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Organic solvent preservatives. Essays on the ecotoxicology of new formulations
1991 - IRG/WP 3642
The knowledge on the ecotoxicological profile of wood preservatives become more and more important. The acute toxicity against aquatic organisms was examined for oil-borne preservatives, based on combinations of new fungicides (Tebuconazole, Propiconazole, Dichlofluanid) and insecticides (Permethrin, Cyfluthrin). These tests were conducted with fish, daphnia and algae. In principle the different formulations showed similar effects. The results of active ingredients and solvents confirmed the high sensitiveness of daphnia as test organisms. Criteria for hazards for the environment are presented and discussed.
H-W Wegen


Basilit CCFZ. Further studies on ecotoxicological behaviour
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3722
Basilit CCFZ is a new developed water based preservative for the protection of timber in hazard class 4 and 5 (ground-, fresh- and salt-water contact). The active components of this salt are copper, chromium, zinc and fluorine. In addition to primarily studies on the acute toxicity against organisms of the aquatic food chain a long term ecotoxicological study was performed. In a prolonged toxicity study the effects on reproduction were tested using the waterflea Daphnia magna. The conduction of this assay is described in detail. The results are presented and discussed.
H W Wegen


The ecotoxicology assessment of wood preservatives and their active ingredients by means of germination tests using cress - A critical consideration
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50125
With putting the Biocidal Products Directive 98/08/EC (BPD) in place an environmental risk assessment for wood preservatives and impregnated timber is requested. To assess possible risks, suitable test methods are required, which reveal the ecotoxicological profile including environmental fate and behaviour of treated commodities. Germination and growth tests could contribute to the determination of ecotoxicological effects on plant seeds and their embryos. Investigations were carried out in order to determine the germination and the growth behaviour of cress with the aim, to investigate the possibilities and limitations of these tests. The results show that the cress germination test is very sensitive as a rule. A prevention of the germination as such does not indicate a possible toxicity of the formulation investigated. The assessment of the germination processes as the only criterion is not a sufficient measure for the ecotoxicological profile of wood preservatives and impregnated timber. Germination tests, however, can supply a first indication concerning a possible effect on the environment. In connection with the other methods, it is possible to receive supplementary information in a very short time.
P Jüngel, A O Rapp, E Melcher


Evaluation of impact of CCA-treated wood on the marine environment
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-15
This paper reviews the literature relating to the potential of CCA-treated wood to affect the marine environment and outlines the compounds required for a model which could be used to predict the environemental impact of maritime construction using such timber. Marine pilings require high loadings of CCA to provide protection from marine borers. Though loadings of 32-48 kg/m³ provide long-term protection, preservative content is depleted over time. A number of studies have shown that copper migrates from core regions of treated wood towards the surface and that all three elements are lost by leaching. Most studies of leaching rates in seawater indicate a considerably lower rate of leaching of chrome than for the copper and arsenic. The relatively rapid initial rate of leaching appears to tail off to a much lower level within a short period of time. When trying to predict the effect of preservative leachate, the rate of element movement per unit area of longitudinal surface is the key measurement. Leaching from cross-cut surfaces is more rapid, but such surfaces form a very small proportion of total treated surface area in the below-water portions of wooden structures such as wharfs. In the laboratory, leachate has been demonstrated to adversely affect a range of organisms, but under conditions likely to generate unusually high leachate levels. Certain field observations suggest that epibiota on treated wood and benthic organisms in nearby sediments may be adversely affected by leachate where water circulation is limited. Further realistic measurements of leaching rates and a proper understanding of the chemical and biological transformations undergone by leachate on entering the marine environmment are required before a useful predictive model of the environmental impact can be developed.
R M Albuquerque, S M Cragg


The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of raw material use (kg), energy consumption (MJ), emissions (COx, NOX, SOx, etc.) and final waste (in kg). The critical point in an LCA is the definition of comparable "functional units" for similar products made of different materials with different service lifes. As the LCA method has often proved to be very complex, lime-consuming, expensive and difficult to interpret and translate into practically usefull results, alternative methods are developed. Three methods are described and compared on the basis of various examples. It is hoped that this may be of use as a starting point for further discussion on the suitability of applying the LCA on (preservative treated) timber products.
P Esser, J Cramer


IRG - wood preservation - annual report 1999; wood preservation in Slovak Republic
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40192
This report gives basic information about wood preservation in Slovak Republic, related to the wood preservation research and education, to the most important wood-destroying organisms, to the wood preserving industry, and also to the problems of standards, market and environment.
L Reinprecht


Bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in rainbow trout and zebra fish muscles
1986 - IRG/WP 3372
The bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in Rainbow Trout and Zebra fish has been evaluated by partition coefficient n-octanol/water determination at ph 7 and measured in vivo according to the OECD guidelines and the European directive 79/831/EEC. The obtained results confirm the low bioaccumulation potential of this product in aquatic organims.
J C Palla, M Dion


Modelling of PCP migration in the environment: Feeding the models with laboratory data
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-08
In 1989, Hydro-Québec began a study program on pentachlorophenol (PCP) to ensure safe use of the product at all stages. One of the aspects of the study is the creation of a predictive system for evaluating the behavior of PCP and oil migration from wood poles to the environment. This system comprises four mathematical models for predicting PCP and oil migration in and on the surface of the pole, in soil and in groundwater, and for predicting runoff. Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying and supplying the input for each model have been designed. A method of analyzing both PCP and oil in water. wood and soil has been developed. The radial and longitudinal distributions of PCP and oil concentrations have been established for several combinations of wood species and treatments. Laboratory setups and preliminary results are presented.
A Besner, P Tétreault, R Gilbert


Modélisation sur maquette du rejet accidentel d'un gaz toxique et inflammable dans l'atmosphere - Emission de type "bouffée d'oxyde d'éthyléne [Water model simulation of toxic and flammable gases in the environment on industrial sites - Puff of ethylen oxide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3576
M Milhe


Abstracts of papers prepared for the Symposium “Environment and wood preservation”
2001 - IRG/WP 01-60135
IRG Secretariat


Supplement to Document No: IRG/WP/56. Health and safety aspects of the use of wood preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 356
H Willeitner


La rôle de l'expert dans l'évaluation toxicologique
1990 - IRG/WP 3589
C Boudene


European standardization for wood preservation
1989 - IRG/WP 2335
G Castan


Eco-tax - A new threat for wood preservation? The Belgian experience
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-32
At the end of January 1993, a bill was put for Belgian Parliament related to the introduction called "Eco-taxes" on a series of products, such as packaging for drinks (especially on PVC-bottles), non-returnable articles (shavers, small cameras), batteries, pesticides for non-agricultural use and paper.
G Van Steertegem, F De Jaeger


CEN Draft (38 N 460E) Standard: Test method for determining the protective effectiveness of a preservative in the marine environment
1986 - IRG/WP 4132
This European Standard describes a marine test method which provides a basis for asseasing the effectiveness of a wood preservative used to prevent attack of timber in sea-water by marine borers. The method is only suitable for testing preservatives which are intended to prevent attack by marine wood boring organisms of treated timber for use in more or less permanent contact with sea-water. It is not suitable for assessing the effectiveness of preservatives against micro-organisms. The main objective of the method described is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a wood preservative applied by vacuum/pressure impregnation. For this reason permeable timbers are used throughout so that the protective efficacy of various retentions of the preservative can be determined. However, it is recognized that modifications of the method may be used for other purposes, e.g. to determine the relative efficacy of a preservative treatment or to determine the natural durability of the heartwood and sapwood of a selected timber species. The method is primarily intended for testing in temperate waters where Teredine and Limnoria borers dominate. However, it is also capable of being used in tropics where attack by Pholads and specific Crustacean borers may be very destructive. It has to be considered that the test has to be run for a minimum period (usually for 5 years or until the point of failure) before any interpretation of the results can be made. Variations in the test conditions can be expected from one test site to another depending on temperature, salinity, population density of the various borer species etc. This will inevitably influence the general rate of attack. However, by comparing the results obtained for samples treated with the test product with those obtained with a reference preservative and those obtained with untreated control samples, the relative protective effectiveness of the product tested can be evaluated.
G Castan


Biofouling and bioresistance of bamboo in marine environment
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10482
Proudly known as “green gold” and popularly called as “poor man’s timber”, bamboo is closely interwoven with the life of scores of people around the globe because of its versatile qualities and desirable strength properties as a structural material. It is used for innumerable purposes both on land and in water including seas and brackishwater bodies. "Presently, bamboos constitute an important raw material, and are vital to the economy of many countries" (John et al, 1995). In the words of Hanke (1990), "it is difficult to exaggerate the importance of bamboo as a structural raw material for most of human kind". "The 500-plus species are scattered throughout the warmer parts of the world, but the family achieves greatest abundance and most impressive luxuriance around the southern and southeastern edge of Asia, from the Indian monsoon region through China and Japan to Korea". Annually, about 4.56 million tons of bamboo from 30 genera comprising of 136 species is exploited in India alone (Anonymous, 1989). A vast quantity of it is used in the marine sector as fishing rods, sail masts, stakenet poles, mariculture cages and poles, fishing screens, fishing net supports, fish traps, fish baskets, floats for nets, floating rafts, floating fenders, floating platforms, etc., right from conventional capture fisheries to the most modern mariculture operations (Purushotham, 1963, Suri and Chauhan, 1984 and Santhakumaran and Sawant, 1993). Use of 30 lakh culms of bamboo per year for strikingly large screens of up to 10 Km and several other devices was reported by Satyanarayana Rao et al (1992) from Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh, India, where brackishwater conditions prevail during certain seasons/in certain pockets. Similarly, bamboo cages of varying dimensions from 4 x 4 x 5 m to 50 x 5 x 5 m are reported to be employed for open ocean culture of fishes in Kampuchea, Indonesia and Thailand (Nayak, 2001). In all these utilities, bamboo is mostly used in untreated form. Yet, precise data on biofouling and bioresistance of different species of bamboo under marine conditions are not available except for isolated reports like that of Santhakumaran and Sawant (1993). Therefore, studies in this direction were taken up. Initially three widely used commercial Indian species of bamboo were tested and their performance is presented in this paper.
M V Rao, M Balaji, V Kuppusamy, K S Rao


Environmental issues: Messages for the wood preservation industry
1985 - IRG/WP 3353
A review of the origins and structure of environmental legislation throughout those territories of the world where wood preservation is a major industry is given. The implications of media, industry and legislation interaction is discussed and suggestions made as to the key issues the wood preservation industry should concentrate its attentions on in the immediate future.
D G Anderson, P Waldie


Microbial biofouling of 10-40% naphthalene in creosote treated and untreated wooden pilings in the marine environment
1978 - IRG/WP 442
R R Colwell, P L Fish, D A Webb, A J Emery


Records of the 2nd International Symposium "The Challenge Safety and Environment
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001 Addendum
IRG Secretariat


A collaborative test to determine the efficacy of polyurethane coatings on wood samples exposed in the marine environment
1984 - IRG/WP 4113
Aims are: a) to determine the effectiveness of elastomeric polyurethane as a protective coating against marine wood boring animals in a range of tropical and tempreate sites; b) to compare the adhesion of polyurthane coatings on different wood species exposed in seawater; c) to record the severity of attack in failed samples and to identify the causal marine organisms.
R A Eaton


The role of communication in the field of environment protection: A case study "Wood Protection"
1990 - IRG/WP 3574
L Wöss


Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is due to differences in methodology employed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the seawater used (e.g. temperature, salinity, pH and oxygen content) affect emission rate. So too do the specifics of the treatment process especially the preservative formulation used, and pre- and post-treatment handling of the wood. The nature of the treated wood samples is also important, with misleadingly high estimates being obtained from samples with unrepresentatively high proportions of cross-cut surfaces. A suggested strategy for developing an informative and standardised methodology is discussed. To form useful models of impacts of leaching, emission rates need to be considered in conjunction with site-specific information regarding a) water exchange rates between the area where leaching occurs and the sea, and b) the extent of partitioning of leachate between the water column, biota and sediment. The risk of environmental impact may be reduced by modification to treatment procedures and by careful planning of installation.
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton


Système informatisé d'aide à la décision pour la gestion de la migration du pentachlorophénol dans l'environnement
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-10
This paper describes a Decision Support System (DSS), concerning pentachlorophenol (PCP) migration in the environment. The principal objectives of the DSS are to assist managers in siting of PCP-treated poles in the Hydro-Québec system and the storage areas and in the treatment of customer complaints. Four mathematical models are incuded in the system: a model simulating migration inside and on the surface of the pole, a model simulating migration in soil, a model simulating runoff and a model simulating migration in groundwater. Factors influencing the migration of PCP in the environment are discussed.
G Lefebvre, J-C Tessier


Assessment of losses of wood preservatives from treated wood by leaching into the environment
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-13
Wood preservative chemicals may be lost from treated timber by leaching into water or soil. The degree to which this might occur and its effect on the environment is difficult to assess quantitatively due to the absence of appropriate test methods. This paper describes work to assess test methodology capable of allowing the rates of loss of wood preservative from treated timber to be quantified. The possibility of adapting simple laboratory equipment to monitor preservative losses from treated wood has been investigated. Losses due to leaching from selected faces of treated wood blocks when immersed in water have been monitored, using disodium octaborate as a model water-soluble preservative. The investigation has demonstrated the importance of distinguishing between transverse, radial and tangential surfaces when considering potential losses and the subsequent likely environmental impact of treated timber in service.
R J Orsler, G E Holland


Laboratory investigations about the mobility of some inorganic wood preservatives in soils
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-22
Wood preservatives and components of wood preservatives leached from impregnated wood can enter the soil and thus contribute to the pollution of the groundwater. However, there is lack of understanding concerning the interacting parameters of wood preservative, leachate, soil and soil solution. To characterise of the behaviour of active ingredients and for the assessment of their environmental impact, leaching and diffusion processes are of basic interest with which the concentration of the relevant ions in the soil solution is determined by the reactivity of the ion, and by the type of linkage between the ion and the soil. The concentration and the specific behaviour of the ions in the solid and liquid phases can be investigated using different methods, e. g. using soil column tests (lysimeter). Several designs of lysimeter have been tested with water-soluble wood preservatives and the results been compared with the behaviour of wood preservative components leached from impregnated wood. As a result of the variability of the experimental set-up, of the wood preservatives and of the different soils tested, it became obvious that a standard procedure has to be developed. By means of some examples of varying results the similarities and differences of different procedures are discussed.
E Melcher, R-D Peek


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