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The influence of timber species and preservative treatment on spore germination of some wood-destroying Basidiomycetes
1988 - IRG/WP 2300
Basidiospores from six wood decay fungi exhibited varying germination rates on untreated softwood and hardwood blocks. Germination inhibition of all test fungi was recorded on pine sapwood. No preference for a certain timber species by a particular fungus was evident. Whereas almost complete inhibition of germination occurred on wood treated with a quarternary-ammonium based wood preservative, most fungi germinated successfully on wood treated with a boron based preservative. Further work is necessary to determine whether a reliable preservative screening using spore germination tests as criteria can be developed.
B M Hegarty, G Buchwald

On Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouzar
1986 - IRG/WP 1285
Donkioporia expansa is found more often in houses than realised until now. Virulence tests according to EN 113 show not only an attack of oak, but also of other hardwoods and even soft-woods.
G Buchwald

Laboratory culturing and decay testing with Physisporinus vitreus and Donkioporia expansa orginating from identical cooling tower environments show major differences
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10184
Both Basidiomycete fungi Physisporinus vitreus (Pers.:Fr.) P. Karst. and Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouz. were isolated from identical cooling tower environments. Azobé heartwood (Lophira alata), a very durable tropical wood species was totally deteriorated in cooling towers in a similar way by both fungi. First attempts to culture Physisporinus vitreus in laboratory circumstances showed a need for climatic conditions with higher temperatures and higher relative humidity compared to standard conditions known for most Basidiomycete fungi. Moreover there is a supplementary need to alter the acidity of the malt-agar medium and to add a protein nitrogen source like pepton. Identical culturing conditions were supposed for the Donkioporia expansa isolate. However the alteration in acidity is not beneficial for the growth of this cooling tower fungus. High mass loss figures up to 50% were recorded for non-durable wood species inducing wood moisture contents of over 150%, but only a slight growth stimulation on azobé could be observed under laboratory conditions.
J Van Acker, M Stevens

Preliminary results of investigations on screening test of chemical compounds suitable for the preservation of lignocellulosic materials against biodeterioration
1976 - IRG/WP 262
This paper investigates the possibilities of reducing the time needed for the determination of the effectiveness of chemical compounds from the point of view of their eventual application to lignocellulosic materials for preservation against decay and soft-rot.
K Lutomski, S S Neyman

Highly virulent wood-rotting Basidiomycetes in cooling tower timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10125
Over the past ten years most industrial cooling towers changed their water treatment systems in order to meet environmental requirements. Since this alterations wood rot attack has been reported more frequently. Several Basidiomycete fungi were isolated and determined. Amongst the most important ones are strains of Physisporinus vitreus (Pers.:Fr.) P. Karst., Phellinus contiguus (Fr.) Pat. and Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouz.. In situ total deterioration has been reported of highly durable wood species like azobe (Lophira alata), bangkirai (Shorea leavis) and Californian redwood (Seqouia sempervirens) and of CCA-treated softwood, e.g. Douglas fir. The Donkioporia strain was only recently isolated while on lab-scale research is ongoing to stimulate the growth of Phellinus. The growth under laboratory conditions is not evident for these fungi and different parameters affecting growth were investigated. After altering the malt-agar as medium and improving climatic conditions fungal growth of Physisporinus in laboratory conditions on durable wood has been succesful already. Some preliminary results related to the changes in water treatment are discussed.
J Van Acker, M Stevens, V Rijckaert

Soft rot test of copper/chrome/arsenic treated heartwood of three Malaysian timbers
1991 - IRG/WP 2381
Standardized heartwood blocks of kempas (Koompassia malaccensis), keruing (Dipterocarpus sp.) and tualang (Koompassia excelsa) were impregnated with 0 to 6.3% (w/v) CCA and challenged to decay by a mixed inocula of Chaetomium globosum, Glenospora graphii, Humicola grisea, Petriella setifera and Trichurus spiralis in a containerized vermiculite-burial decay system according to draft CEN/TC 38 WG 4. A similar burial test using unsterile garden soil was included for comparison. The results of a preliminary assessment of a 12 w experiment were recorded (IRG/WP/2354). Due to low mass losses and final block moisture contents after the standard 12 w incubation, the experiments were resumed with the same samples and the above outlined culture conditions. Untreated European beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) was included as reference species. The experiments continued until beech samples reached 25% mass loss in soil-burial test (36 w). Final results are presented and the adaptation of draft EN soft rot test for treated tropical hardwoods are discussed.
A H H Wong, R-D Peek

Termite resistance of Malaysian and exotic woods with plantation potential: Laboratory evaluation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10280
The resistance of selected Malaysian woods to attack by the representative aggressive subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) was evaluated in four-week, no-choice laboratory tests. This is part of an ongoing effort between the Forest Research Institute Malaysia and the University of Hawaii to document the termite resistance of Malaysian timber species of potential value in plantation forestry. Several of these tree genera also occur in Hawaii, or could potentially be of value as well in forestry efforts in the Hawaiian islands. Species included in the present report are: acacia (Acacia mangium), batai (Albizia falcataria), casuarina pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), Araucarian pine (Araucaria cunninghamii), sentang (Azadirachta excelsa), both Malaysian-grown and Burmese-grown teak (Tectona grandis), kempas (Koompassia malaccensis), tualang (Koompassia excelsa), Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis). Of these, Burmese teak, kempas, tualang, and casuarina pine proved most resistant to termite attack. Malaysian teak and sentang demonstrated somewhat less, but still significant termite resistance. Sentang is a relatively pest-free tree of interest for plantation forestry, and was also quite toxic to termites. The remaining tree species were very susceptible to termite attack, and would require protection in the field and treatment of the resulting wood products. Correlation of these laboratory results with data from field studies in Malaysia will provide a comprehensive profile of the termite resistance of these timbers.
J K Grace, A A H Wong, C H M Tome

The comparative resistance to fungi of the wood munika (Pinus heldreichii Christ.), fir (Abies alba Mill.) and spruce (Picea excelsa Poir.) compared with Pinus sylvestris L. and some physical and mechanical characteristics of munika
1981 - IRG/WP 1129
The munika (Pinus heldreichii Christ.) is situated primarily in the Balkans, and partially in the south of the Apenine peninsula. As an endemic species, with a very little annual increment, it has not been used enough as a timber for mechanical conversion up till now, although the oldest trees can grow to 27 m in height, with a diameter at breast height of about 60 cm. According to data of many Balkan authors, the wood of munika can be classified as a very durable wood and resistant against almost every damaging factor, because some objects, which had been made from munika heartwood, have been in use for almost 300 years. During our research on the comparative resistance to fungi of munika wood, which was performed according to the Yugoslavian standard (JUS D A1.058), it was concluded that: -- against Serpula lacrymans, the sapwood of munika was more resistant than Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood, because the weight loss after four months, was less in the first instance (16.7% : 20%). The heartwood of munika was practically fully resistant (the weight loss was only 0.6%). -- against Coniophora puteana, the sapwood of munika had less resistance than Scots pine sapwood (the ratio of the weight losses was 39.6% : 22.4%), while the munika heartwood was also fully resistant (weight loss was 0.7%). -- comparing munika sapwood's resistance to the above-mentioned fungi, it is obvious that Coniophora puteana: can destroy it easier and faster. It follows also that it has a different comparative resistance than that of Scots pine sapwood. Against Serpula lacrymans it had about 76.8% less activity. -- the heartwood of munika was much more resistant to the test fungi, what can be seen from the percentage weight loss. Contrasted with Scots pine heartwood, the resistance of munika heartwood to Serpula lacrymans according to weight loss was about 10 times greater, and Coniophora puteana about 6.7 times greater. -- the resistance of munika heartwood compared to Scots pine heart wood, under the activity of the above-mentioned fungi was greater for approximately the same percentages 89.8% and 85.0%. From these results, we can conclude that the heartwood of munika is very resistant against the decay fungi (although this is not the case with its sapwood), and this is why this species can be classified in the group of the most resistant wood species. The research showed that the aforesaid characteristics were the result of the wood containing resin materials and aromatic oils. Its resistance to fungi, as well as data about certain physical and mechanical properties, primarily of its heartwood, have proved discoveries that munika can last as long as 200 years and in some specific instances for over 300 years.
M Petrovic, M Miric

Alternative timbers to Iroko (Milicia excelsa) for various end-uses: Ghana’s offer
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10518
There are hundreds of timber species indigenous to Ghana and several exotic species have been extensively planted. The timber industry in Ghana is very important to the country’s economy. Despite its small size relative to the world trade in timber products, it has the potential to be a driving force in the development of the Ghanaian economy. The industry is currently going through a period of change and restructuring which is largely brought about by the need to address the issues of a reducing resource and to use the available resource more efficiently and to greater economic benefit by promoting the lesser used species as alternatives to the over-exploited primary species and also by developing the tertiary processing sector. Iroko (Milicia excelsa) is one of the primary species currently facing extinction and Dahoma (Piptadanistrum africanus), Ekki (Lophira elata), Kusia (Nauclea diderrichii) and Papao (Afzelia bella) are lesser-used species being promoted as good alternatives to Iroko for various end uses. Properties (mechanical, biological) and volumes of these species are compared to those of Iroko.
S A Amartey, Zeen Huang, A Attah

The treatability of five Indonesian wood species with BFCA preservative
1987 - IRG/WP 3428
This paper deals with a preliminary study on the treatability of five Indonesian wood species, i.e. Altingia excelsa (AE), Rhodoleria teysmanii (CA), Litsea odorivera (LO), Schima wallichii (SW) and Cratoxylon arborescens (CA). Wood samples measuring 4 x 4 x 100 cm³ were dipped into BFCA preservative solution for about 30 seconds. Preservative penetration and the surface area of treated zone were observed after 2, 4 and 6 weeks diffusion storage. The results reveal that the average preservative penetration for CA, LO, SW, AE and RT are respectively 14.32 mm, 7.83 mm, 6.82 mm, 6.59 mm and 5.22 mm.
Nana Supriana, T K Waluyo

rDNA-ITS sequence of Serpula lacrymans and other important indoor rot fungi and taxon-specific priming PCR for their detection
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10298
Taxon-specific priming polymerase chain reaction (TSPP) is a powerful molecular tool for fungal diagnosis. For its application to indoor rot fungi, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the main fungal species causing wood rot in European buildings was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ITS region was sequenced. The complete sequences are presented. From base sequence divergency among the fungi, species-specific oligonucleotide primers were designed for TSPP. These marker molecules were suitable for the differential diagnosis of the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, the wild merulius, S. himantioides, the oak polypore, Donkioporia expansa, the brown cellar fungus, Coniophora puteana, the broad-spored white polypore, Antrodia vaillantii, the sap polypore, Tyromyces placenta, and the yellow-red gill polypore, Gloeophyllum sepiarium. Each specific marker identified isolates of its respective target species. Cross reaction with 'foreign' fungi was the exception. Species identification from unknown field samples from rot damage in buildings is also possible, because DNA from contaminating organisms does not response to the specific primers. Our variant of the technique is fast, because no preceding fungal pure cultures, no special DNA extraction/purification, and no restriction by endonucleases are necessary.
O Schmidt, U Moreth

An aquaria test of the natural resistance against marine borers of some commercial timbers available in Australia
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10145
The natural resistance of the heartwood of 22 different timbers grown or commercially available in Australia was examined. Radiata pine sapwood both untreated, and treated with 5.4 kg/m³ CCA salt, was included for comparison. Small timber blocks were exposed for one year in tanks containing either Limnoria tripunctata or Lyrodus pedicellatus. Four softwood species tested were heavily attacked and non resistant: radiata pine sapwood, Douglas fir, Huon pine and King William Pine. The latter two species are moderately durable in ground contact. Both white and black cypress pine were lightly attacked. Most hardwoods examined that are durable on land, also performed well in the aquaria, although none were immune from marine borer attack. Blocks in aquaria with Lyrodus pedicellatus were generally more decayed by marine microorganisms than blocks placed with Limnoria tripunctata. Limnoria is able to leave its burrow, and probably grazes on surface mycelia.
L J Cookson

Soft rot test of copper/chrome/arsenic treated heartwood of three Malaysian timbers by the vermiculite-burial method. (+ correction document of 25 July 1990)
1990 - IRG/WP 2354
Heartwood of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated kempas (Koompassia malaccensis), tualang (Koompassia excelsa) and keruing (Dipterocarpus spec.) was found to be susceptible to soft rot in recent pole surveys. Standardized heartwood blocks were impregnated with 0 to 6.3% (w/v) CCA and challenged to decay for twelve weeks by a mixed inocula of Chaetomium globosum, Glenospora graphii, Humicula grisea, Petriella setifera and Trichurus spiralis in containerized vermiculite-burial decay system. Fixation of CCA in wood immediately following impregnation took place by steaming (110°C, 1 h) or by slow drying (4 w), and half of both were leached (CEN 84). A similar burial test using soil was included for comparison. Average% mass loss (ML) in treated keruing was generally <3% with no clear differentiation among CAA levels, methods of fixation with or without leaching and decay methods. A relatively gradual-to-abrupt increase in resistance with higher levels of CCA was found for kempas and tualang, where average ML of the untreated samples for each combination of fixation/leaching was between 5 and 9% (inoculated vermiculite) or 3% (unsterile soil) with negligible decay at concentrations of about 2% CCA and above. The suitability of such soft rot tests with treated heartwood is discussed.
R-D Peek, A H H Wong