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Wood preservation in the Australian beekeeping industry
1988 - IRG/WP 3473
This paper reports the results of a survey of Australian commercial beekeepers working 200 or more hives in June/July 1985. Nine hundred and forty seven apiarists were asked to participate and to provide information on their wood preservation methods, painting procedures and maintenance of bee boxes. Three hundred and eighty-four apiarists returned completed questionnaires (41%). The main wood preservatives used are copper naphthenate solutions (45%), linseed oil (8%), copper chromated arsenate (3%), hot wax (9%), copper naphthenate solution in linseed oil (3%), linseed oil/wax mixtures (3%) and paint (23%). The majority of apiarists (96%) paint treated bee hives, but there is considerable variation in wood preservative treatment procedures and paint application. Most wood preservative treatments (95%) are of the 'do-it-yourself' variety, radiata pine being the most utilized timber. The bottom boards of bee hives are considered the most susceptible to wood decay and subterranean termite damage, as are cleats, stands or any wood in ground contact.
P J Robinson, J R J French
The implementation of restrictions on the use of arsenic and chromium based wood preservatives in Sweden
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50062
In 1992 the Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate introduced restrictions on the use of wood treated with arsenic and/or chromium based wood preservatives. Such wood is now in principle only allowed for use in ground contact or in water. These restrictions have had considerable influence on the use of wood preservatives for sawn timber for the Swedish domestic market. Thus only 35% of the preservative treated sawn timber for the domestic market was treated with CCAs in 1994 compared with as much as 85% in 1991. Use of arsenic and chromium free preservatives resulted in a share of more than 50% in 1994 for treated sawn timber for the Swedish domestic market.
J Jermer, M-L Edlund, K Nilsson
Domestic wood preservation - Remedial treatments in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 3128
Domestic construction in Australia relies heavily upon timber. Because of availability, local conditions and building practices, the timbers and other materials employed vary considerably between the States. In recent years, the timber floor has given way to 'raft construction' (concrete slab-on-ground). Not surprisingly, there is a tendency in each State to use local timbers for building. Some 30-odd native species have been regularly milled for building purposes and, if plantation-grown Pinus radiata may be counted as a 'native' species, the timbers span a very wide range of properties. Species include the dense, strong, durable eucalypts (e.g. Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus microcorys, Eucalyptus maculata) through the lighter, less durable species of that genus (Eucalyptus pilularis, Eucalyptus grandis) to the 'ash group' (Eucalyptus obliqua, Eucalyptus regnans etc). In building, particularly for flooring, substantial quantitites of native conifers have been used. Notable amongst these are Agathis palmerstonii, Araucaria cunninghamii and Callitris spp. which are common in Queensland and New South Wales. In Tasmania, Huon pine (Dacrydium franklinii) makes a superb flooring. Between the wars, common imported timbers for building purposes in the southern States were Baltic pine (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies) for linings, sheathing and flooring; Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) for structural purposes and framing; redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata) for joinery and some linings, and finishing timbers. In the post-war years, there has been a notable rise in the importation of Malaysian timbers and timbers from the Pacific region, particularly the merantis (Shorea spp.). Australia spans a wide range of climatic environments, from the humid tropics in the north to the wet temperature regions of Tasmania in the south; from the treeless highlands in the Australian Alps to the waterless deserts of the interior. Within each of these regions timber in service is at risk from fungal decay or the attack of wood-eating insects. In the humid tropical regions the hazard from fungi is generally much higher than in the dry interior. Throughout the continent subterranean termites are a major hazard with few areas, apart from Tasmania, being free from them. Equally ubiquitous is the hazard from Lyctus and related powderpost borers with the Anobiid borers as an added hazard in those regions where climatic conditions do not limit their reproduction.
J Beesley, H Greaves