IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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An approach to testing the preventive effectiveness of preservative treatments for wooden joinery
1981 - IRG/WP 2156
The ecological sequence established in field trial samples exposed out of ground contact has shown the need for outdoor exposure in testing potential joinery preservative pretreatments. A system of exposure of L-joint units is proposed. Data obtained by examining samples destructively show promise as the basis for predicting service life after relatively short exposure periods (within 2 years).
J K Carey, A F Bravery, J G Savory

Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examination. These tests were usually performed with a defined maximum load or deflection path regardless of the remaining degree of elasticity of the test specimens. Recent studies at the BAM revealed that by modifying the method, i.e. by restricting the applied load to the non-destructive interval for each individual test specimen, the calculated modulus of elasticity (MOE) reflect the changing strength properties caused by biological deterioration and allow within a relatively short time valuable predictions on the service life of the treated timber in soil contact.
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph

Detection of feeding behaviour of termites using AE monitoring
1991 - IRG/WP 1514
Using acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, the feeding activity of the termite inhabiting a wood specimen was investigated. The amplitude and the rate of AE from the specimen of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was larger than that of Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. The AE event rate was higher in the specimen with soldiers than without soldiers. The AE event rate decreased according to the resistance of wood specimens against termite attack.
Y Imamura, M Tokoro, M Owada, Y Fujii, M Noguchi

E.R.C. Pole Tester
1982 - IRG/WP 2190
Operating instructions for the ECRC pole-strength tester 120kNm 'PEST'.
G Elcock

Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Sampling after 8 months exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 2208
It was anticipated in Document No IRG/WP/2192 that exposure of L-joints by the European co-operators would take place on 1 April 1983. Where L-joints were exposed at this time, sampling after 8 months exposure is due on 1 December 1983. The present document draws attention to relevant previous documents which describe the sampling methods to be adopted. It also provides Tables for recording the results.
J K Carey, A F Bravery

Introduction to a field demonstration of various instruments and methods for the detection of defects in poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2228
H Friis-Hansen

Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Progress report to March 1988
1988 - IRG/WP 2315
Further sets of data received from CTFT (France), BAM (Germany) and PRL (UK) after 46-48 months exposure and STU (Sweden) after 22 months exposure are presented and discussed in conjunction with data reported previously. Colonisation and attack of the L-joints has progressed with increasing exposure period. The new data are generally in agreement with those presented previously and the major difference between Institutes continues to be one of rate of colonisation rather than any relative difference in performance of the treatments. Overall 0.5% TnBTO 1 min dip treatment is providing least protection followed by 1.0% TnBTO 1 min dip treatment. The double vacuum treatments continue to provide better protection than the dip treatments; there are now indications that 0.5% TnBTO double vacuum treatment is less effective than 1.0% TnBTO.
J K Carey, A F Bravery

Non-destructive testing for the detection of defects in poles (letter to members of Sub-group 5 of WG II)
1982 - IRG/WP 2171
IRG Secretariat

Report on a field demonstration of methods for detecting defects in wood poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2232
P I Morris, H Friis-Hansen

Study of the natural durability and impregnability of a metropolitan species of tree
1986 - IRG/WP 2261
The current and predictable evolution of construction timber supply conditions is motivating research for a more efficient utilization of native woods. It is now important to determine statistically reliable impregnability values on a national scale, and to evaluate the natural durability of woods recently introduced in France, or economically important native woods.
M E Mathieu

A new approach to the maintenance of wooden railway sleepers. (Second report)
1988 - IRG/WP 3492
The microenvironment and micro-ecology of wooden railway sleepers was investigated to assess their condition to determine the necessary treatment, repair and replacement criteria. In this report the efficacy of the secondary preservative treatment with solid boron rods is discussed and the development of an in-situ, nondestructive test method based on the creation and assessment of structural dynamic vibrations is described.
W Beauford, P I Morris, A M Brown, D J Dickinson

The Pilodyn instrument as a non-destructive tester of the shock resistance of wood
1978 - IRG/WP 2107
A new non-destructive shock resistance tester, the PILODYN, has been developed. The instrument measures the fracture surface area created by a constant amount of energy. It operates by shooting a blunt pin into wood by an exact amount of energy. The penetration depth is read on a scale. A wide field of application is open to a non-destructive shock resistance tester such as: 1) assessment of the residual strength of poles decaying from the outside; 2) laboratory evaluation of biodeteriorated wood; 3) the state of wood foundations and woody pilework; 4) degree of chemical decomposition of wood; 5) degree of thermal decomposition of wood; 6) measurement of the density (strength) of standing trees; 7) measurement of the density (strength) of sawn timber; 8) production control of wood based panel boards. A review of existing test results as well as new results are presented containing items 1, 6 and 7. An evaluation of the potential of the PILODYN is attempted.
P Hoffmeyer

The use of the Pilodyn for detecting soft-rot decay in CCA treated eucalypt poles
1986 - IRG/WP 2251
A 6 Joule Pilodyn unit with 2.5 mm diameter pin was used to inspect CCA treated eucalypt poles, suspected of suffering groundline soft-rot decay. Pole plugs were removed at the inspection region and the amount of soft-rot decay present determined microscopically. High correlation (R² = 0.73) was obtained between the amount of soft-rot and Pilodyn pin penetration. The Pilodyn is recommended as a useful instrument for inspecting eucalypt poles.
L E Leightley, G A Willoughby

A case for adopting a standardised protocol of field and laboratory bioassays to evaluate a potential soil termiticide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20275
The rationale for adopting a new approach to the field testing of potential soil termiticides is advocated on the grounds that current testing methods are limited to termite bioassays and do not address quantitatively the persistence and bioavailability of soil termiticides to foraging subterranean termites over time and in different soil types. Furthermore, the present testing regimes assume field situations of uniform high termite hazard across field sites. Our testing procedures require the random sampling of soil cores from test soil pads (500 x 500 mm) at several geographically different locations. The soil cores from treated and untreated soil pads are returned to the laboratory and the soil residues in half of the samples examined for each year of test by gas chromatography. The bioavailability of termiticide residues in the remaining soil samples are evaluated by termite bioassays using the field collected subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Both tunnelling distance and mortality are used as indicators of termiticide activity and availability. This paper compares the traditional soil test methods with our new approach, which addresses the problems of security with longevity of test, variability of termite hazard levels at different field sites, and a practical method for managing variables in assessing potential soil termiticides. Importantly, this technique prevents the direct destruction of natural populations of subterranean termites or the indirect contamination by contact from soil residues of termiticides applied in and around active termite colonies.
J R J French, B M Ahmed

The effect of creosote and Basilit on the boards of 4 wood species against destructive fungi in Northern Iran
1989 - IRG/WP 3555
The results of the experiments conducted on the boards of maple, hornbeam, alder and beech, show that under the humid and moderate climate condition of Northern Iran, after 30 months, the witness samples were about 10% destructed by fungi, especially by Schyzophyllum commune and Coriolus versicolor. The impregnated samples by Creosote Basilite using Rueping and Bethell methods, were quite intact. There was no difference between these two chemicals. Among destructed boards, maple and hornbeam containing the most sugar and starch materials are more senitive than beech and alder. Until 50% destruction of witness samples, the experiments will follow up.
D Parsapajouh

Methods of assessing decay in poles in service with the Pilodyn wood tester
1978 - IRG/WP 2107 A
H Friis-Hansen

The secondary treatment of creosoted electricity poles with fused boron rods
1988 - IRG/WP 3485
After preliminary trials selected poles were treated at the groundline with fused boron rods. Early samplings showed that movement was slow in the dry heartwood but after six years the distributions obtained indicate that the system has merit for the treatment of the heartwood of poles in service.
D J Dickinson, P I Morris, B Calver

A simple non-destructive means of testing poles in situ
1982 - IRG/WP 2167

Report of activity of CEN/TC 38: Test Methods for Wood Preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 2287
G Castan

Rapport sur l'activité du CEN/TC 38 "Méthodes d'essais des produits de préservation du bois"
1982 - IRG/WP 2188
M Pottevin

Examination of the Pilodyn as a non-destructive test method for detecting decay in CCA treated eucalypt poles
1982 - IRG/WP 2177
Below groundline condition of 274 CCA treated eucalypt poles comprising 13 different species was examined using 6 and 12 Joule Pilodyn units with 2 and 2.5 mm diameter pins. The data obtained was used to calculate regressions of density on pin penetration. A decrease in density was accompanied by an increase in pin penetration. The best correlation was found using the 6 Joule, 60 x 2.5 mm² diameter pin. The results are discussed with comments on future work with the Pilodyn.
L E Leightley

Detection of termite attack in wood using AE monitoring
1990 - IRG/WP 2355
An acoustic emission (AE) monitoring method for detecting termite activity in wood was applied to lumber of 3 by 3 cm to 10 by 10 cm square, 1 m long. Furthermore, the propagation of AEs due to the feeding activities of termites in the specimens and the locations of AE sources were analyzed. Also discussed was the feasibility of the method applied to posts out in the field of subterranean termites. The results obtained from laboratory and field tests suggest that AE monitoring could be an effective non-destructive method to detect feeding activity of termites even in the incipient stages of the termite attack in wood.
Y Fujii, M Owada, M Noguchi, Y Imamura, M Tokoro

Kinetic of the wood degradation produced by wood decay fung
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20016
The degradation degree of a wooden structure has a direct influence on its loss of mechanical strength. It's necessary to deepen in non destructive techniques which permit to extrapolate the results obtained in laboratory to structural timber used in the building's construction. This work studies the relationship existing between the pulse velocity of ultrasonic waves and the weight loss suffered by samples of two different wood species (Pinus sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica) exposed to attack of two fungi representatives of white rot and brown rot (Coriolus versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum) during the time (1 to 5 months). The results demonstrate that decay produces a progressive decreasing of ultrasonic velocities that runs in direct relation to weight loss.
M T De Troya, A M Navarrete, A Sanchez, V Bucur

Summarized comparison of four techniques for detecting defects in poles
1979 - IRG/WP 2126
Since our discussions in open session of Working Group II at Peebles, a number of workers in Australia have collaborated in comparing the efficacy of X-ray, sonic testing, or resistivity measurements for detecting internal defects in poles. The purpose of this circular is to draw to your attention some of the results, in summary form. No attempt has been made to compare techniques. More detailed accounts may be published at some future time by the individual workers concerned. Forty condemned eucalyptus telegraph poles were assessed by traditional inspection methods (hammer sounding and boring), X-ray scanning, Resotest Pole-Check sonic tester, and Shigometer resistivity technique. The work was planned and carried out by Messrs Johnstone and Gardner (Forest Commission of N.S.W., Wood Technology and Forest Research Division), Messrs McKitterick and Seaman (Telecom Australia) and Dr. Thornton of this Division who collaborated in examining 22 of the poles with the Shigometer. The results are summarised in the Table and some of the more interesting poles are shown in the figures. Unfortunately, details of the X ray scanning are not available for dissemination at this stage and therefore they have been omitted from the Table. For interpretation of the data obtained with the Shigometer, Dr. Thornton has combined the instrument's readings with application of it's probe to detect sound wood, i.e. less than 40 mm of sound wood remaining together with readings which suggest the presence of internal defects results in the pole being condemned. Note also in the case of the Resotest Pole-Check a suspect reading means that the poles should be re-assessed by traditional boring and sampling. Dr. Thornton and I wish to stress that we believe the instruments used in this study are valuable as aids to the linesman/pole inspector; we consider that no system should be put forward as the sole indicator of whether a pole has failed or not.
H Greaves

Analysis of volatile emissions as an aid in the diagnosis of dry rot
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2393
The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans was grown in pure culture on malt extract and on sapwood of pine. The volatile compounds emitted from the cultures were determined by diffusion sampling on tubes filled with Tenax TA, thermal desorption and gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry in order to find markers for attack of the fungus.
J Bjurman, J Kristensson

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