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Fungal decay resistance of Rubber wood treated with heartwood extract of Rosewood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30367
Alcoholic extract of Dalbergia latifolia heartwood was studied for its toxicity towards wood decaying fungi. Rubber wood blocks were treated with this extract to three different retention levels (0.1%, 0.2% & 0.5%) and the treated wood blocks were assessed for their resistance towards two white rot and two brown rot fungi. Treated blocks showed improved resistance over the control blocks. At 0.5% retention level, treated rubber wood blocks exposed to fungus showed a weight loss of 15% as compared to 57 % in control blocks. A positive correlation was found between fungal decay resistance and retention level of the extract.
A K Sethy, H C Nagaveni, S Mohan, K T Chandrashekar


Termiticidal chemicals derived from tropical tree resins
1991 - IRG/WP 1477
To test the hypothesis that defensive chemicals protect tropical primary forest trees against biological attack, a bioassay and fractionation program was conducted in Indonesia. Fresh dipterocarp resins were fed in no-choice tests to Neotermes dalbergiae termites on 4.5 cm filter papers, or tested for inhibition of fungal growth. Fractionation of biologically active resins via flash column chromatography, followed by subsequent bioassay and analytical chemical studies, revealed that several sesquiterpene compounds inhibited fungal growth and killed 50% of test termites in 3-7 days. Toxic fractions contained caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, alloaromadendrene, and other compounds. From the relatively non-toxic a-gurjunene, novel termiticidal compounds were synthesized, indicating the potential for manufacture of insecticides from natural products.
A Messer, K McCormick, D Richardson, Sunjaya, H Hagedorn, J Meinwald


Co-operative research at the Naval Research Laboratory on wood extractives and related compounds as antiborer agents
1977 - IRG/WP 429
J D Bultman, K K Parrish


The effect of mortality diseases on wood quality of sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb)
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10569
Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) is a lagre deciduos, fast growing, strong light demanding and leguminous tree specie. It is an important multipurpose specie widely being planted in the agro forestry and and social forestry pratices in Bangladesh, particularly in the north and south-western parts of the country. On account of its better quality, sissoo is valued as good as construction and utility timber in Bangladesh. It is used as high value timber, wood fuel, nitrogen fixing and fodder trees. For about a decade, sissoo plantings of varying ages have been found dying due to an unknown cause. By 1996 the mortality was wide spread especially in the western part of the country, and it affects the wood properties of sissoo. The wood properties are very important in selecting wood for numerous uses. So, a comparative study of various physical properties of wood among sound, moderately affected and severally affected sissoo trees was conducted. Sound, moderately affected and severally affected sissoo trees showed significant differences in respect of tangential, radial, longitudinal and volumentric shrinkage respectively. Radial shrinkage didn’t differ significantly among top, middle and bottom sections of a particular condition of wood and the same result was of tangential, longitudinal and volumetric shrinkage. The same trees also showed a significant difference in density, but the density didn’t differ significantly among the top, middle or bottom sections of a particular condition of wood. Besides these, the presence of decay, stain, tunnel and discolouration were observed which also determine the wood quality. In sound, sissoo wood these are absent, but in disease affected sisso wood decay, stain, tunnel and discolouration are present which deteriorate the wood quality. It is observed that the wood quality of sound sissoo trees have been found superior to that of moderately affected and severally affected wood.
M M Islam, M O Hannan, G N M Ilias


Preservative technique of three commercially important timber species – Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), Akasmoni (Acacia auriculiformis) and Ghoraneem (Melia azedarach) of Bangladesh
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40299
Wood is renewable resource and is widely used as construction material in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia auriculiformis and Melia azedarach, locally known as Sissoo, Akasmoni and Ghoraneem respectively are three important timber species of Bangladesh. These are used for different purposes normally without preservative treatment. Heartwood of Sissoo, Akasmoni and Ghoraneem are naturally durable but sapwood is not durable. But the presence of sapwood in Sissoo, Akasmoni and Ghoraneem are approximately 43 %, 49 % and 55 % respectively. Discut the use of sapwood of Sissoo, Akasmoni and Ghoraneem might increase the price of wood very high. So it need preservative treatment to increase its durability. Preservative treatment protects them from various biodegradable agents such as fungi and insects. So the study of preservative treatment of the three wood species was undertaken using chromate, copper boron (CCB) preservative by dipping method. Three important physical properties of wood viz moisture content, density and shrinkage of the species were also studied. Akashmoni showed higher moisture content but lower density than Sissoo. Again Sissoo showed higher density and Akashmoni showed higher shrinkage than the two other wood species. Preservative treatment was carried out with four different preservative concentrations of 4, 5, 6 and 7 % and dipping schedule of 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. It was observed that penetration and retention of CCB was always higher in Sissoo than the two other species which is a clear indication to consider.
M R Bulbul, M O Hannan, P K Sarker, A A Mahafuz, G N M Ilias


Antitermitic activities of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) heartwood extractives against two termite species
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10856
Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) heartwood extractives were investigated for antitermitic activities against Heterotermes indicola and Reticulitermes flavipes. Heartwood extractives were removed from wood shavings by soxhlet extraction using (2:1) ethanol: toluene as the solvent system. Filter paper bioassays were conducted against both species to observe concentration dependent feeding response and mortality of termites. Results indicated that the highest termite mortality occurred at 10 mg/ml with a LC50 at 5.54 and 3.89 mg/ml against H. indicola and R. flavipes, respectively. Shisham extractives showed more repellency and antifeedant activity against H. indicola compared to R. flavipes. In choice and no-choice feeding bioassays with extracted and un-extracted Shisham wood blocks, increased wood loss due to termite feeding was observed on extracted blocks compared to un-extracted blocks. Higher termite mortality was also observed after feeding on un-extracted blocks compared to extracted blocks. Results also showed that extractives from Shisham imparted resistance to vacuum-pressure treated Southern pine (SYP, Pinus taeda L.) and Cottonwood (CW, Populus deltoides) against both species. These results suggest that Shisham extractives have antitermitic properties and may be potentially useful in the development of environment friendly termiticides.
B Hassan, M Mankowski, G Kirker, S Ahmed, M Misbah ul Haq


GC-MS Characterizations of Termiticidal Heartwood Extractives from Wood Species Utilized in Pakistan
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10857
Wood species that exhibit innate tolerance to wood destroying organisms such as termites are considered to be naturally durable. This durability can, in part, be due to the complex chemical compounds in the heartwood of naturally durable wood species. We examined the effects of varying concentrations of heartwood extractives on the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes from four wood species from Pakistan (Dalbergia sissoo, Cedrus deodara, Morus alba and Pinus roxburghii) as well as Teak (Tectona grandis). Termites showed increasing levels of mortality with increasing concentration of heartwood extractive when exposed to extractive treated non-durable southern yellow pine (SYP) blocks in a force feeding test compared to SYP blocks treated with water or solvent (ethanol: toluene) only. Characterizations of heartwood extractives were performed using Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chemical profiles were prepared for each wood species’ extractives and are discussed relevant to their termiticidal properties. Future work will focus on further isolation of bioactive compounds or synergistic groupages of bioactive compounds from these and other wood species for use as environmentally friendly insecticides/termiticides for wood and wood based materials.
M E Mankowski, B Boyd, B Hassan, G T Kirker