M Jansen, C Brischke
Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a number of new generation preservatives. Relative to other New Zealand temperate test sites and also an Australian tropical site, the New Zealand acidic soil test site was very aggressive. Correlative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to elucidate the micromorphology of this attack. Tunnels of diameter 0.2-5 µm were present throughout all layers of the cell wall, and their orientation was not related to cellulose microfibril orientation. They also showed no preference for particular cell wall layers, indicating a lignin degrading capability. CLSM images showed that living, connecting fungal hyphae were present in the cell lumina and tunnels. This type of attack was predominant in wood that was highly saturated with water whereas wood that was less moist was predominantly attacked by classical white rot. Ongoing isolation and incubation studies in conjunction with further microscopy should enable identification of the fungal species involved.
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also examined using Fenton's reagent. The enhancement of decay resistance by acetylation was revealed clearly for all cases of exposures but varying with fungal and wood species used. For a brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, the weight loss reached almost nil in all woods at 20 WPG (weight percent gain) of acetylation, after the striking decrease from 10 to 15 WPG. For a white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor, it was counted until 12-15 WPG in the perishable hardwoods used, but not in a softwood Cryptomeria japonica, even at 6 WPG. In cases of another brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and soil burial, effect of acetylation was intermediate between Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor. Anti-degradation mechanism by acetylation was discussed, from these weight loss - weight gain relationships, and the IR-and 13C-NMR spectral analyses of fungus-exposed wood.
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi
Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy creosote were less decayed than poles treated with medium-heavy creosotes. Poles treated with a light creosote were most decayed.
Questionnaire - Fungal decay types
1985 - IRG/WP 1265
JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated.
Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi
Co-operative studies on determining toxic values against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes: Progress report to May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 2339
This document reports progress on the co-operative study between nine laboratories set up following the proposals contained in Document IRG/WP/2316. Results have been received from two laboratories. Toxic values data have been established successfully using the test fungus Coniophora puteana but problems have been encountered with the other test fungi.
A F Bravery, J K Carey
On Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouzar
1986 - IRG/WP 1285
Donkioporia expansa is found more often in houses than realised until now. Virulence tests according to EN 113 show not only an attack of oak, but also of other hardwoods and even soft-woods.