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Performance of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report of condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 3155
J Beesley, R McCarthy

In-ground performance of two formulations of chlorothalonil after five years of exposure at three test sites in Australia
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30101
Sapwood specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. were each treated to three retentions of each of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) and installed in-ground at three field test sites in Australia. Specimens were treated with each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2 + 0.2, 6.4 + 0.4 and 12.8 + 0.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos a.i. For comparison, specimens of each timber species, treated to a commercial in-ground retention of a copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) formulation, were also installed. Treated specimens (including controls) have been rated for their condition annually for attack by subterranean termites and fungal decay using a scale ranging from 4 (sound) down to 0 (failed). After five years of exposure, mean termite and decay scores for replicate test specimens at each site reveal that the performance of all three retentions of each formulation, particularly the two highest retentions, is comparable to CCA.
J W Creffield, T L Woods, N Chew

Relationship between stacking, location and antisapstain preservatives on visible degrade of Eucalyptus regnans and Pinus radiata boards
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20162
An antisapstain trial was established at a Eucalyptus hardwood sawmill in Victoria, Australia. The trial incorporated two commercial formulations of antisapstain preservatives, used at four different concentrations on both hardwood (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell) and softwood (Pinus radiata D. Don) boards. The trial also utilised different stacking methods (block-stacked, sticker-stacked, and block-stacked and wrapped in black plastic) and included replicates placed both outside in the drying yard, and inside under cover from the elements. The variation in stacking methods and in location was used to provide a variation in the fungal hazard. Worst degrade (mean of 83% at 36 weeks) was obtained for the hardwood block-stacked outside and wrapped in black plastic. Lesser extents of degrade were obtained for sticker-stacked hardwood outside (4.3%) and sticker-stacked hardwood under cover (1.2%). Degrade of softwood was less than that of hardwood under all conditions. Statistical analysis of the trial indicated that the probability of any individual hardwood board deteriorating outside was nearly 4 times greater than for a board kept undercover. In addition, the probability of degrade of a hardwood board which was block-stacked and wrapped in black plastic was 3.4 times that of a hardwood board which was block-stacked but not wrapped, which in turn was 10 times that of a hardwood board which was sticker-stacked. The probability of degrade in untreated hardwood timber was 20 times that of degrade in preservative-treated hardwood timber, with variations in preservative concentration having an insignificant effect. Over all conditions the probability of hardwood timber deterioration was 5 times that of the softwood. The results of this trial confirmed that timber stored closely stacked and under poorly ventilated conditions suffered a higher visible degrade, as expected for sapstain fungi. However, although preservatives effectively reduced visible degrade under all storage conditions and at all concentrations tested, selection of correct storage conditions was also an important part of minimising degrade.
J Snow, P Vinden, S M Read

IRG test of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report on condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1982 - IRG/WP 3207
J Beesley

An Australian test of wood preservatives. - Part IV: The condition, after 35 years' exposure, of stakes treated with creosote oils and oilborne preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30241
This paper contains the first results dealing with creosote oils and oilborne preservatives from this in-ground field trial in Australia. The substrates impregnated with preservative were Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. heartwood and sapwood. Data are reported from stakes exposed for 35 years at three Australian sites (Innisfail, Sydney, Walpeup). Comparisons were made between preservatives impregnated into P. radiata at 128 kg/m³ and exposed at Sydney. After 35 years, the mean condition of stakes treated with British standard, Australian K.55 (blend) and brown coal tar (high residue) creosote oils were serviceable. The mean condition of stakes treated with USA standard (AWPA P.1), Australian K.55 (ii, old Timbrol) and brown coal tar (distillate) creosote oils was unserviceable (ie. rated 3 or less out of 8). When a proportion of Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil was replaced by furnace oil, vertical retort tar or 2.5% pentachlorophenol (PCP) in furnace oil, the new combinations did not, on average, rate as highly as the Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil by itself. PCP was compared at 6.4 kg/m³ in P. radiata at Sydney. 5% PCP in furnace oil (128 kg/m³) performed as well as Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil and much better than 5% PCP in diesel fuel oil (128 kg/m³). 2.5% PCP in furnace oil (256 kg/m³) rated the highest of any treatment containing 6.4 kg/m³ of PCP. The addition of dieldrin or chlordane improved the efficacy of 2.5% PCP in furnace oil (128 kg/m³) at Sydney, but not at Innisfail. The addition of benzene hexachloride showed greater protection than dieldrin or chlordane.
G C Johnson, J D Thornton

IRG test of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report on condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1983 - IRG/WP 3269
G C Johnson, J D Thornton

X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe.
H Greaves

High CCA retentions and the protection of eucalypt power poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3226
Tasmanian power pole material treated to high retentions, was analysed to accurately determine the amount of CCA preservative in the timber. Material from the same disc was subsequently exposed in unsterile soil in order to determine the effectiveness of treatment. Results showed that even at high retention levels, soft-rot attack was not prevented. Fourteen further poles were sampled, but this time gradient sampling was carried out in order to determine the penetration pattern of the CCA salts. These poles were treated to retention levels in the order of 40 kg/m³. Again material from these poles was used for exposure testing. Significant weight loss was found after sixteen weeks exposure. The results indicate that high loadings of CCA present in the sapwood of these eucalypts, have not prevented the onset and progression of soft-rot decay.
L E Leightley, J Norton

An illustrated comment on the soft rot problem in Australia and Papua New Guinea
1977 - IRG/WP 296
A brief survey of soft rot is presented, with particular reference to attack of preservative treated hardwood transmission poles in Australia. Possible explanations of why the preservatives are failing to protect the poles are discussed, together with current efforts to produce control measures. Examples of soft rot in variously treated eucalypt or pine specimens are shown to illustrate the morphological variety of decay as it occurs throughout the Australian scene; the samples of attacked wood range from temperate Victoria to tropical Papua New Guinea.
H Greaves

Laboratory evaluation of borate formulations as wood preservatves to control the subterranean termite coptotermes acinaciformis (isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Australia
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30266
The termiticidal efficacy of Borocol (sodium octaborate tetrahydrate), boric acid, bore-ester-7 and tri- methyl borate was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Seasoned sapwood blocks of Pinus radiata D. Don, and Eucalyptus regnans (F. Muell) were impregnated with the various borate compounds. There were marked differences in mass loss and mortality rate of the termite used in the bioassay units for different boron retentions. After 8 weeks the result suggested that, borate was toxic to termites in laboratory bioassay even at 0.20% m/m BAE and caused significant termite mortality. However, termites were not deterred from attacking the borate treated timber at higher retentions of > 2.0% m/m BAE. These laboratory results indicated that the minimum borate treatment required to protect timber against termites attack and damage was > 1.0% m/m BAE.
B M Ahmed, J R J French, P Vinden

Laboratory tests on light organic solvent preservatives for use in Australia. - Part 6: Soft rot resistance of three fully formulated preservatives on different timber substrates
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30245
The above-ground soft rot resistance of substrates treated with three fully formulated light organic solvent preservatives (Cuprivac Green WR, Impresol WR 205 and Vacsol) was studied using a modified vermiculite burial method. The substrates were sapwood of Pinus elliottii and P. radiata and heartwood of Eucalyptus regnans, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Shorea sp. (a lower and a higher density source) and Thuja plicata. Following artificial weathering, replicate test blocks were exposed to either Chaetomium globosum or Lecythophora mutabilis. C. globosum caused 3% or more mass loss of the water and solvent (white spirit) impregnated controls of all three hardwoods and two of the four softwoods, whereas L. mutabilis caused similar attack in only E. regnans and P. radiata. The P. menziesii and T. plicata heartwoods were naturally durable to both soft rot fungi and, hence, no further conclusions can be drawn. None of the preservatives, at the highest retention tested, protected E. regnans from attack by C. globosum, whereas the highest retentions of both the Cuprivac Green WR and Impresol WR 205 protected all other timbers from this fungus. At the highest retention, the latter preservative was the only one to protect E. regnans from L. mutabilis.
G C Johnson, M A Tighe, J D Thornton

Fungal-termite associations in the natural resistance of selected eucalypt timbers
1978 - IRG/WP 173
Butt billets of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell., Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., showing no visible signs of decay, were examined for the presence of fungi in outer, middle and inner heartwood. Fungi obtained in pure culture were characterized. Eucalyptus regnans yielded Cytospora eucalypticola van der Westhuizen, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Penicillium spp.;·Eucalyptus grandis yielded Pesotum sp., Acrodontium sp. and Penicillium spp.; and Eucalyptus camaldulensis yielded only Penicillium spp. The natural termite resistance of the same billets was investigated, following decay (12 weeks) by brown-rot Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fr.) Murr., white-rot Fomes lividus (Kalch.) Sacc. and soft-rot Chaetomium globosum Kunze. Blocks were exposed to the termite Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) (Termitidae) under laboratory and field conditions to determine if there were significant, quantitative differences in (1) fungus-infested and uninfested blocks, (2) blocks containing living or dead fungus, (3) types of radial heartwood, and (4) species of timber. Clearly fungus-infested wood was preferred to the uninfested by Nasutitermes exitiosus, and dead fungus in wood to the living. Further there was pronounced radial variability, and timber species were also markedly different, although these differences could not be measured, for the presence of strong interactions. The interactions involved species of fungus and timber, species of fungus and type of radial heartwood, condition of fungus (dead or alive) and species of timber, and species of timber and radial heartwood. In the case of tyndallised (at 70°C) timber exposed to decay fungi only, similar interactions, involving species of fungus and timber, and species of fungus and type radial heartwood, were also evident. The interactions implied that fungal or termite resistance of wood was not only influenced by the inherent properties of a timber species, but also by type of heartwood, fungal species and condition of the fungus involved.
D B A Ruyooka

An Australian test of wood preservatives. Part 1: Preservatives, principles and practices
1978 - IRG/WP 2123
Between November, 1963, and July, 1964, a graveyard test of some 6000 preservative-treated stakes was installed at 8 sites equally distributed between Papua New Guinea in the tropics, through Queensland and New South Wales to Victoria. More than 40 different preservatives and preservative mixtures, mostly at several different levels of retention, were used to impregnate sawn specimens of Pinus radiata and of Eucalyptus regnans sapwood. Many of the treatments were also duplicated in natural rounds of Eucalyptus regnans of small diameter consisting almost entirely of sapwood. The preservatives included in the test are listed together with sufficient details of preservative retention, treatment procedures and specimen preparation for a full understanding of the comprehensive nature of the test. In addition, a description of the test sites, of the method of inspection and of the manner in which the inspection results are handled has been set down so that the store of data available from this test might be more widely known.
J Beesley

Estimation of oral toxicity of boron as a bait toxicant and the trophallactic effects between individual members of termite colonies.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10495
In recent years, because of the favourable environmental characteristics of boron, researchers in the wood preservation industries have refocussed on the use of boron as a major wood preservative against wood-destroying insects. Currently the greatest use of boron compounds is in remedial treatments. Boron has been found to have slow-acting toxicity against subterranean termites. Because of this characteristic, boron compounds may also be used as termite bait toxicants. The effect of boric acid on an individual donor termite was investigated in laboratory bioassays Trophallactic transfer of boron by these individual termites to other orphaned group of termite workers was conducted and the effects on the recipient groups recorded. It was believed that, this sequence of tests would provide a greater understanding of the carrying ability of ‘bait toxicant’ by individual termites, and allow estimates of the threshold toxicity of boric acid and termite survival rates to be determined. The bait matrix was Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell sawdust impregnated with various formulations of boric acid solutions in the laboratory. The result suggests that the toxicity of boron is dose dependent and it critical for the termites to ingest sufficient amounts of boron. But the mode of toxicity of boron has not yet been fully explained.
B M Ahmed

Performance trials of treated hardwood fences
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30281
This paper examines the performance of the traditional hardwood paling fence used in Australia, after preservative treatment. Unseasoned rails, palings and plinths of the low natural durability species Eucalyptus regnans (mountain ash) and E. obliqua (messmate) were treated with PEC (pigment emulsified creosote) or PROCCA (an oil emulsion of CCA). Treated posts of these species were also compared with a naturally durable species used for posts, E. camaldulensis (river red gum). As the sawn timbers were mostly heartwood, penetration depths achieved were generally poor. The effect of incising posts, and notching or cutting timbers before and after treatment were examined, along with alternative construction methods. Performance was compared in laboratory ‘agar trays’, an Accelerated Field Simulator, and the field, enabling correlation between the various test methods. Results, including five year field inspections, showed that the above ground portions of the fence were still sound, compared to an untreated model fence. PEC provided better protection than PROCCA to timbers cut after treatment, due to its ability to bleed across cut surfaces. After five years, PEC treated posts performed as well as untreated E. camaldulensis posts.
L J Cookson D Scown, B Iskra

Soluble nutrient influences on toxicity and permanence of CCA preservatives in wood
1980 - IRG/WP 3144
The influence of soluble carbohydrate and nitrogenous components concentrated at evaporative surfaces of wood on the toxicity and permanence of CCA preservatives has been examined using soil-burial techniques. Nutrient concentrations in lime (Tilia vulgaris Hayne) have been shown to be associated with reduction of toxic limits of preservatives to an extent in which a 100% increase in preservative loading is required to provide adequate protection in the presence of soluble nutrient gradients. Toxic limit reduction was seen to be accompanied by nitrogen increases. The latter were attributed to microbial biomass which suggests a significant involvement of sacrificial colonisation by micro organisms. Preliminary analyses of elemental copper and chrome indicate an associated preservative instability.
B King, G M Smith, A Bruce

The performance of metal-chromium-arsenic formulations after 32 to 38 years' in-ground exposure in Australia
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30240
Two trials of metal-chromium-arsenic preservatives were exposed in-ground in Australia. In Trial 1, Pinus radiata stakes treated with Boliden K.33, Boliden S.25, Celcure A, Tanalith C and Tanalith CA were installed at Sydney and Narrandera in 1961/1962. In Trial 2, P. radiata and Eucalyptus regnans sapwood were treated with Celcure A, Celcure A21-N, Celcure A 21-O and Tanalith CA (new) and installed at Sydney and Innisfail in 1966/1967. In Trial 1, all metal-chromium-arsenic preservatives at 8 and 12 kg m-3 gave median specimen lives in excess of 35 years. As none of the stakes treated to 12 kg m-3 with Boliden K.33, Celcure A, Tanalith C or Tanalith CA had become unserviceable, the minimum guarantee period for these preservatives is greater than the present exposure periods. In Trial 2, the four CCA preservatives when impregnated into P. radiata sapwood at 12 kg m-3 gave median specimen lives at Sydney of greater than 32.5 years. With E. regnans sapwood treated to 12 kg m-3, only Celcure A 21-0 gave a median specimen life at Sydney of greater than 32.5 years. At the high decay and termite hazard site of Innisfail, Celcure A 21-0 protected the eucalypt better than any of the other CCA formulations.
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, J Beesley

Nasutitermes exitiosus and wood-rotting fungi in Eucalyptus regnans, E. acmenioides, E. wandoo, and E. marginata: force-feeding, laboratory study
1985 - IRG/WP 1231
Under a force-feeding regime, the termitid Nasutitermes exitiosus was fed on four eucalypt timbers infested with several fungal species to investigate the influence of such fungus-infested timbers on mass of wood lost, termite biomass, fat content and water content. The results showed that wood mass losses were markedly affected by species of fungi and timber. The interaction of fungi and timbers was also marked. Termite biomass was only markedly affected by species of timbers, but the termite fat content was not markedly different.
D B A Ruyooka

Decay evaluation of the effectiveness of a LOSP envelope treatment in eucalypt and meranti heartwoods for window joinery
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30099
The effectiveness and penetration in heartwood boards of an LOSP formulation containing TBTN was examined by determining decay resistance to the white-rot fungus Perenniporia tephropora. Boards, one metre long, of Eucalyptus regnans, Eucalyptus delegatensis, Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus sieberi were treated, along with boards of 'light' and 'dark' meranti. After treatment, blocks were cut from various positions along the boards, including one block from the end grain. All except the end grain blocks were coated with epoxy on their freshly cut end grain surfaces to ensure fungus attack occurred only through the lateral surfaces. Some of the blocks were left intact or unshaved, while others had 2 mm of surface wood (treated envelope) removed by shaving. Eucalyptus sieberi was the most preservative absorbent species examined, providing a mean retention of 51.2 kg/m³. Eucalyptus obliqua absorbed least preservative (15.7 kg/m³). Eucalyptus regnans, Eucalyptus delegatensis, light and dark meranti absorbed similar amounts of LOSP, giving mean retentions between 24.9-33.6 kg/m³. There was resin bleed from two of the meranti specimens after treatment, whereas no exudate or kino bleed was produced by the treated eucalypts. Perenniporia tephropora was unable to decay the untreated heartwood of both Eucalyptus sieberi, and Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), and produced minor decay in some Eucalyptus obliqua blocks. Untreated blocks of the other timbers were decayed. LOSP treatment improved the decay resistance of the end grain blocks from light meranti, dark meranti, Eucalyptus regnans and Eucalyptus delegatensis, however only light meranti gained significant protection after treatment in blocks cut from the remaining positions along the board.
L J Cookson, A Trajstman

A laboratory bioassay method for testing preservatives against the marine borers Limnoria tripunctata, L. quadripunctata (Crustacea) and Lyrodus pedicellatus (Mollusca)
1990 - IRG/WP 4159
A laboratory culture and bioassay method is described for the marine borers Limnoria tripunctata, Limnoria quadripunctata, and Lyrodus pedicellatus. The methods were tested in a bioassay using established marine preservatives. The attack produced on blocks treated with CCA or creosote in some ways paralleled the attack found in the sea. Limnoria tripunctata attacked treated and untreated pine blocks more readily than eucalypt blocks, a difference that was much less apparent in the other species. Limnoria tripunctata was more active on blocks placed on the floor of aquaria, than on blocks suspended in the seawater, or those placed with limnoriids in separate dishes.
L J Cookson

The performance of chlorothalonil after 4.5 years in the accelerated field simulator
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30041
The decay resistance of chlorothalonil in oil was examined in an accelerated field simulator (AFS). Pinus radiata D. Don and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. sapwood stakes were treated, placed in soil in the AFS, and monitored over 4.5 years. CCA type C treated stakes were included for comparison. Water and toluene treated control stakes were heavily decayed after 1-2.5 years. Oil treated controls, though moderately decayed, were still serviceable after 4-4.5 years. At each equivalent retention, chlorothalonil performed better than CCA in treated Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus regnans stakes. Pinus radiata stakes treated to 3.6 kg/m³ with CCA were heavily decayed after 4 years, while 3.1 kg chlorothalonil/m³ treated stakes were only lightly decayed. Similary for Eucalyptus regnans, 6.6 kg CCA/m³ treated stakes were heavily decayed after 4 years, while 6.1 kg clorothalonil/m³ treated stakes were lightly decayed. Most of the decay was due to soft rot. When soil in the AFS was 1.5 years old, it had half to three-quarters the number of microbial propagules as could be cultured from fresh soil, that was collected from the same site as the AFS soil was originally taken.
L J Cookson

An unusual soft-rot decay pattern caused by the Ascomycete Hypoxylon mediterraneum (de Not.) J Miller
1984 - IRG/WP 1222
A distinct pattern of soft-rot decay has been observed for the fungus Hypoxylan mediterraneum (de Not.) J. Miller. This fungus also produced decay patterns typical of brown and white rot decay. The production of characteristic cavities by Hypoxylan mediterraneum was prolific in the hardwoods Eucalyptus maculata and Eucalyptus regnans, but infrequent in the softwoods, Pinus elliottii and Pinus radiata. The chemistry of this decay was investigated using carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR). This technique produced results valuable to the understanding of the timber decay activities of Hypoxylan mediterraneum.
D M Francis, L E Leightley