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Data sheet on wood-boring insects. Apate monachus Fabricius. 2. Position systématique, nomenclature, identification et distribution - Espèces végétales attaquée
1981 - IRG/WP 1105
R L A Damoiseau


A preliminary assessment of the costs of termite activity in Australia: A discussion paper
1983 - IRG/WP 1207
A preliminary assessment has been made of the economic importance of termite activity in Australia and this paper is intended to serve as a starting point in discussing this topic. Damage to timber in service represents their greatest area of economic importance in urban and rural environments. Costs resulting from termite activity include timber replacements in buildings, railway sleepers, transm...
J R J French


An overview of the economic importance and control of termites in plantation forestry and wood preservation in Peninsular Malaysia
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10382
Both the plantation forestry and wood preservation industries in the tropical and sub-tropical belts of the world, exemplified by the humid equatorial Peninsular Malaysia, regard termites as major destructive pests of standing trees, various timber products and building timber structures. This paper is a compilation of information on these economically important structural pests encountered in bot...
L G Kirton, A H H Wong, Kee Suan Cheok


Subterranean termites of economic importance in suburban Melbourne: Wood structures most frequently attacked and damaged
1990 - IRG/WP 1430
An examination of wood structures in forty buildings actively being attacked by subterranean termites in Melbourne revealed that all buildings were being attacked and damaged by Coptotermes species. This indicates the economic importance of these species. Hardwoods were more frequently infested than softwood species. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to termite control, ...
J R J French


Draft economic plan for the IRG for the period 1993-1997
1993 - IRG/WP 93-60004
P-E Dickèr


Importance of bacteria in the deterioration of archaeological woods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10122
An electron microscopic study of archaeological woods from different sites and of different ages revealed that the woods had been attacked by erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and soft rot fungi. Bacterial erosion appeared to be most widespread, and was present independently as well as together with tunnelling and soft rot attacks. Thus, in many instances bacterial erosion was the only type of...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, T Nilsson


Present status and potentiality of the economic utilization of the sawmill residue and wastage in Bangladesh
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50211
This study has been carried out to obtain a clear picture about the current status of utilization of sawmill residue and wastage. In order to accomplish the study a random survey has been conducted in 27 sawmills of Khulna District and in 10 sawmills of Jessore District. Most of sawmills in these area run at a very primitive level compared to modern technology. Species used for conversion mainly d...
M A Islam, M S Rahman, A K M A Bosunia, A K Lahiry


Chapter 1 - Introduction to bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-01
In this introductory chapter the botanical position, distribution, utilization, outlooks, production, research, importance, propagation, natural durability, preservative treatment, importance of preservative treatment, treating principles, research on preservative treatment of bamboos and the objectives of this book have been described briefly under individual caption....
A K Lahiry


World survey on the status of pollution control in the field of wood preservation
1976 - IRG/WP 369
In 1974 the IRG/WP-Secretariat distributed a "Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation" which was prepared by the author. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. Part A asked "General questions" on - the position of wood preservation in the respective country - the use of preservatives - the type of application of wood preservatives in different fields - ...
H Willeitner


Laboratory bioassays with termites – The importance of termite biology
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10550
Subterranean termites are frequently used in bioassays to asses the effectiveness of insecticides or the resistance of materials. Termites which appear to be vigorous with high inherent levels of activity are often relied upon, yet at the end of the experiments survival may be very unsatisfactory, even in the favourable environment of controls. Consequently, results from such bioassays may be mean...
M Lenz


Economical analysis of the chemicals used on remediation copper, chromium and arsenic from out of service CCA-treated utility poles in Turkey
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50217
There are 20.7 million hectare forested area in Turkey. However, the wood products supplies do not meet demand. One of the wooden products is the utility poles. In Turkey, impregnation of utility poles has been started since 1960's and 5 million utility poles have been used until today since then. Although life time of the utility poles may vary depending on climatic conditions, average s...
E D Gezer, D Toksoy, Ü C Yildiz


Siderophore production by Trichoderma spp. and its importance in the biological control of wood decay fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10070
Competition for iron as well as other micro-nutrients is an essential component of the microbial ecology of many ecosystems. A wide range of micro-organisms including fungi and bacteria have been shown to increase their ability to efficiently capture iron through the production of specialised iron chelating compounds called siderophores. Since iron is in low supply in wood and has been implicated ...
U Srinivasan, A Bruce, T L Highley


Introducing bamboos for their importance and conservation
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10546
Bamboo is a socio-economically, industrially and environmentally important forest and rural crop in Asia. It is an essential task for the people in this region to conserve the bamboos and preserve the bamboo products for their sustainable continuity. An earnest need for this task is to introduce a variety of important information on bamboos. In this research paper the botanical position, distribut...
A K Lahiry


Assessing the importance of degradation mechanisms on the loss of effectiveness of wood preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20193
Accelerated ageing systems developed for application to samples in the laboratory prior to biological tests, should reflect those natural deterioration processes that are likely to occur in the hazard classes defined in EN 335-1. Losses through evaporation or the effects of leaching have been recognised, however their importance, relative to other mechanisms has not been quantified. Degradation me...
E D Suttie, R J Orsler, T Dearling


Occurrence and importance of various types of fungal and bacterial decay in CCA-treated horticultural pine posts in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1234
A detailed microscopical examination has been carried out on samples taken from CCA-treated pine posts exposed in horticultural soils. The following decay types were observed: white rot, brown rot, soft rot, tunnelling bacteria, cavitation bacteria, and bacterial erosion. The occurrence and importance of the various decay types between different regions, and plots within a specific region, varied ...
T Nilsson


The importance of blue stain attack for the colonization by wood-rotting fungi of wood not in contact with the ground
1988 - IRG/WP 1349
When used in constructions not in contact with the ground, wood has been shown often to proceed from blue stain to moulds. The appearance of wood rotting fungi is normally delayed. Solid wood artificially inoculated with the blue stain fungus Pullularia pullulans was shown to permit germination of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus basidiospores. This was demonstrated by the use of an indirect and a direct b...
J Bjurman


Effects of boron formulation on specific timber types used in ships of historical importance
1991 - IRG/WP 3676
This paper reports results of preservative treatment and leaching experiments, using borax, polybor and boracol 20, on small wood blocks of English oak and American pitch pine heartwood. Earlier experiments on the performance of various biocides as possible additives to bilgewater to prevent fungal decay of shipping timbers had suggested that some formulations of boron might be associated with phy...
B King, G M Smith, J W Palfreyman, S McCutcheon


A fast and economic method to produce grey wooden surfaces for decking and cladding: preliminary results
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40474
Uncoated wood is commonly used in France for cladding and decking to minimise maintenance. However wood surfaces progressively turn grey due to exposure to sunlight and water. This grey colour develops after several months depending on the wood species and the exposure: in the northern hemisphere surfaces facing south and west are most exposed and turn grey more rapidly than those facing north and...
L Podgorski, V Georges, I Garmendia, B Sánchez Sarachu


A review of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) as its Importance and Breeding
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10717
Foresters tend to concentrate on those species which are the easiest to handle silviculturally, and which will produce the greatest volume of generally useful wood in the shortest time. Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), which is a softwood species from the western seaboard of North America with a range extending from southern Alaska to northern California, is one of the pioneer specie...
I Usta, R Despot


The importance of proper taxonomic identification, a case study with Reticulitermes spp. from USA
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10774
Taxonomy has been evolving with recent advancement in molecular and internet technologies. The importance of a stable taxonomic foundation is unquestionable as this science provides crucial information about evolutionary relationships and allows questions about the life history and ecology of organisms to be asked. We hope to highlight the issues and lessons we have learned from revising the taxon...
Su Yee Lim, B T Forschler


WOOD: its importance in our life
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40583
As it is described by Hoadley (1980) and Tsoumis (1991), wood is an organic material yielded by trees which increase in diameter by the formation of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem. Wood has served man since he appeared on Earth (as a fuel and/or as a construction material for making houses, tools, weapons, furniture, packaging, paper, and artworks). It is important to appreciate th...
I Usta


Economic and Alternative Preservative Research with an Overview of its Impact on the Dynamics of Wood Tie Markets and Railroads
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30751
This presentation will discuss the Railway Tie Association’s (RTA) efforts in economic research for the North American wood tie industry, along with decades-long research into improving wood preservation processes and its resulting economic impact for railroads. Ongoing research is continuing to expand the knowledge-base by comparing existing standard creosote (C) and borate-creosote (B-C) dual...
J C Gauntt


Protecting wood exterior infrastructures above ground in Spain. The importance of protection by design in the performance
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40874
Across Spain is very common to find wood exterior infrastructures build mainly in sawn and glue-laminated wood. Most of these exterior wood infrastructures use softwood wood species such as: fir, spruce, larch and pine. In Spain exterior wood infrastructures, became more and more popular since nineties, when sawn and glue-laminated wood were utilized for building exterior wood infrastructures in o...
D Lorenzo, M Touza, J Fernandez-Golfín, A Lozano, J Benito, M T Troya, L Robertson