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Studies on the destruction by marine borers of fishing boats along the north-eastern Black Sea coasts of Turkey
1980 - IRG/WP 451
Marine wood-boring organisms are attacking fishing boats along the northeastern coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. The damage and the intensity of attack of Teredo navalis L in fishing boats were studied.
O A Sekendiz, R Ilhan


Studies on the destruction by marine wood boring organisms of fishing boats in the Eastern Black Sea of Turkey
1977 - IRG/WP 427
The present paper concerns the problem of fishing boats which are attacked by wood boring organisms in the Black Sea of Turkey. The aims of this study are: 1) to identify the marine wood boring organisms attacking fishing boats in the Northern Black Sea of Turkey; 2) to identify the wood species that are used in boat building construction and assess their durability; 3) to assess the degree of attack of the marine wood boring organisms and to evaluate the protection methods and chemicals currently applied to the fishing boats.
R Ilhan, O A Sekendiz


Destruction of two tropical timbers by marine borers and micro-organisms in Goa waters (India)
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4176
The paper deals with the pattern of microbial attack in relation to marine borer damage of test panels of African rosewood and Brazilian jackwood exposed in Goa waters (Western India) for a period of seven months. The degradation of wood cell walls in both the timber samples occurred due to infestation of soft-rot fungi and tunnelling bacteria. African rosewood, which was severely damaged by teredinids and pholads, was also heavily degraded by both soft-rot fungi and tunnelling bacteria. In contrast, Brazilian jackwood, which effectively resisted teredinids and was only mildly attacked by pholads, was also less severely degraded by the above microorganisms. Thus, the study demonstrates a close parallel between the activity of marine borers and wood-degrading microorganisms present in the cell walls of the wood samples examined.
L N Santhakumaran, A P Singh


Observations on the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-borers with special reference to the West Coast
1981 - IRG/WP 468
The paper highlights the economic importance of the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-destroying agencies. The annual loss involved is to the extent of over 94 million rupees. Thirty-nine spectes and one variety of woodborer have so far been recorded from India, of which Bankia campanellata, Bankia carinata, Bankia rochi, Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo clappi, Teredo furcifera, Nausitora hedleyi, Martesia striata, Sphaeroma terebrans, and Sphaeroma annandalei are widely distributed and quite destructive. Of the 59 timber species used in the construction of fishing craft, all are quickly damaged by these pests. Timber species which are in good demand for boat building are Tectona grandis, Artocarpus hirsutus, Calophyllum ionophyllum, Hopea parviflora, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Mangifera indica, Melia composita, Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Pterocarpus marsupium, Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabarica, Terminalia alata, Terminalia paniculata, Tetrameles nudiflora and Xylia xylocarpa. Materials used for the indigenous methods of preservation of boats have been included together with details of special preparations. Crude fish oil, cashew nut shell oil, poon seed oil, neem seed oil, crude engine oil, red-ochre, lime plaster, animal fat, castor oil, ground nut oil, coal tar, karanjel oil and 'chandrus' constitute a series ingredients, used either alone or in various combinations. The indigenous preservative formulations have no particular efficacy to prevent biodeterioration, with the result the problem persists much to the disadvantage of the fishing industry.
L N Santhakumaran, J C Jain


Destruction of wood and mangrove vegetation by marine borers in Goutami-Godavari estuary, east coast of India
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10021
This paper deals with the nature and extent of destruction caused by marine boring organisms to wood and mangrove vegetation in the Goutami-Godavari estuary along the east coast of India. Fifteen species, comprising of 11 teredinids, 1 pholad and 3 sphaeromatids were recorded from the area. For the first time, seasonality of recruitment, abundance and growth were studied for important species occurring at 2 Stations in port Kakinada, a fast developing intermediate port located in the estuarine system. Bankia carinata (Gray) and Bankia campanellata, Moll and Roch are dominant species at Station I, where low and fluctuating salinity conditions prevail. At Station II, where more stable conditions exist, Teredo furcifera Von Martens, Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) and Martesia striata (Linne) are important. In the mangrove area (of approx. 30,000 ha), damage is mainly caused by Dicyathifer manni (Wright), Nototeredo edax (Hedley), Lyrodus pedicellatus; Bankia campanellata and Sphaeroma annandalei Stebbing. Factors, especially salinity, which play a significant role affecting abundance and distribution of these organisms are discussed.
K S Rao, L N Santhakumaran, M Balaji, V V Srinivasan


Observations on the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-borers with special reference to the West Coast
1981 - IRG/WP 472
The paper highlights the economic importance of the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-destroying agencies. The annual loss involved is to the extent of over 94 million rupees. Thirty-nine spectes and one variety of woodborer have so far been recorded from India, of which Bankia campanellata, Bankia carinata, Bankia rochi, Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo clappi, Teredo furcifera, Nausitora hedleyi, Martesia striata, Sphaeroma terebrans, and Sphaeroma annandalei are widely distributed and quite destructive. Of the 59 timber species used in the construction of fishing craft, all are quickly damaged by these pests. Timber species which are in good demand for boat building are Tectona grandis, Artocarpus hirsutus, Calophyllum ionophyllum, Hopea parviflora, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Mangifera indica, Melia composita, Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Pterocarpus marsupium, Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabarica, Terminalia alata, Terminalia paniculata, Tetrameles nudiflora and Xylia xylocarpa. Materials used for the indigenous methods of preservation of boats have been included together with details of special preparations. Crude fish oil, cashew nut shell oil, poon seed oil, neem seed oil, crude engine oil, red-ochre, lime plaster, animal fat, castor oil, ground nut oil, coal tar, karanjel oil and 'chandrus' constitute a series ingredients, used either alone or in various combinations. The indigenous preservative formulations have no particular efficacy to prevent biodeterioration, with the result the problem persists much to the disadvantage of the fishing industry.
L N Santhakumaran, J C Jain