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Effects of steaming heat treatment of wood on the stimulation of termite feeding
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10212
At the 26th IRG conference, we reported that steamed Japanese larch heartwood samples were suffered a serious attack by subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus both in choice and no-choice feeding tests. This is possibly caused by the yield of termites stimulants in the wood samples resulting from the steaming process. Since the steaming heat treatment has often been applied to other several timber species for their drying, dimensional stabilisation, etc., attention should be paid to them on the stimulant effects of this treatment on termite attack. This paper deals with the results of choice and no choice feeding tests of termites using steamed or dry-heated samples of wood for commercial use in Japan. Some steamed wood species were heavily attacked by C. formosanus or Reticulitermes speratus while all dry-heated samples were not attacked more than unheated controls.
S Doi, Y Kurimoto, M Takahashi, T Yoshimura

Laboratory tests on the residual effects of pyrethroids against termites thirteen years after application
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30056
This paper is in continuation to a series of articles published on the work being developed in Brazil regarding the feasibility of using photostabl synthetic pyrethroids against termites. Tests were carried out to compare the efficacy of five synthetic pyrethroids with the traditional organo-chlorinated pesticide, chlordane. Wooden blocks were impregnated with alcohol-based solutions of the above-mentioned products at four different concentrations, and 13 years later these blocks were exposed to dry-wood termites. Results of these tests showed that Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin and Fenvalerate were still effective after this period of time.
A M F Oliveira

Working Group I Sub-group 5 'Insects in dry wood'. Plan for data sheets
1982 - IRG/WP 1173
S Cymorek

Insects in dry wood (other than termites)
1977 - IRG/WP 153
S Cymorek

Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6.4 kg/m3 (0.4 pcf), coupled with complete termite mortality, demonstrates that the mode of action of CCA treatments relies upon toxicity rather than having any repellent effects against termites.
J K Grace

Working Group I 'Biological Problems' Sub-group 'Insects in dry wood (other than termites)', Scope of work
1976 - IRG/WP 152
S Cymorek

On the problem "House Longhorn Beetle" in hardwoods and an aid to distinguish between Hylotrypes bajulus and Hesperophanes cinereus larvae
1981 - IRG/WP 1141
S Cymorek

Changed susceptibility of the chemically and thermally degraded spruce wood to its attack by the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10322
In buildings, some intentional or unintended situations can occur at which some wood products are exposed to aggressive chemicals and also to higher temperatures. Occasional activity of fungi on such pre-attacked wood products can be either higher or lower. This paper deals with changes in the susceptibility of spruce wood (Picea abies L. Karst.) to attack by the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans, in such situations, when the wood samples 8.5x8.5x120 mm3 (RxTxL) were first pre-treated with 1% water solutions of selected acids (H2SO4, CH3COOH), bases (NaOH, NH4OH) or oxidizing agent (H2O2), or they were also exposed to a higher temperature (190°C/3h). The activity of S. lacrymans was totally restricted only in one situation, if the wood was pre-treated with sulphuric acid and then exposed to 190°C. On the other hand, specimens pre-treated with ammonium hydroxide were more susceptible to bio-attack (in both situations: without or with high temperature pre-treatment effect) than sound ones.
L Reinprecht

Wood preservation in the Australian beekeeping industry
1988 - IRG/WP 3473
This paper reports the results of a survey of Australian commercial beekeepers working 200 or more hives in June/July 1985. Nine hundred and forty seven apiarists were asked to participate and to provide information on their wood preservation methods, painting procedures and maintenance of bee boxes. Three hundred and eighty-four apiarists returned completed questionnaires (41%). The main wood preservatives used are copper naphthenate solutions (45%), linseed oil (8%), copper chromated arsenate (3%), hot wax (9%), copper naphthenate solution in linseed oil (3%), linseed oil/wax mixtures (3%) and paint (23%). The majority of apiarists (96%) paint treated bee hives, but there is considerable variation in wood preservative treatment procedures and paint application. Most wood preservative treatments (95%) are of the 'do-it-yourself' variety, radiata pine being the most utilized timber. The bottom boards of bee hives are considered the most susceptible to wood decay and subterranean termite damage, as are cleats, stands or any wood in ground contact.
P J Robinson, J R J French

Differences in feeding activity among colonies of Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1983 - IRG/WP 1202
Feeding activities of 7 colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined. Wood-consumption rates among colonies differed significantly, ranging from 23.80-78.48 mg/g/day. This large intraspecific variation raised a question of whether differences in feeding activity reported for other termite species were due to interspecific differences. When rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by one g termite per day (mg/g/day), termites of larger body weight appeared to consume less wood. This negative correlation, however, was not significant when rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by an individual per day (mg/worker/day).
N-Y Su, J P La Fage

Biocides - Efficacy assessment and doses for wood preservatives (product type 8). Local/geographical aspects. Termite control as case study
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20181
Currently, the efficacy of a wood preservative, as biocidal product type 8, is assessed as a ‚critical value' (CV), an efficient dose (retention in wood at a given depth of penetration). CVs are planned to be adapted for exposure to basic target organisms (5 hazard classes) and additional requirements concerning the occurrence of local target organisms in relation with climate, building design and relevant economical impact. Among them, the termite case study is illustrative. The vote of a french law, on 26 may 1999, aiming to protect consumers and to organize termite control puts termites, a "local target at the euro scale and a universal one in some euro territories", in the spotlights of actuality and helps to point out some of the remaining questions raised by the implementation of Dir 98/8 on Biocides. Based on CEN/TC/38 simulated use tests, which doses have to be used for conditions of exposure and climate, ranging from polar to tropical? Practical proposals are made to take into accound local prescription based on actual target organisms, and move on to standard biocide profiles.
G Ozanne

Implications for comparability of laboratory experiments revealed in studies on the variability in survival and wood consumption between colonies of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae
1983 - IRG/WP 1196
(Summary of paper 1193) Groups of Coptotermes acinaciformis, originating from six colonies, three taken from each of two localities, 1500 km apart, in northern Australia (Townsville, Darwin) were kept at population densities of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02 g termites/mL. Survival and wood consumption of the groups after 8 weeks followed a similar pattern in the colonies from both collection areas. Groups were least vigorous at the lowest population density; their performance reached a maximum at a population density of 0.01 g/mL. The subsequent decline in vigour was less marked as the highest population density was approached. However, the actual values for survival and wood consumption varied widely between colonies, irrespective of their origin. It is recommended that in all laboratory experiments which use survival and wood consumption as indicators of termite vigour, controls of a favourable as well as an unfavourable food type are included which would serve to monitor the vigour of the termites. Results from termite sources whose vigour falls below a certain threshold value would have to be treated with caution and could not be used in definative data, as e.g. in defining critical retentions of wood preservatives.
M Lenz

Termite field test results of preservative treated and modified woods in Kumamoto, Japan
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30275
Various preservative treated or modified wood stakes other than CCA, were buried in the soil, maximum for six years in Kumamoto, south west side of Japan. In this area, two main termite species, Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes speratus, are distributed. After two years in field, untreated sapwood of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) were observed severe attacks by termites, but the preservative treated stakes were observed no significant attacks by termites. After six years, treated stakes with preservatives not included copper, like DDAC and zinc-naphthenate, were observed slight or moderate attacks by termites. Otherwise, in the case of treated stakes with preservatives included copper, like ACQ, copper naphthenate and Tanalith CuAz, no significant attacks by termites were observed. Few samples of chemically modified wood or LVL were observed slight attacks by termites for four years.
K Suzuki

List of Members of IRG and contributing workers proposed for membership in IRG/WP/ - I - Sub-group 5
1976 - IRG/WP 154
S Cymorek

Minutes of WG I, Sub-group 5 Insects in dry wood
1983 - IRG/WP 1220
IRG Secretariat

Documentation on Merulius (Serpula) lacrimans (Wulf.) Fr. according to the "Model Questionnaire for preparation of monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi"
1972 - IRG/WP 108
J Segmüller, O Wälchli

Questionnaire on the most important wood-destroying insects in your country and/or state
1980 - IRG/WP 1125
S Cymorek

Comparative study of termite diversity in moist evergreen forest and dry evergreen forest, Chanthaburi province, Thailand
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10480
Sixty out of one hundred plots of two forest types (moist evergreen forest (MEF) and dry evergreen forest (DEF)) in Chanthaburi Province, eastern Thailand, were randomly surveyed for the presence of termites from all possible habitats. Three hundred and forty-five samples were collected from December 1999 – April 2000. Morphological identification of the 345 samples gave results for 3 families, 8 subfamilies, 20 genera and 42 species, of which 37 species of 19 genera were recorded from MEF and 27 species of 15 genera from DEF respectively. One undetermined species of the genus Angulitermes was recorded, which represents a new addition to the termite list of Thailand. Microcerotermes crassus Snyder, classified as a wood feeder, was found to be the dominant species in MEF and DEF, while Globitermes sulphureus (Haviland) was the second most dominant species. Ancistrotermes pakestanicus (Silverstri, 1912) a fungus growing termite, was another dominant species in MEF. In the cool-dry season, MEF showed an H’-index value of 2.415 and in the hot-dry season an H’-index value of 2.284. The H’-index values of DEF in the cool-dry and the hot-dry seasons were 2.121 and 1.67 respectively. Identification of specimens from a different survey revealed that seasonal changes did not greatly affect termite species richness in all study sites. Species diversity and species richness or termite activity tend to be lower in the hot-dry season (April).
S Chutibhapakorn

How to keep coated wood structures sufficiently dry to avoid damage caused by rot
1991 - IRG/WP 2376
During the last ten years, a new type of problems with wood rot has emerged in Scandinavia. Thousands of houses have been damaged by wood rot attaching to the exterior wood panel. This paper provides an overview of finished and ongoing work in order to identify the cause of these problems. In field tests, the moisture conditions were measured in panels coated with different paint systems. The influence of the panel structure and end-grain sealing on the moisture balance was also studied. The results from these tests show a large difference in the moisture balance between panels with different exterior wood coatings. In laboratory tests, the transmission of water vapour through paint films was measured using a modified cup method, which provides more realistic conditions for coated wood than the common cup method. One interesting observation made in the studies reported here is that latex paints seem to be much more permeable at high levels of relative humidity than earlier research has shown.
S Hjort

Fungal resistance of smoke-dried Cryptomeria japonica wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40118
Performance of smoke dried wood on fungal resistance was studied. The maximum temperature of the smoke seasoning was 80-90°C in the drying room and 70-80°C within the wood for 6 days during the treatment for 15 days. Decay resistance of smoke-dried Cryptomeria japonica wood was evaluated using a brown rot fungus, Tyromyces palustris. Weight losses of untreated wood, smoke-dried wood, and smoke-dried wood followed by surface removal of 3 mm in thickness were 53%, 16%, and 21% respectively. After leaching for ten days, their weight losses were 38%, 51%, and 46% respectively. Smoke-dried wood had decay resistant some extent against the brown rot fungus, however its effectiveness disappeared completely during leaching. Smoke-drying did not have any effect on preventing the mould growth.
K Yamamoto, I Momohara, T Nishimura

Biological resistance of phenol-resin treated wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3602
Biological resistance of PF (phenol formaldehyde resin) - treated wood has been tested in relation to the resin properties, wood species and biological factors. When tested using water-soluble PF (mol. wt. 170), ca. 10% RI (resin impregnation) was enough to suppress the decay of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) blocks exposed to Tyromyces palustris (brown-rot type) and Coriolus versicolor (white-rot type). For a decay suppression of Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) by treating with the same PF, ca. 20% RI was required for both cases of exposure. When using ethanol-soluble PF (mol. wt. 300), the lesser effect on decay suppression was revealed for most of wood-fungus combinations, suggesting a possible better penetration of lower molecular resin into the wood cell walls. PF treatment of wood also affected the termite Coptotermes formosanus, causing the severe depletion of feeding activity and the higher mortality at 5-15 (%) RI. Of the three species of symbiotic protozoa, the most cellulolytic Pseudotrichonympha grassii diminished first shortly after feeding.
M Takahashi, Y Imamura

Treating Eucalyptus tereticornis wood with boron: Optimizing treatment conditions
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40309
Even though Eucalyptus tereticornis wood is suitable for small timber purposes, being non-durable, it needs to be treated with preservative chemicals. As it is a heavy, hard and difficult to treat species, the possibility of using diffusible boron compounds was investigated. The present study explored the effect of impregnation conditions such as treatment schedule, concentration of treatment solution and the moisture content of wood on the achievement of desired dry salt retention (DSR) of the preservative in the treated wood by conducting a commercial scale trial. The study revealed that wood density and moisture content adversely affected the boron impregnation. It was clear that even E. tereticornis wood in green condition could be effectively boron impregnated using appropriate treatment schedule. Only long duration treatment schedules were found to yield the desired DSR levels. A solution concentration of 8% boric acid equivalent (BAE) was found to be required. Application of an initial vacuum of 760 mm Hg (- 85 kPa) for 15 minutes followed by a pressure of 1300 kPa for a minimum period of 60 minutes and a final vacuum of 760 mm Hg(- 85 kPa) for 5 minutes was found to be an appropriate treatment schedule.
T K Dhamodaran, R Gnanaharan

Bifenthrin, a new insecticide for the control of termites and wood-boring insects
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30076
Bifenthrin, a new insecticidal compound Bifenthrin has been extensively tested, to determine its potential use to control termites and other wood destroying insects. Bifenthrin is effective at extreme low rates which can minimize human and environmental exposure to the product. Results of tests carried out by several research institutes and by FMC in different countries will be presented. The physical and chemical properties of bifenthrin, such as chemical stability, compatibility with fungicides, odour, vapour pressure, solubility in solvents, as well as pH-independency are favourable. In addition, several formulations are available for bifenthrin, some of which are tested in these tests. Extensive toxicological, eco-toxicological and product chemistry files have been compiled in accordance within OECD and EPA guidelines. The achieved results confirm that bifenthrin offers potential as a valuable tool for protecting wood against these pests.
G Rustenburg

Natural durability of wood in ground contact - A correlation between field and laboratory tests
1985 - IRG/WP 2182
A field test is being carried out to evaluate the natural durability of 20 hardwoods. The resistance to decay and termite attack was evaluated in accelerated laboratory tests. The results of the field test after 6 years and 8 months indicate that there is not necessarily agreement between results from laboratory and field tests. It is pointed out that apart from the artificiality of the laboratory tests, a possible cause of the discrepancies can be the different performance of the same wood species in different test sites.
M S Cavalcante, G A C Lopez, R G Montagna, M E S Fosco Mucci

Volumes and weights of different CCA-C treated wood poles, anchor logs and crossarms of REB at air dry condition
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40073
Researches revealed the unit volumes and weights at air-dry condition (12% MC) of different poles, anchor logs and crossarms species of REB from this world. The softwood products are lighter than hardwood products. Inversely the unit volumes of softwood poles are higher than those of hardwood poles. Red pine (Pinus resinosa), radiata pine (Pinus radiata), blue pine (Pinus wallichiana), fir (Abies densa) and spruce (Picea spineelosa) are the lightest poles and anchor logs with higher unit volumes (Poles). Sundri (Heritiera minor) is the heaviest timber species out of all listed timber species and raintree (Samanea saman) is the lightest timber species among hardwood species.
A K Lahiry

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